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Containing  A  History  of  the  County,   its  Townships,  Towns, 
Villages,  Schools,  Churches,  Industries,  etc.;  Portraits  of 
Early  Settlers  and  Prominent  Men;  Biographies; 
History  of  the  Northwest  Territory;  His- 
tory OF  Ohio;  Statistical  and  Mis- 
cellaneous Matter,  ETC.,  ETC. 



WARNER,    BEERS    &    CO 




CHICAGO:  ^   ») 

■  ^— y^"  John  Morris  Company  »'j^  < 
*•  ^ PRINTERS. Vv 


TN  submitting  the  Histor}'  of  Portage  County  to  the  public,  the  publishers 
-■-  trust  that  it  will  be  received  in  that  generous  spirit  which  is  gratified  at 
honest  and  conscientious  eftbrt.  The  impbrtance  of  rescuing  from  oblivion 
and  preserving,  in  a  permanent  form,  the  pioneer  annals  of  the  county  and 
its  various  local  communities  has  been  duly  appreciated  by  its  citizens, 
whose  assistance  has  contributed  materially  to  the  success  of  the  work. 

In  the  compilation  of  the  many  chapters  it  has  been  the  earnest 
endeavor  of  our  writers  to  disengage  from  the  great  mass  of  facts  those 
which  relate  to  the  permanent  forces  of  the  county,  or  which  indicate  the 
most  enduring  featiu'es  of  its  growth  and  prosperity.  Free  use  was  made 
of  the  State  reports  and  county  records,  as  well  as  of  all  reliable  sources  of 
information  bearing  on  the  history  of  this  section  of  Ohio,  such  as  Howe's 
"Historical  Collections,"  Gen.  Lucius  V.  Bierce's  sketches  of  the  first  set- 
tlements on  the  Western  Reserve,  Christian  Cackler's  reminiscences  of  pio- 
neer times,  the  late  John  Harmon's  recollections  of  the  war  of  1812,  Reid's 
"Ohio  in  the  War,"  and  the  early  newspaper  files  so  wisely  preserved  by 
Col.  William  Frazer,  and  now  in  possession  of  his  son  Homer  C.  Frazer,  Esq. , 
of  Ravenna,  who  kindly  gave  our  historians  free  access  to  said  files  at  all 
times.  In  every  part  of  the  county  descendants  of  the  pioneers  were  inter- 
viewed, and  their  recollections  carefully  sifted  and  compared.  Private 
papers  and  family  manuscripts  have  thus  been  drawn  forth  from  their  hiding 
places,  and  every  effort  made  to  glean  from  the  husks  of  tradition  the  scat- 
tered grains  of  truth. 

For  the  convenience  of  its  readers  the  book  is  divided  into  four  parts: 
Part  I  contains  a  condensed  history  of  the  Northwest  Territory.  Part  II,  a 
history  of  the  State  of  Ohio.  Part  III  embraces  the  general  history  of 
Portage  County,  its  townships,  towns  and  villages.  The  general  history 
of  the  county.  Chapters  I  to  XIII  inclusive,  was  written  by  Mr.  R,  C. 
Brown,  of  Chicago,  111.,  and  Chapters  XIY  to  XXXIV  inclusive  were  mostly 


compiled  by  Mr.  J.  E.  Norris  of  the  same  city;  while  the  complimentary 
sketches  in  Part  IV  were  obtained  by  a  corps  of  solicitors,  and  a  copy  of 
each  sketch  submitted  for  correction  to  the  subject  or  his  friends,  on  whom 
we  have  depended  for  accuracy. 

The  publishers  avail  themselves  of  this  opportunity  to  thank  the  county, 
township,  town  and  village  officials,  the  editors  of  the  several  newspapers? 
and  the  members  of  every  profession  and  calling  throughout  the  county 
who  in  any  way  assisted  the  historians  in  their  labors,  for  their  generous 
sympathy  toward  the  enterprise.  Special  acknowledgments  are  due  to 
Enos  P.  Brainerd,  Esq.,  Homer  C.  Frazer,  Esq.,  Samuel  D.  Harris,  Esq., 
Hon.  Marvin  Kent  and  Dr.  A.  M.  Sherman,  all  of  whom  rendered  impor- 
tant aid  to  the  general  historian  and  his  assistants  in  gathering  authentic 
historical  data.  We  place  the  volume  in  the  hands  of  our  patrons  with  the 
belief  that  it  will  be  found  a  valuable  contribution  to  local  historical  liter- 






Geogiaiiliical  I'osition 17 

Early  Explorations 17 

Discovery  of  the  Ohio 2G 

English  Explorations  and  Settlements 28 


Aiucrican  Settlements 53 

Division  of  the  Northwest  Territory 58 

Tecumseh  and  tlicWarof  1S12 Gl 

Black  Hawk  and  the  Black  Hawk  War (11 

PART  11. 


History  of  Ohio ;...    7s 

French  History 7G 

Ordinance  of  1787,  No.  32 87 

Comments  upon  the  Ordinance  of  1787,  from  the 

Statutes  of   Ohio.     Edited    by   Salmon    P. 

C'hase,  and  Published  in  the  year  1833 91 

The  War  of  1812 107 

Banking Ill 

The  Canal  System 113 

Ohio  Land  Tracts 114 

Improvements 119 

State  Boundaries 121 

Organization  of  Counties 122 

Description  of  Counties 122 

Early  Events 122 

Governors  of  Ohio 143 

Ancient  Works 157 

Some  Genera!  Characteristics 160 

Outline  Geology  of  Ohio 1G2 

Ohio's  Rank  During  the  War  of  the  Kebelliou...  165 
A  Brief  Mention  of  Prominent  Oliio  (ienerals...  177 

Some  Discussed  Subjects 172 

Conclusion isi 



OHAPTEPt  I.— iNTROnucTORY  —  Organization  — 

Area  and  Population 187-197 

Primitive  Appearance  of  the  Country — 
The  Claims  of  Virginia  and  Connecticut— 
The  Connecticut  Western  Keserve — Dona- 
tion of  Fire  Lands,  and  Sale  of  the  Balance 
to  the  Connecticut  Land  Comi)any — Indian 
Titles  Extinguished — Ordinance  "of  1787— 
Arrival  of  the  First  Surveying  Corps  at 
Conueaut  —  The  Reserve  Surveyed  into 
Townships— Trials  and  Sulferings  of  the 
Surveyors— Erection  of  .lett'erson  and  Trum- 
bull Counties — Organization  of  Franklin 
Township— Portage  County  Erected,  and 
Selection  of  its  Seat  of  Justice— First  Elec- 
tion, and  Organization  of  the  County — 
Minutes  of  the  First  Meeting  of  the  Com- 
missioners —  Original  Townships  —  Tax 
Levies  and  Collectors  of  1808— First  Year's 
Receipts  and  Expenditures — Changes  in  the 
AVestern  Boundary  Line— Present  Bound- 
aries— Origin  of  the  Name  of  the  County — 
The  Portage  Path — Areas  and  Townships — 
Population  Statistics. 

CHAPTER     II.— Portage    County    Ninety 

Years  Ago— Geology 198-217 

Portage  County  Ninety  Years  Ago — Tim- 
ber and  Fruit-Bearing  Trees  and  Vines — 
Roots  and  Herbage — Wild  Animals,  Birds 
and  Reptiles — Big  Hunts — General  Topog- 
raphy, Streams  and  Lakes  —  Geology  of 
Portage  County — Surface  Features  and  De- 
posits— Geological  Structure — Coal  Measures 

— Coal  No.  1 — Coals  Nos.  3  and  4 — Fire  Cllay 
— Altitudes  in  Portage  County  above  Lake 

CHAPTER    III.— Archeology— Indian   His- 
tory  217-228 

The  Pre-llistoric  Races — Mound-Builders 
— Their  Great  Anti()uity— Occupation  of  the 
Country  —  The  Wonderful  Monuments 
Which  They  Left  Behind  Them — Some  Evi- 
dences of  TheirEx-istence  in  Portage  County 
-  -The  North  American  Indians — Their  j->up- 
posed  Origin— Brief  Sketch  of  Them- In- 
dians of  Portage  County — The  Great  Trail — 
— The  Indian  Chiefs  Bigson,  Stignish  and 
Big  Cayuga— Extracts  from  the  Reminis- 
cences of  Christian  Cackler  of  the  Indians 
of  this  Section. 

CHAPTER     IV.— Pioneers— First     Settle- 

HENT.s 228-240 

The  I'ioneers  of  Portage  County — Their 
Heroic  Perseverance  and  Privations— New 
England  Transplanted  on  the  Connecticut 
Western  Reserve— The  First  Settlement 
Made  Within  the  Limits  of  Portage  County 
—First  Settlers  of  Mantua,  Ravenna,  Auro- 
ra and  Atwater  Townships — Atwater  Hall, 
the  First  White  Child  Born  in  the  County- 
First  Settlers  of  Palmyra,  Dcerfield,  Nelson, 
Rootstown,  Randolph,  Sutfield,  Charles- 
town,  Hiram,  Franklin,  Shalersville,  Edin- 
burg,  Windham,  Paris,  Brimtield,  Freedom, 
Streetsboro  and  Garrettsville  Townships — 
The  Portage-Summit  Pioneer  Association. 



CHAPTER  v.— Pioneer  Days— Habits,  Cus- 
toms, ETC 241-260 

Pioneer  Days  and  Trials — Habitations  of 
the  First  Settlers — Furniture,  Food  and 
Medicine^ — Habits,  Labor  and  I)ress — Early 
Manners  and  Customs — Bees  and  Weddings 
— The  Hominy  lilock  and  Pioneer  Mills — 
Prices  of  Store  Goods  and  Produce — Items 
From  an  Old  Cash  Book — Mode  of  Livinfc — 
Churches  and  Schools — Period  of  the  War 
of  ]8r2^Prices  After  the  War — First  Crops 
Raised  in  the  County — Agricultural  Imple- 
ments of  the  Pioneers,  and  Subsequent  Im- 
provements Made  in  Them — Pioneer  Farm- 
ing— Cheese  and  Butter  Statistics  — First 
Stock  Brought  into  the  County — Stock  Sta- 
tistics Since  1840— Statistics  of  Wheat,  Corn, 
Oats  and  Hay— Total  Valuation  of  I'roperly 
by  Decades — Portage  County  Agricultural 
Societies — Portage  County  Horticultural 

CHAPTER  VI.— Militia— War  of  1812 2G0-2S2 

First  Military  Organization  on  the  West- 
ern Reserve— War  of  1812  and  First  Call 
for  Volunteers — John  Harmon's  Recollec- 
tions of  the  War — Second  Regiment  Ohio 
Militia — Capt.  John  Campbell's  Company  of 
Volunteers — Camp  on  Barrel  Run — March 
to  Cleveland,  and  Embarkation  for  Lower 
Sandusky — Description  of  the  Trip  and  Ar- 
rival— Incidents  at  the  Fort,  and  Sickness 
Among  the  Soldiers — Departure  for  the 
River  Raisin — Hull's  Surrender — Start  for 
Maiden,  and  Arrival  at  That  Point— Pa- 
roled Prisoners— Return  Home  of  the  Sick 
and  Paroled  Men — Deaths  in  the  Command 
— Alarm  Caused  by  the  Surrender — Regi- 
mental Record  of  the  Second  Regiment — 
Response  to  a  Call  for  Troops  in  181-3. — Jlr. 
Harmon's  Concluding  Remarks— The  In- 
habitants of  Portage  County  Fear  an  Indian 
Invasion — Distresijing  Incident  of  the  War 
— Re-organization  of  the  Militia— Muster 
Days  and  Sham  Fights. 

CHAPTER  VII.— Internal lMPROVEMENTS.282-297 
Internal  Improvements— The  Great  In- 
dian Trail— Pioneer  Roads  of  Portage  Coun- 
ty— Mail  Facilities  and  I^etter  Postage — 
Stage  Routes  and  Drirers — Canals— Early 
Canal  Legislation— The  Ohio  Canal  Com- 
menced and  Completed— Pennsylvania  A 
Ohio  Canal  —  The  Efforts  Made  to 
Have  it  Built— Its  Construction  and  Com- 
pletion—First Boats  Arrive  at  Ravenna- 
Subsequent  Success  of  the  Enterprise- 
Causes  Which  Led  to  its  Abandonment— 
Railroads— Cleveland  &  Pittsburgh— Cleve- 
land A  ]\Iahoning  Valley— Atlantic  ct  Great 
AVestern— Cleveland,  Yonngstown  &  Pitts- 
burgh —  Connotton  Vallev  —  Pittsliurgh, 
Cleveland  &  Toledo— The  Proposed  Clinton 
Air  Line,  and  the  General  Railroad  Facili- 
ties of  the  County. 

CHAPTER  VIII.-Educational 207-309 

Education  in  Ohio— Lands  (jranted  for 
Educational  Purposes — Commissioners  of 
Schools  and  School  Lands  in  1822— The 
School  Lands  Sold  and  a  School  Fund  Estab- 
lished —  Pioneer  Schools,  Schoolhouses, 
Teachers  and  Books  in  Portage  County- 
How  Teachers  were  Employed  and  Paid— 
An  Amusing  Agreement— Growth  of  Edu- 
cation—Government and  Progress  of  Schools 
Prior  to  1851— Schools  for  Colored  Youth 
Established  —  Reorganization  of  Schools 
Under  the  Laws  of  1853— Present  Govern- 
ment of  Schools. 

CHAPTER  IX.— Official,  Political,  etc..309-327 
Public  Officers— Members  of  Congress- 
State  Senators— Territorial  and  State  Rep- 
resentatives —  County  Commissioners  — 
Treasurers— Clerks— Recorders-Auditors- 
Sheritls —  Coroners  —  Surveyors  —  Probate 
Judges— Seat  of  Justice  and  Public  Build- 
ings— Prison  Bounds- County  Infirmary- 
Political  Statistics  of  Portage  County — First 

Election  Held,  with  the  Names  of  the  Can- 
didates and  Voters  —  Gubernatorial  and 
Presidential  Vote. 

CHAPTER  X.— Judiciary— Medical 328-344 

The  Judiciary — Organization  of  the  Court 
of  Common  Pleas  in  Ohio,  and  its  Subse- 
quent Changes — Pioneer  Courts  of  Portage 
County — Sessions  of  1808-09,  and  the  Juries 
and  Trials  of  Those  Two  Years^Anecdotes 
of  Pioneer  Justice  in  This  County — Com- 
mon Pleas  Judges — Associate  Judges — Prose- 
cuting Attorneys — Riding  the  Circuit — I^io- 
ueer  Resident  and  Visiting  Lawyers — Brief 
Sketches  of  Leading  IMembers  of  the  Bench 
and  Bar — Present  Bar  of  Portage  County — 
The  Portage  County  Medical  Association. 

CHAPTER  XL— Noted  Criminal  Events..3  17-301 
The  Most  Noted  Criminal  Events  in  the 
History  of  Portage  County — Trials  and  Sen- 
tences of  the  Culprits— The  Alleged  Crime 
of  John  McManus— The  Murder  of  Mathews 
by  Aunghst — The  Muider  of  Cummings  by 
Harris — The  Murder  of  Catherine  McKisson 
by  Her  r>,  David  McKisson — 
The  HeatbiuanMauslaugbterCase — Alanson 
Baldwin  Stabbed  to  Death  by  His  Nephew, 
Lemuel  W.  Price — Attempted  Killing  of 
Prentiss  by  Flower — The  Shorts-Wilson 
Shooting— The  Murder  of  John  Rhodeu- 
baugh  by  Jack  Cooper  and  Joel  Beery — 
Harriet  Musson  Murdered  by  Wilson  S. 
•  Roof — Shooting  of  Alfred  L.  Ilarris  by  His 
Father — The  "Kelso-Montague  Case — The 
Newell-Roberts  Atfair. 

CHAPTER  XII.— The  Press 362-372 

The  Newspapers  of  the  Past  and  Present 
— Ravenna  l'a|)ers — Western  Cotirier  and  the 
Western  Public  A<h:ertiser — Ohio  Star — Walch- 
miiTi^ /lackei/e  Democrat — Western  Reserve 
Cahinet  and  Fdiiiity  Visitor — Plain  Dealer — 
Porlai/R  Sentinel — Portage  Count ii  Whig,  and 
Home  Companion  and  Whi(t — Purtai/i-  Couitty 
Democrat,  Jiepuldican-Democral,  and  Ravenna 
Republican — Independent  Press  and  Reformer 
— Hickory  Hail  and  Fusion  T/iresher — Arfjus 
— Democratic  Press — Porlage  County  Rejiul>- 
lican — ^Kent  Newspapers — Proposed  Frunklin 
Gazette — The  Omnium  Gatherum  and  its 
Successors:  Tlie  Family  Visitor,  Literary 
Casket,  Cuyalioi/a.  Reporter,  Satuniaij  Reriew. 
Commercial  Bulletin,  Saturday  llidhtin,  and 
Kent  Saturday  lUdletin — Kent  iVeim  of  1807 — 
Present  Kent  Aews — Garrettsville  News- 
papers— Garrettsville  3IontIdy  Review — Gar- 
rettsville Journal  —  Home  Bazar  —  Atwater 
Newspapers — Sharp  Sickle — Atwater  News. 

CHAPTER  XIII.— War  of  the  Rebeli.ion..373-391 
Portage  County  in  tlio  Rebellion  —The 
Patriotic  Feeling  of  Her  People  at  the  Be- 
ginning of  the  Great  Struggle  for  National 
Life— Meetings  Held  to  Denounce  Treason 
and  to  Support  the  Government— Enroll- 
ment of  Volunteers  Under  the  President's 
First  Call,  and  Their  Departure  for  Camp 
Taylor — Good  Work  of  the  Relief  Commit- 
tees, and  Generosity  of  the  Citizens— The 
Number  of  Men  Sent  into  the  War  by  Each 
Township,  and  the  Commands  in  Which 
They  Served— Official  Roster  of  Commis- 
sioned Officers  from  this  County— Amount 
of  Money  Annually  I^xpended  for  War  Pur- 
poses by  Portage  County  from  1861  to  1805 
— Closing  Scenes  of  the  War— Public  I)em- 
onstrations  of  Great  Joy  Over  its  Glorious 
Termination— The  Rejoicings  of  the  People 
Suddenly  Turned  to  (irief  by  the  Assassin- 
ation of  President  Lincoln. 

CHAPTER  XIV.— Atwater  Township 392-399 

Arrival  of  Atwater  and  Others— Early 
Privations— Birth  of  First  Child— Another 
Lone  Settler — Organization — Marriages  and 
Deaths— Some  Old  and  New  Things— An 
Ancient  Musket  —  Early  Churches  and 
Preachers  —  Schools  —  Newspapers— Indus- 
tries, etc. — Officers  and  Statistics. 


CHAPTER  XV.— Aurora  Township 400-405 

Ebenezer  Sheldon— First   Legal   Business 
— A  Lonely  Couple— A  Moilel  Pioneer  Wile 
— Other  Settlers— Early  Hardships— Organi- 
zation— The  Methodist  Circuit  Pvider— l-'irst 
Church  and  SchDols— First  Birth  and  Death 
and  Other  First  Things — Hunters  and  Hunt- 
ing Stories— Early  Facts— A  Small  Meeting 
with  Large  Results — Churches  and  Schools 
— Business,  etc. — Statistics. 
CHAPTER  XVL— Brimfield  Township.. ..40.5-411 
A     Many-named    Township— Equalizing 
Lands — Explorers  and  Settlers — Location  of 
tiie  Early  Pioneers — Organization  and  Pol- 
itics— Three  of  First  Events — Educa- 
tion and  Religion — Business  Beginnings — 
Large  Shippers — Resources — Statistics. 
CHAPTER      XVII.  —  CiiARLESTOWN      Town- 
ship   412-415 

A  Hunter  Squatter — First  Permanent  Set- 
tler—The Blandlbrd  &  Granville  Co.— Post- 
Bellum  Settlers — Fifty-six  in  Four  Families 
— Leading  First  Events — First  Birth  and 
Marriage — First  Mills— Schools  and  (  hurches 
— Rev.  Caleb  Pitkin — Organization — Offi- 
cers, Business,  etc. 
CHAPTER  XVIIL— Deekfield  Town,ship.416-423 
Breaking  First  Ground — Settlers  of  ISOO 
— The  Elys,  Days  and  Divers — A  Trip  on  the 
Ma-um-ing  —  Hardships  and  Privations — 
Great  Increase — First  Military  Company — 
After  the  Organization — A  Kcmarkahle 
Family — Some  Early  Facts — Grant's  Tan- 
nery— Shooting  of  Diver — Hunters  and 
Hunting — Early  I'reachers  and  Churches — 
Schools,  Business  and  .Statistics. 

CHAPTER  XIX.— Edinbi-rg  Township 424-431 

Early  Settlement — Abbott  and  Chapman 
— Other  Pioneers — Rial  JIcArthur  and  R. 
M.  JIart — Some  Noted  Names — Organization 
and  Officers — The  Champion  llunt — Old 
Time  Adventures,  Facts  and  Social  JCvents — 
Churches  and  Schools — Edinbnrg  Center — 
]?usiness,  Resources  and  Statistics. 
CHAPTER    XX.— Franklin   Township  and 

Kent 431-452 

First  Settlement — The  Haymakers  —  A 
Primitive  Mill— Early  I'acts  and  Settlers — 
Contest  for  the  County  Seat — Low  I'rice  of 
Produce — First  Burying  Ground — Rceds- 
bury  —  Organization  —  First  Law  Suit — 
Cackler's  (ieese — Important  Primitive  In- 
dustries— Fine  Water-Power — The  Manu- 
facture of — The  Twin  Villages  in  1.S27 — 
The  Rival  Taverns — Early  Merchants,  etc., 
etc.  —  Progress  of  Improvement  —  y^enas 
Kent — Franklin  Land  Company — The  Ca- 
nal Outrage — Franklin  &  Warren  Railroad 
— Incorporation  —  Increase  of  Business — 
Standing  Rock  Cemetery  —  Names,  Ages 
and  Iieaths  of  Some  Early  Settlers — .lohn 
Brown — Brady's  Leap — Primitive  Schools 
and  Religion — Sketches  of  the  Churches- 
Free  and  Accepted  Masons — Odd  Fellowship 
— other  Orders  and  Societies. 

CHAPTER  XXL— Freedom  Township 452-459 

Before  the  Organization — Charles  H. 
Paine,  the  First  Settler— A  Lone  Pioneer — 
More  Arrivals— First  Election — A  Thought- 
ful Veteran— Paul  Larkcom— A  Number  of 
First  Things— Churches  and  Schools- Hor- 
ace Greeley's  Uncle — The  Army  Hunt— Sad 
Death — Sagacity  of  a  Dog— Business  and  Sta- 
CHAPTER     XXII.— Garrettsville     To^VN- 

ship 459-400 

Arrival  of  Col.  John  Garrett— The  First 
Mill— Slow  Growth— The  Dual  (iovernment 
— Business,  Manufacturing,  etc. — The  Fair 
—Churches— Union  Schools— Masonic  Bo- 
dies—Odd Fellowship— Young  Meji's  Temper- 
ance Council — ( cood  Templars — Statistics. 

CHAP'I'Fi;  XXTIL— HiKAM  Township 460-475 

Who  was  the  First  Settler  .'—Honey  and 
Williams— Mason  and  Tilden— Other  Perma- 


nent  Settlers — The  Youngs,Ben  jamin  Hinck- 
ley and  Samuel  Udall— Many  First  Events — 
Churches  and  Schools — Hiram  College — 
President  James  A.  Garfield — Organization 
and  Origin  of  Name— The  Mormons — Tar- 
ring and  Feathering  Smith  and  Rigdon — 
Rich  Land,  Beautiful  Location  and  Business. 

CHAPTER  XXIV.— Mantua  Township 47.5-485 

First  Settler  of  Portage  County — First 
Wheat — Amzi  Atwater — Elias  Harmon — 
Other  Settlers — Organization — First  Birth, 
Marriage  and  Death — Primitive  Industries 
— A  Peculiar  Character — Another  Queer 
One — Judge  Atwater's  Bear  Fight  -( 'hurches 
andSchools— Business,  Soil,  etc.— Mantua  Sta- 
tion— ^Mantua  Corners — Masonry — Statistics. 

CHAPTER  XXV.— Nelson  Township 480-494 

Coming  of  the  Pioneers — The  Mills  Broth- 
ers— Two     Lonesome    Families — Important 

Arrivals — Heads  of  Families  in  1815 — First 

Buildings — First  Arrivals  and  Departui-es^^^"^ 
Churches  and  Schools — Taverns,  Mills  and 
Roads — Fiat  Juslilia,  Ruat  Ccelum. — Exploits 
of  Capt.  Mills — Summary— Township  Offi- 
cers— The  Ledges — Statistics. 

CHAPTER  XXVL— Palmyra  Township 495-505 

The  Vanguard — Pioneer  Daniels — Capt. 
Baldwin,  Truman  Gilbert,  Artemus  Rug- 
gles— The  (ireat  Trail — A  Noted  Character 
— Pioneer  Dentistry— A  Famous  Trapper — 
An  Irate  F.  F.  V. — "Moses  Jabe"  Gilbert, 
the  Contractor — Numerous  First  Events — 
Preacher  and  Churches — Schools  and  Teach- 
ers— Organization — Palmyra  Center — Dia- 
mond— Coal  Banks — Business,  Societies  and 

CHAPTER  XXVIL— Paris  Township 505-508 

Good  Land  with  a  Bad  Name — Slow  Set- 
tlement—Organization— Ch  u  r  c  h  e  s  and 
Schools — Some  First  Events — Notable  Hap- 
penings— McClintocksburg  and  Newport — 
Officers,  Business,  Resources  and  Statistics. 
CHAPTER XXVIII.— Randolph  TowNsniP.511-518 
First  Two  Settlers — Bela  Hubbard  and 
Salmon  Ward — The  Tide  Flows  On — Ward's 
Four  Trips — Oliver  Dickinson — First  Deaths, 
Births  and  .Alarriages — Initial  Industries — 
A  Few  Early  Facts— Organization  and  Offi- 
cers— Churches  and  School.s— Old  and  New 
Incidents — The  Hubbard  Squash — Randolph 
Fair — Underground  Railroad— Soil,  Streams 
and  Statistics. 
CHAPTER  XXIX.— Ravenna  Township  and 

City 518-544 

Original  Proprietors — The  Pioneers — First 
Cabin — Benjamin  Tappan — First  Birth  and 
Death— Primitive  Mills— The  Village  Site  in 
ISOG — A  Threshing  Machine — Laying  Out  of 
the  Village— First  I'.uilding— Old  Burying 
Ground — .Schools  and  Scholars — First  Court 
House  and  Jail— Recipe  for  Clearing  off 
Stumps— Two  Old  Structures — An  Incident 
of  1812 — Pen  Picture  of  Primitive  Ravenna 
— John  Brown's  l^'ather — Jesse  (irant's  Tan- 
nery— Some  Noted  Settlers — Some  Early 
Facts— Two  Notable  Raisings— First  Sun- 
day-School— Sundry  Items — Early  Merch- 
ants— A  School  Needed— First  School  Meet- 
ing— Growth  of  the  City— Incorporation — 
Industries— Banks  and  Banker.s — Pioneer 
Preachers  on  Religion — First  ^Congregation- 
al Church,  and  Rev.  C.  B.  Storrs- Methodist 
Episcopal  Church— Disciples  Church— Uni- 
versalist  Church — Church  of  the  Immacu- 
late Conception— Episcopal  Church— Secret 
and  other  Societies— Statistics. 
CHAPTER  XXX. — Rootstown  Township..544-552 
The  First  Cabin— David  Root— A  Sad 
Death— First  Wheat  Crop- Nathan  Muzzy— 
A  Distillery— An  Alien  Justice— First  Birth 
— The  Chapmans— First  Frame  Structure- 
Mother  Ward— The  Criminal— Primi- 
tive Schools— The  Old  Grave-yard— Early 
Churches— Organ  ization  and  Officers— Noted 
Events— Soil,  Products  and  Statistics. 



CHAPTER     XXXI.— Shaleesville     Town- 
ship  552-557 

A  Pioneer  l-'amily— Early  Privations- 
Some  O'ther  Settlers— Three  Self-made  Men 
—Silas  Crocker,  Sylvester  Beecher,  David 
Mcintosh — Organization— Births,  Deaths 
and  Marria^'cs— Muzzy  and  His  Mill— I'irst 
Industries— Schools  and  Churches-War  llee- 
ord— Incidents  and  Facts— An  Aged  Land- 
Mark— Business— Resources-Statistics. 

CHAPTER    XXXII.  —  Streetsboeo     Town- 
ship  558- 

Rapid  Settlement  —  Some  AVell-known 
Names— Cleveland  &  Wellsville  Turnpike- 
Organization— No  Paupers  Wanted— I^arly 
Liberality  and  Enterprise— A  Few  First 
Events— Churches  and  Schools— Business, 
Officers,  etc.— Statistics. 

CHAPTER  X  X  X  ITI.—SuFFiELn  TowNsniP..563-5G7 
A  Fine  T(i\vnsliip--One  Lonely  Settler- 
Benjamin  Italdwiii,  and  the  "Baldwin" 
Apple— Other  Settlers— Honest  .John  Fritch 
—A  Noted  Hunter— Two  Organizations— A 
"Flustrated"  Justice— First  Mills,  Stores, 
etc.  —  Coming  of  the  Germans  —  First 
Churches  and  Schools— First  Birth  and 
Death— Mogadore—Suffleld  Center- A  Du- 
plex Town,  etc.— Statistics,  etc.— Business, 
Resources  and  Oiiicers. 
CHAPTER  XXXIV.— WiNniiAM  TowNSniP..5r)7-574 
The  Becket  Land  Company— The  March 
Westward— Some  ICaily  Settlors— Organiza- 
tion and  Officers — ( :hurches  and  I're.achors — 
Initial  Events  of  Interest— Primitive  Edu- 
cators—Building and  Enterprise— Business 
— Grand  Array— Township  Otticers— Statis- 

PAKT  lY. 


Atwater  Township 

Aurora  Township 

Brimlield  Township 

Charlestown  Township 

Deerlicld  Township 

Edinlmi^  Township 

Franklin  Township 

Freedom /Township '1° 

(larrettsvillo Township 723 

Hiram  Township 741 

Mantua  Township 7o2 


Nelson  Township ;^'l 

I'almyra  Towushij) 777 

Paris  Township 7S2 

Randolph  Township 783 

Ravenna  Township S09 

Uootstown  Township 862 

Shalersville  Township 878 

Streetshoro  Township 885 

Suflield  Township ^^^ 

Windham  Township 911 


...  407 
...  541) 
....  418 
...  49S 
...  499 
,...  529 

Adams,  Horace,  SufBeld  Township 

Atwood,  .Toshua,  Freedom  Towusliip 

Bloomfield,  Lewis  M..  Kandolph  Townshii 

Boszor,  Henry,  Brimtield  Township 

Boszor,  Sarah  N.,  Brimlield  Township 

Brainerd,  E.  P.,  Ravenna  Township 

Carlton,  Peter,  Mantua  Township 376 

Carlton,  Clarissa,  Mantua  Township 377 

Clapp,  Selali  S.,  l''ranklin  Township 640 

Clapp,  Mrs.  Marv,  Franklin  Township 641 

Crocker,  Silas,  Siuilorsville  Township 334 

f^rocker,  Mrs.  Cynthia,  Slialersvillo  Township...  335 

Davidson,  .lames  F.,  Brimlield  Township 600 

Day,  Luther,  Ravenna  Township 81 

Dewey,  George,  Franklin  Township 438 

Dunn,  James,  Garrettsville 233 

Earl,  Ebenezer  W.,  Windham  Township 682 

Eggleston,  i  ien.  Nelson,  Aurora  Township 509 

Foster,  Jonathan,  Mantua  Township 254 

Fowler,  Heujamin,  Nelson  Township 540 

Fuller,  C.  C,  Nelson  Township 203 

Gartield,  Jaraes  A 47 

Garfield,  Mrs.  Lucrelia  R 213 

Gibbs,  Mason,  Deevllcld  Township 609 

Gorby,  Thomas,  Kandolpli  'I'owiiship 314 

Hart,  Reuben,  Ihimlield   I'owiisliip 569 

Hartzell,  John,  Deerlield  Township 662 

Hawley,  E.,  Paris  Township 651 

Haymaker,  J.  D.,  Franklin  Township 323 

Hill,  William  S.,  Streetshoro  Township 467 

Jennings,  P.  U.,  Mantua  Township 387 

Kent,  Marvin,  Franklin  Township 183 

Kent,  Zenas,  Franklin  Township 

King,  Joseph  D.,  Ravenna  Township 

Larkcoin,  A.  C,  Freedom  Township 

Lyman,  Judge  Darius,  Ravenna  Township- 
Norton,  James,  Garrettsville 

Ober.  R.  H.,  (iarret-tsvillo 

Pannelee,  Luther  II.,  Franklin  Township... 

Parsons,  Edward,  15rimfield  Township 

Paulus,  William,  Suffield  Township 

Plum,  Frederick,  Streetshoro  Township., 

Powers,  Dr.  A.  M.,  Rootstown  Township.. 
Price,  Dr.  Joseph,  Randolph  Township 

Ray,  Col.  C.  H.,  Mantua  Township. 

Reed,  C.  A.,  Ravenna  Township 

Russel,  Luther,  Streetshoro  Township 

Sawyer,  Oliver,  Brimlield   Township 

Sherman,  Dr.  A.  M..  Franklin  Township 

Smith,  E.  (".,  Garrettsville 

Spencer,  Oliver,  Aurora  Township 

Stilwell,  Barnet,  Brimtield  Township 

Stratton,  J.  B.,  Franklin  Township 

Strickland,  Willis,  Ravenna  Township 

Thompson,  R.  J.,  Ravenna  Township 

Tidball,  Dr.  A.H.,  Garrettsville 

Waggoner,  Dr.  Joseph,  Ravenna  Township 

Webb,  James,  Freedom   Township 

Wilson,  Samuel,  Suffield  Township 

AVoodard,  James,  Franklin  Township 

Woodbridge,  Mrs.  INlary  A.,  Ravenna  Township. 

Woodworth,  E.  S.,  Windham  Township 

Woodworth,  Thomas  J.,  Windham  Township.... 

.  273 
,  194 


^lap  of  Portage  County 13 

Population  of  the  Uiiiied  States 69 

Area  of  the  United  States 69 

Area  of  the  Principal  Countries  in  the  World...  09 

Population  of  Principal  Countries  in  the  World.    69 

Population  of  Ohio  by  Counties 70 

List  of  Ohio's  Governors 72 

Population  of  Portage  County  by  Townships 197 


i  /^  p  @  w 

O  H  X  Q 

ff.5  W 

/?.Q  W 

^.7  w. 

/?.6  W. 



The  ITorthwest  Territory. 


When  the  Northwestern  Territory  was  ceded  to  the  United  States 
by  Virginia  in  1784,  it  embraced  only  the  territory  lying  between  the 
Ohio  and  the  Mississippi  Rivers,  and  north  to  the  northern  limits  of  the 
United  States.  It  coincided  with  the  area  now  embraced  in  the  States 
of  Ohio,  Indiana,  Michigan,  Illinois,  Wisconsin,  and  that  portion  of 
Minnesota  lying  on  the  east  side  of  the  Mississippi  River.  The  United 
States  itself  at  that  period  extended  no  farther  west  than  the  Mississippi 
River ;  but  by  the  purchase  of  Louisiana  in  1803,  the  western  boundary 
of  the  United  States  was  extended  to  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  the 
Northern  Pacific  Ocean.  The  new  territory  thus  added  to  the  National 
domain,  and  subsequently  opened  to  settlement,  has  been  called  the 
"  New  Northwest,"  in  contradistinction  from  the  old  "  Northwestern 

In  comparison  with  the  old  Northwest  this  is  a  territory  of  vast, 
magnitude.  It  includes  an  area  of  1,887,850  square  miles  ;  being  greater 
in  extent  than  the  united  areas  of  all  the  Middle  and  Southern  States, 
including  Texas.  Out  of  this  magnificent  territory  have  been  erected 
eleven  sovereign  States  and  eight  Territories,  with  an  aggregate  popula- 
tion, at  the  present  time,  of  18,000,000  inhabitants,  or  nearly  one-third  of 
the  entire  population  of  the  United  States. 

Its  lakes  are  fresh-water  seas,  and  the  larger  rivers  of  the  continent 
flow  for  a  thousand  miles  through  its  rich  alluvial  valleys  and  far- 
stretching  prairies,  more  acres  of  which  are  arable  and  productive  of  the 
highest  percentage  of  the  cereals  than  of  any  other  area  of  like  extent 
on  the  globe. 

For  the  last  twenty  years  the  increase  of  population  in  the  North- 
west has  been  about  as  three  to  one  in  any  other  portion  of  the  United 


In  the  year  1541,  DeSoto  first  saw  the  Great  West  in  the  New 
World.     He,  however,  penetrated  no  farther  north  than  the  35th  parallel 



of  latitude.  The  expedition  resulted  in  his  death  and  that  of  more  than 
half  his  army,  the  remainder  of  whom  found 'their  way  to  Cuba,  thence 
to  Spain,  in  a  famished  and  demoralized  condition.  DeSoto  founded  no 
settlements,  produced  no  results,  and  left  no  traces,  unless  it  were  that 
he  awakened  the  hostility  of  the  red  man  against  the  white  man,  and 
disheartened  such  as  might  desire  to  follow  up  the  career  of  discovery 
for  better  purposes.  The  French  nation  were  eager  and  ready  to  seize 
upon  any  news  from  this  extensive  domain,  and  were  the  first  to  profit  by 
DeSoto's  defeat.  Yet  it  was  more  than  a  century  before  any  adventurer 
took  advantage  of  these  discoveries. 

In  1616,  four  years  before  the  pilgrims  "  moored  their  bark  on  the 
wild  New  England  shore,"  Le  Caron,  a  French  Franciscan,  had  pene- 
trated through  the  Iroquois  and  Wyandots  (Hurons)  to  the  streams  which 
run  into  Lake  Huron  ;  and  in  1634,  two  Jesuit  missionaries  founded  the 
first  mission  among  the  lake  tribes.  It  was  just  one  hundred  years  from 
the  discovery  of  the  Mississippi  by  DeSoto  (1541)  until  the  Canadian 
envoys  met  the  savage  nations  of  the  Northwest  at  the  Falls  of  St.  Mary, 
below  the  outlet  of  Lake  Superior.  This  visit  led  to  no  permanent 
result ;  yet  it  was  not  until  1659  that  any  of  the  adventurous  fur  traders 
attempted  to  spend  a  Winter  in  the  frozen  wilds  about  the  great  lakes, 
nor  was  it  until  1660  that  a  station  was  established  upon  their  borders  by 
Mesnard,  who  perished  in  the  woods  a  few  months  after.  In  1665,  Claude 
Allouez  built  the  earliest  lasting  habitation  of  the  white  man  among  the 
Indians  of  the  Northwest.  In  1668,  Claude  Dablon  and  James  Marquette 
founded  the  mission  of  Sault  Ste.  Marie  at  the  Falls  of  St.  Mary,  and  two 
years  afterward,  Nicholas  Perrot,  as  agent  for  M.  Talon,  Governor  Gen- 
eral of  Canada,  explored  Lake  Illinois  (Michigan)  as  far  south  as  the 
present  City  of  Chicago,  and  invited  the  Indian  nations  to  meet  him  at  a 
grand  council  at  Sault  Ste.  Marie  the  following  Spring,  where  they  were 
taken  under  the  protection  of  the  king,  and  formal  possession  was  taken 
of  the  Northwest.  This  same  year  Marquette  established  a  mission  at 
Point  St.  Ignatius,  where  was  founded  the  old  town  of  Michillimackinac. 

During  M.  Talon's  explorations  and  Marquette's  residence  at  St. 
Ignatius,  they  learned  of  a  great  river  away  to  the  west,  and  fancied — 
as  all  others  did  then  —  that  upon  its  fertile  banks  whole  tribes  of  God's 
children  resided,  to  whom  the  sound  of  the  Gospel  had  never  come. 
Filled  with  a  wish  to  go  and  preach  to  them,  and  in  compliance  with  a 
request  of  M.  Talon,  who  earnestly  desired  to  extend  the  domain  of  his 
king,  and  to  ascertain  whether  the  river  flowed  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico 
or  the  Pacific  Ocean,  Marquette  with  Joliet,  as  commander  of  the  expe- 
dition, prepared  for  the  undertaking. 

On  the  13th  of  May,  1673,  the  explorers,  accompanied  by  five  assist- 


ant  French  Canadians,  set  out  from  Mackinaw  on  their  daring  voyage  of 
discovery.  The  Indians,  who  gathered  to  witness  their  departure,  were 
astonished  at  the  boldness  of  the  undertaking,  and  endeavored  to  dissuade 
them  from  their  purpose  by  representing  the  tribes  on  the  Mississippi  as 
exceedingly  savage  and  cruel,  and  the  river  itself  as  full  of  all  sorts  of 
frightful  monsters  ready  to  swallow  them  and  their  canoes  together.  But, 
nothing  daunted  by  these  terrific  descriptions,  Marquette  told  them  he 
was  willing  not  only  to  encounter  all  the  perils  of  the  unknown  region 
they  were  about  to  explore,  but  to  lay  down  his  life  in  a  cause  in  which 
the  salvation  of  souls  was  involved  ;  and  having  prayed  together  they 
separated.  Coasting  along  the  northern  shore  of  Lake  Michigan,  the 
adventurers  entered  Green  Bay,  and  passed  thence  up  the  Fox  River  and 
Lake  Winnebago  to  a  village  of  the  Miamis  and  Kickapoos.  Here  Mar- 
quette was  delighted  to  find  a  beautiful  cross  planted  in  the  middle  of  the 
town,  ornamented  with  white  skins,  red  girdles  and  bows  and  arrows, 
which  these  good  people  had  offered  to  the  Great  Manitou,  or  God,  to 
thank  him  for  the  pity  he  had  bestowed  on  them  during  the  Winter  in 
giving  them  an  abundantf "  chase."  This  was  the  farthest  outpost  to 
which  Dablon  and  Allouez  had  extended  their  missionary  labors  the 
year  previous.  Here  Marquette  drank  mineral  waters  and  was  instructed 
in  the  secret  of  a  root  which  cures  the  bite  of  the  venomous  rattlesnake. 
He  assembled  the  chiefs  and  old  men  of  the  village,  and,  pointing  to 
Joliet,  said  :  "  My  friend  is  an  envoy  of  France,  to  discover  new  coun- 
tries, and  I  am  an  ambassador  from  God  to  enlighten  them  with  the  truths 
of  the  Gospel."  Two  Miami  guides  were  here  furnished  to  conduct  them 
to  the  Wisconsin  River,  and  they  set  out  from  the  Indian  village  on 
the  10th  of  June,  amidst  a  great  crowd  of  natives  who  had  assembled  to 
witness  their  departure  into  a  region  where  no  white  man  had  ever  yet 
ventured.  The  guides,  having  conducted  them  across  the  portage, 
returned.  The  explorers  launched  their  canoes  upon  the  Wisconsin, 
which  they  descended  to  the  Mississippi  and  proceeded  down  its  unknown 
waters.  What  emotions  must  have  swelled  their  breasts  as  they  struck 
out  into  the  broadening  current  and  became  conscious  that  they  were 
now  upon  the  bosom  of  the  Father  of  Waters.  The  mystery  was  about 
to  be  lifted  from  the  long-sought  river.  The  scenery  in  that  locality  is 
beautiful,  and  on  that  delightful  seventeenth  of  June,  must  have  been 
clad  in  all  its  primeval  loveliness  as  it  had  been  adorned  by  the  hand  of 
Nature.  Drifting  rapidly,  it  is  said  that  the  bold  bluffs  on  either  hand 
"  reminded  them  of  the  castled  shores  of  their  own  beautiful  rivers  of 
France."  By-and-by,  as  they  drifted  along,  great  herds  of  buffalo 
appeared  on  the  banks.  On  going  to  the  heads  of  the  valley  they  could 
see  a  country  of  the  greatest  beauty  and  fertility,  apparently  destitute  of 


inhabitants,  yet  presenting  the  appearance  of  extensive  manors,  under 
the  fastidious  cultivation  of  lordly  proprietors. 

On  June  25,  they  went  ashore  and  found  some  fresh  traces  of  men 
upon  the  sand,  and  a  path  which  led  to  the  prairie.  The  men  remained  in 
the  boat,  and  Marquette  and  Joliet  followed  the  path  till  they  discovered  a 
village  on  the  banks  of  a  river,  and  two  other  villages  on  a  hill,  within  a 
half  league  of  the  first,  inhabited  by  Indians.  They  were  received  most 
hospitably  by  these  natives,  who  had  never  before  seen  a  white  person. 
After  remaining  a  few  days  they  re-embarked  and  descended  the  river  to 
about  latitude  33°,  where  they  found  a  village  of  the  Arkansas,  and  being 
satisfied  that  the  river  flowed  into  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  turned  their  coarse 
up  the  river,  and  ascending  the  stream  to  the  mouth  of  the  Illinois, 
rowed  up  that  stream  to  its  source  and  procured  guides  from  that  point 
to  the  lakes.  "  Nowhere  on  this  journey,"  says  Marquette,  "  did  we  see 
such  grounds,  meadows,  woods,  stags,  buffaloes,  deer,  wildcats,  bustards, 
swans,  ducks,  parroquets,  and  even  beavers,  as  on  the  Illinois  River." 
The  party,  without  loss  or  injury,  reached  Green  Bay  in  September,  and 
reported  their  discovery — one  of  the  most  important  of  the  age,  but  of 
which  no  record  was  preserved  save  Marquette's,  Joliet  losing  his  by 
the  upsetting  of  his  canoe  on  his  way  to  Quebec.  Afterward  Marquette 
returned  to  the  Illinois  Indians  by  their  request,  and  ministered  to  them 
until  1675.  On  the  18th  of  May,  in  that  year,  as  he  was  passing  the 
mouth  of  a  stream — going  with  his  boatmen  up  Lake  Michigan — he  asked 
to  land  at  its  mouth  and  celebrate  Mass.  Leaving  his  men  with  the  canoe, 
he  retired  a  short  distance  and  began  his  devotions.  As  much  time 
passed  and  he  did  not  return,  his  men  went  in  search  of  him,  and  found 
him  upon  his  knees,  dead.  He  had  peacefully  passed  away  while  at 
prayer.  He  was  buried  at  this  spot.  Charlevoix,  who  visited  the  place 
fifty  years  after,  found  the  waters  had  retreated  from  the  grave,  leaving 
the  beloved  missionary  to  repose  in  peace.  The  river  has  since  been 
called  Marquette. 

While  Marquette  and  his  companions  were  pursuing  their  labors  in 
the  West,  two  men,  differing  widely  from  him  and  each  other,  were  pre- 
paring to  follow  in  his  footsteps  and  perfect  the  discoveries  so  well  begun 
by  him.     These  were  Robert  de  LaSalle  and  Louis  Hennepin. 

After  LaSalle 's  return  from  the  discovery  of  the  Ohio  River  (see 
the  narrative  elsewhere),  he  established  himself  again  among  the  French 
trading  posts  in  Canada.  Here  he  mused  long  upon  the  pet  project  of 
those  ages — a  short  way  to  China  and  the  East,  and  was  busily  planning  an 
expedition  up  the  great  lakes,  and  so  across  the  continent  to  the  Pacific, 
when  Marquette  returned  from  the  Mississippi.  At  once  the  vigorous  mind 
of  LaSalle  received  from  his  and  his  companions'  stories  the  idea  that  by  fol- 


lowing  the  Great  River  northward,  or  by  turning  up  some  of  the  numerous 
western  tributaries,  the  object  could  easily  be  gained.  He  applied  to 
Frontenac,  Governor  General  of  Canada,  and  laid  before  him  the  plan, 
dim  but  gigantic.  Frontenac  entered  warmly  into  his  plans,  and  saw  that 
LaSalle's  idea  to  connect  the  great  lakes  by  a  chain  of  forts  with  the  Gulf 
of  Mexico  would  bind  the  country  so  wonderfully  together,  give  un- 
measured power  to  France,  and  glory  to  himself,  under  whose  adminis- 
tration he  earnestly  hoped  all  would  be  realized. 

LaSalle  now  repaired  to  France,  laid  his  plans  before  the  King,  who 
warmly  approved  of  them,  and  made  him  a  Chevalier.  He  also  received 
from  all  the  noblemen  the  warmest  wishes  for  his  success.  The  Chev- 
alier returned  to  Canada,  and  busily  entered  upon  his  work.  He  at 
once  rebuilt  Fort  Frontenac  and  constructed  the  first  ship  to  sail  on 
these  fresh-water  seas.  On  the  7th  of  August,  1679,  having  been  joined 
by  Hennepin,  he  began  his  voyage  in  the  Griffin  up  Lake  Erie.  He 
passed  over  this  lake,  through  the  straits  beyond,  up  Lake  St.  Clair  and 
into  Huron.  In  this  lake  they  encountered  heavy  storms.  They  were 
some  time  at  Michillimackinac,  where  LaSalle  founded  a  fort,  and  passed 
on  to  Green  Bay,  the  "  Bale  des  Puans  "  of  the  French,  where  he  found 
a  large  quantity  of  furs  collected  for  him.  He  loaded  the  Griffin  with 
these,  and  placing  her  under  the  care  of  a  pilot  and  fourteen  sailors, 
started  her  on  her  return  voyage.  The  vessel  was  never  afterward  heard 
of.  He  remained  about  these  parts  until  early  in  the  Winter,  when,  hear- 
ing nothing  from  the  Griffin,  he  collected  all  the  men — thirty  working 
men  and  three  monks — and  started  again  upon  his  great  undertaking. 

By  a  short  portage  they  passed  to  the  Illinois  or  Kankakee,  called  by 
the  Indians,  "  Theakeke,"  wolf^  because  of  the  tribes  of  Indians  called 
by  that  name,  commonly  known  as  the  Mahingans,  dwelling  there.  The 
French  pronounced  it  Kiakiki,  which  became  corrupted  to  Kankakee. 
*'  Falling  down  the  said  river  by  easy  journeys,  the  better  to  observe  the 
country,"  about  the  last  of  December  they  reached  a  village  of  the  Illi- 
nois Indians,  containing  some  five  hundred  cabins,  but  at  that  moment 
no  inhabitants.  The  Sieur  de  LaSalle  being  in  want  of  some  breadstuffs, 
took  advantage  of  the  absence  of  the  Indians  to  help  himself  to  a  suffi- 
ciency of  maize,  large  quantities  of  which  he  found  concealed  in  holes 
under  the  wigwams.  This  village  was  situated  near  the  present  village 
of  Utica  in  LaSalle  County,  Illinois.  The  corn  being  securely  stored, 
the  voyagers  again  betook  themselves  to  the  stream,  and  toward  evening, 
on  the  4th  day  of  January,  1680,  they  came  into  a  lake  which  must  have 
been  the  lake  of  Peoria.  This  was  called  by  the  Indians  Pim-i-te-tvi,  that 
is,  a  place  where  there  are  rtiany  fat  beasts.  Here  the  natives  were  met 
with  in  large  numbers,  but  they  were  gentle  and  kind,  and  having  spent 


some  time  with  them,  LaSalle  determined  to  erect  another  fort  in  that 
place,  for  he  had  heard  rumors  that  some  of  the  adjoining  tribes  were 
trying  to  disturb  the  good  feeling  which  existed,  and  some  of  his  men 
were  disposed  to  complain,  owing  to  the  hardships  and  perils  of  the  travel. 
He  called  this  fort  "  Crevecoeur  "  (broken-heart),  a  name  expressive  of  the 
very  natural  sorrow  and  anxiety  which  the  pretty  certain  loss  of  his  ship. 
Griffin,  and  his  consequent  impoverishment,  the  danger  of  hostility  on  the 
part  of  the  Indians,  and  of  mutiny  among  his  own  men,  might  well  cause 
him.  His  fears  were  not  entirely  groundless.  At  one  time  poison  was 
placed  in  his  food,  but  fortunately  was  discovered. 

While  building  this  fort,  the  Winter  wore  away,  the  prairies  began  to 
look  green,  and  LaSalle,  despairing  of  any  reinforcements,  concluded  to 
return  to  Canada,  raise  new  means  and  new  men,  and  embark  anew  in 
the  enterprise.  For  this  purpose  he  made  Hennepin  the  leader  of  a  party 
to  explore  the  head  waters  of  the  Mississippi,  and  he  set  out  on  his  jour- 
ney. This  journey  was  accomplished  with  the  aid  of  a  few  persons,  and 
was  successfully  made,  though  over  an  almost  unknown  route,  and  in  a 
bad  season  of  the  year.  He  safely  reached  Canada,  and  set  out  again  for 
the  object  of  his  search. 

Hennepin  and  his  party  left  Fort  Crevecoeur  on  the  last  of  February, 
1680.  When  LaSalle  reached  this  place  on  his  return  expedition,  he 
found  the  fort  entirely  deserted,  and  he  was  obliged  to  return  again  to 
Canada.  He  embarked  the  third  time,  and  succeeded.  Seven  days  after 
leaving  the  fort,  Hennepin  reached  the  Mississippi,  and  paddling  up  the 
icy  stream  as  best  he  could,  reached  no  higher  than  the  Wisconsin  River 
by  the  11th  of  April.  Here  he  and  his  followers  were  taken  prisoners  by  a 
band  of  Northern  Indians,  who  treated  them  with  great  kindness.  Hen- 
nepin's comrades  were  Anthony  Auguel  and  Michael  Ako.  On  this  voy- 
age they  found  several  beautiful  lakes,  and  "saw  some  charming  prairies." 
Their  captors  were  the  Isaute  or  Sauteurs,  Chippewas,  a  tribe  of  the  Sioux 
nation,  who  took  them  up  the  river  until  about  the  first  of  May  when 
they  reached  some  falls,  which  Hennepin  christened  Falls  of  St.  Anthony 
in  honor  of  his  patron  saint.  Here  they  took  the  land,  and  traveling 
nearly  two  hundred  miles  to  the  northwest,  brought  them  to  their  villages* 
Here  they  were  kept  about  three  months,  were  treated  kindly  by  their 
captors,  and  at  the  end  of  that  time,  were  met  by  a  band  of  Frenchmen, 
headed  by  one  Sieur  de  Luth,  who,  in  pursuit  of  trade  and  game,  had  pene- 
trated thus  far  by  the  route  of  Lake  Superior ;  and  with  these  fellow- 
countrymen  Hennepin  and  his  companions  were  allowed  to  return  to  the 
borders  of  civilized  life  in  November,  1680,  just  after  LaSalle  had 
returned  to  the  wilderness  on  his  second  trip.  Hennepin  soon  after  went 
to  France,  where  he  published  an  account  of  his  adventures. 


The  Mississippi  was  first  discovered  by  De  Soto  in  April,  1541,  in  his 
vain  endeavor  to  find  gold  and  precious  gems.  In  the  following  Spring, 
De  Soto,  weary  with  hope  long  deferred,  and  worn  out  with  his  wander- 
ings, fell  a  victim  to  disease,  and  on  the  21st  of  May,  died.  His  followers, 
reduced  by  fatigue  and  disease  to  less  than  three  hundred  men,  wandered 
about  the  country  nearly  a  year,  in  the  vain  endeavor  to  rescue  them- 
selves by  land,  and  finally  constructed  seven  small  vessels,  called  brig- 
antines,  in  which  they  embarked,  and  descending  the  river,  supposing  it 
would  lead  them  to  the  sea,  in  July  they  came  to  the  sea  (Gulf  of 
Mexico),  and  by  September  reached  the  Island  of  Cuba. 

They  were  the  first  to  see  the  great  outlet  of  the  Mississippi ;  but, 
being  so  weary  and  discouraged,  made  no  attempt  to  claim  the  country, 
and  hardly  had  an  intelligent  idea  of  what  they  had  passed  through. 

To  La  Salle,  the  intrepid  explorer,  belongs  the  honor  of  giving  the 
first  account  of  the  mouths  of  the  river.  His  great  desire  was  to  possess 
this  entire  country  for  his  king,  and  in  January,  1682,  he  and  his  band  of 
explorers  left  the  shores  of  Lake  Michigan  on  their  third  attempt,  crossed 
the  Portage,  passed  down  the  Illinois  River,  and  on  the  6th  of  February 
reached  the  banks  of  the  Mississippi. 

On  the  13th  they  commenced  their  downward  course,  which  they 
pursued  with  but  one  interruption,  until  upon  the  6th  of  March  they  dis- 
covered the  three  great  passages  by  which  the  river  discharges  its  waters 
into  the  gulf.     La  Salle  thus  narrates  the  event : 

"  We  landed  on  the  bank  of  the  most  western  channel,  about  three 
leagues  (nine  miles)  from  its  mouth.  On  the  seventh,  M.  de  La  Salle 
went  to  reconnoiter  the  shore  of  the  neighboring  sea,  and  M.  de  Tonti 
meanwhile  examined  the  great  middle  channel.  They  found  the  main 
outlets  beautiful,  large  and  deep.  On  the  eighth,  we  reascended  the 
river,  a  little  above  its  confluence  with  the  sea,  to  find  a  dry  place  beyond 
the  reach  of  inundations.  The  elevation  of  the  North  Pole  was  here 
about  twenty-seven  degrees.  Here  we  prepared  a  column  and  a  cross, 
and  to  the  column  were  affixed  the  arms  of  France  with  this  inscription  : 

"Louis  Le  Grand,  Roi  de  France  et  de  Navarre,  regne  ;  Le  neuvleme  April,  1682." 

The  whole  party,  under  arms,  chanted  the  Te  Deum,  and  then,  after 
a  salute  and  cries  of  "  Vive  le  Roi,'"  the  column  was  erected  by  M.  de 
La  Salle,  who,  standing  near  it,  proclaimed  in  a  loud  voice  the  authority 
of  the  King  of  France.  La  Salle  returned  and  laid  the  foundations  of  the 
Mississippi  settlements  in  Illinois ;  thence  he  proceeded  to  France,  where 
another  expedition  was  fitted  out,  of  which  he  was  commander,  and  in 
two  succeeding  voyages  failed  to  find  the  outlet  of  the  river  by  sailing 


along  the  shore  of  the  gulf.  On  the  third  voyage  he  was  killed,  through 
the  treachery  of  his  followers,  and  the  object  of  his  expeditions  was  not 
accomplished  until  1699,  when  D'Iberville,  under  the  authority  of  the 
crown,  discovered,  on  the  second  of  March,  by  way  of  the  sea,  the  mouth 
of  the  "  Hidden  River."  This  majestic  stream  was  called  by  the  natives 
"  Malhouchia,^^  and  by  the  Spaniards,  "  la  Palissade,^^  from  the  great 
number  of  trees  about  its  mouth.  After  traversing  the  several  outlets, 
and  satisfying  himself  as  to  its  certainty,  he  erected  a  fort  near  its  western 
outlet,  and  returned  to  France. 

An  avenue  of  trade  was  now  opened  out  which  was  fully  improved.  In 
1718,  New  Orleans  was  laid  out  and  settled  by  some  European  colonists.  In 
1762,  the  colony  was  made  over  to  Spain,  to  be  regained  by  France  under 
the  consulate  of  Napoleon.  In  1803,  it  was  purchased  by  the  United 
States  for  the  sum  of  fifteen  million  dollars,  and  the  territory  of  Louisiana 
and  commerce  of  the  Mississippi  River  came  under  the  charge  of  the 
United  States.  Although  La  Salle's  labors  ended  in  defeat  and  death, 
he  had  not  worked  and  suffered  in  vain.  He  had  thrown  open  to  France 
and  the  world  an  immense  and  most  valuable  country ;  had  established 
several  ports,  and  laid  the  foundations  of  more  than  one  settlement  there. 
"  Peoria,  Kaskaskia  and  Cahokia,  are  to  this  day  monuments  of  LaSalle's 
labors  ;  for,  though  he  had  founded  neither  of  them  (unless  Peoria, 
which  was  built  nearly  upon  the  site  of  Fort  Crevecceur,)  it  was  by  those 
whom  he  led  into  the  West  that  these  places  were  peopled  and  civilized. 
He  was,  if  not  the  discoverer,  the  first  settler  of  the  Mississippi  Valley, 
and  as  such  deserves  to  be  known  and  honored." 

The  French  early  improved  the  opening  made  for  them.  Before  the 
year  1698,  the  Rev.  Father  Gravier  began  a  mission  among  the  Illinois, 
and  founded  Kaskaskia.  For  some  time  this  was  merely  a  missionary 
station,  where  none  but  natives  resided,  it  being  one  of  three  such  vil- 
lages, the  other  two  being  Cahokia  and  Peoria.  What  is  known  of  these 
missions  is  learned  from  a  letter  written  by  Father  Gabriel  Marest,  dated 
*'  Aux  Cascaskias,  autrementdit  de  I'lmmaculate  Conception  de  la  Sainte 
Vierge,  le  9  Novembre,  1712."  Soon  after  the  founding  of  Kaskaskia, 
the  missionary,  Pinet,  gathered  a  flock  at  Cahokia,  while  Peoria  arose 
near  the  ruins  of  Fort  Crevecceur.  This  must  have  been  about  the  year 
1700.  The  post  at  Vincennes  on  the  Oubache  river,  (pronounced  Wa-ba, 
meaning  summer  cloud  moving  siviftlyC)  was  established  in  1702,  according 
to  the  best  authorities.*     It  is  altogether  probable  that  on  LaSalle's  last 

*  There  Is  considerable  dispute  about  tliis  date,  some  asserting  it  was  founded  as  late  as  1742.  When  the 
new  court  house  at  Vincennes  was  erected,  all  authorities  on  the  subject  were  carefully  examined,  and  1703  fixed 
upon  as  the  correct  date.    It  was  accordingly  engraved  on  the  corner-stone  of  the  court  house. 


trip  he  established  the  stations  at  Kaskaskia  and  Cahokia.  In  July, 
1701,  the  foundations  of  Fort  Ponchartrain  were  laid  by  De  la  Motte 
Cadillac  on  the  Detroit  River.  These  stations,  with  those  established 
further  north,  were  the  earliest  attempts  to  occupy  the  Northwest  Terri- 
tory. At  the  same  time  efforts  were  being  made  to  occupy  the  Southwest, 
which  finally  culminated  in  the  settlement  and  founding  of  the  City  of  New 
Orleans  by  a  colony  from  England  in  1718.  This  was  mainly  accom- 
plished through  the  efforts  of  the  famous  Mississippi  Company,  established 
by  the  notorious  John  Law,  who  so  quickly  arose  into  prominence  in 
France,  and  who  with  his  scheme  so  quickly  and  so  ignominiously  passed 
away.  , 

From  the  time  of  the  founding  of  these  stations  for  fifty  years  the 
French  nation  were  engrossed  with  the  settlement  of  the  lower  Missis- 
sippi, and  the  war  with  the  Chickasaws,  who  had,  in  revenge  for  repeated 
injuries,  cut  off  the  entire  colony  at  Natchez.  Although  the  company 
did  little  for  Louisiana,  as  the  entire  West  was  then  called,  yet  it  opened 
the  trade  through  the  Mississippi  River,  and  started  the  raising  of  grains 
indigenous  to  that  climate.  Until  the  year  1750,  but  little  is  known  of 
the  settlements  in  the  Northwest,  as  it  was  not  until  this  time  that  the 
attention  of  the  English  was  called  to  the  occupation  of  this  portion  of  the 
New  World,  which  they  then  supposed  they  owned.  Vivier,  a  missionary 
among  the  Illinois,  writing  from  "  Aux  Illinois,"  six  leagues  from  Fort 
Chartres,  June  8,  1750,  says:  "We  have  here  whites,  negroes  and 
Indians,  to  say  nothing  of  cross-breeds.  There  are  five  French  villages, 
and  three  villages  of  the  natives,  within  a  space  of  twenty-one  leagues 
situated  between  the  Mississippi  and  another  river  called  the  Karkadaid 
(Kaskaskias).  In  the  five  French  villages,  are  perhaps,  eleven  hundred 
whites,  three  hundred  blacks  and  some  sixty  red  slaves  or  savages.  The 
three  Illinois  towns  do  not  contain  more  than  eight  hundred  souls  all 
-told.  Most  of  the  French  till  the  soil ;  they  raise  wheat,  cattle,  pigs  and 
horses,  and  live  like  princes.  Three  times  as  much  is  produced  as  can 
be  consumed ;  and  great  quantities  of  grain  and  flour  are  sent  to  New 
Orleans."  This  city  was  now  the  seaport  town  of  the  Northwest,  and 
save  in  the  extreme  northern  part,  where  only  furs  and  copper  ore  were 
found,  almost  all  the  products  of  the  country  found  their  way  to  France 
by  the  mouth  of  the  Father  of  Waters.  In  another  letter,  dated  Novem- 
ber 7,  1750,  this  same  priest  says:  "For  fifteen  leagues  above  the 
mouth  of  the  Mississippi  one  sees  no  dwellings,  the  ground  being  too  low 
to  be  habitable.  Thence  to  New  Orleans,  the  lauds  are  only  partially 
occupied.  New  Orleans  contains  black,  white  and  red,  not  more,  I 
think,  than  twelve  hundred  persons.  To  this  point  come  all  the  lumber, 
bricks,  salt-beef,  tallow,  tar,  skins  and  bear's  grease  ;  and  above  all,  pork 


and  flour  from  the  Illinois.  These  things  create  some  commerce,  as  forty 
vessels  and  more  have  come  hither  this  year.  Above  New  Orleans, 
plantations  are  again  met  with  ;  the  most  considerable  is  a  colony  of 
Germans,  some  ten  leagues  up  the  river.  At  Point  Coupee,  thirty-five 
leagues  above  the  German  settlement,  is  a  fort.  Along  here,  within  five 
or  six  leagues,  are  not  less  than  sixty  habitations.  Fifty  leagues  farther 
up  is  the  Natchez  post,  where  we  have  a  garrison,  who  are  kept  prisoners 
through  fear  of  the  Ghickasaws.  Here  and  at  Point  Coupee,  they  raise 
excellent  tobacco.  Another  hundred  leagues  brings  us  to  the  Arkansas, 
where  we  have  also  a  fort  and  a  garrison  for  the  benefit  of  the  river 
traders.  *  *  *  From  the  Arkansas  to  the  Illinois,  nearly  five  hundred 
leagues,  there  is  not  a  settlement.  There  should  be,  hower,  a  fort  at 
the  Oubache  (Ohio),  the  only  path  by  which  the  English  can  reach  the 
Mississippi.  In  the  Illinois  country  are  numberless  mines,  but  no  one  to 
work  them  as  they  deserve."  Father  Marest,  writing  from  the  post  at 
Vincennes  in  1812,  makes  the  same  observation.  Vivier  also  says :  "  Some 
individuals  dig  lead  near  the  surface  and  supply  the  Indians  and  Canada. 
Two  Spaniards  now  here,  who  claim  to  be  adepts,  say  that  our  mines  are 
like  those  of  Mexico,  and  that  if  we  would  dig  deeper,  we  should  find 
silver  under  the  lead  ;  and  at  any  rate  the  lead  is  excellent.  There  is  also 
in  this  country,  beyond  doubt,  copper  ore,  as  from  time  to  time  large 
pieces  are  found  in  the  streams. 

At  the  close  of  the  year  1750,  the  French  occupied,  in  addition  to  the 
lower  Mississippi  posts  and  those  in  Illinois,  one  at  Du  Quesne,  one  at 
the  Maumee  in  the  country  of  the  Miamas,  and  one  at  Sandusky  in  what 
may  be  termed  the  Ohio  Valley.  In  the  northern  part  of  the  Northwest 
they  had  stations  at  St.  Joseph's  on  the  St.  Joseph's  of  Lake  Michigan, 
at  Fort  Ponchartrain  (Detroit),  at  Michillimackanac  or  Massillimacanac, 
Fox  River  at  Green  Bay,  and  at  Sault  Ste.  Marie.  The  fondest  dreams 
of  LaSalle  were  now  fully  realized.  The  French  alone  were  possessors  of 
this  vast  realm,  basing  their  claim  on  discovery  and  settlement.  Another 
nation,  however,  was  now  turning  its  attention  to  this  extensive  country, 
and  hearing  of  its  wealth,  began  to  lay  plans  for  occupying  it  and  for 
securing  the  great  profits  arising  therefrom. 

The  French,  however,  had  another  claim  to  this  country,  namely,'  the 


This  "  Beautiful "  river  was  discovered  by  Robert  Cavalier  de  La- 
Salle in  1669,  four  years  before  the  discovery  of  the  Mississippi  by  Joliet 
and  Marquette. 


While  LaSalle  was  at  his  trading  post  on  the  St.  Lawrence,  he  found 
leisure  to  study  nine  Indian  dialects,  the  chief  of  which  was  the  Iroquois. 
He  not  only  desired  to  facilitate  his  intercourse  in  trade,  but  he  longed 
to  travel  and  explore  the  unknown  regions  of  the  West.  An  incident 
soon  occurred  which  decided  him  to  fit  out  an  exploring  expedition. 

While  conversing  with  some  Senecas,  he  learned  of  a  river  called  the 
Ohio,  which  rose  in  their  country  and  flowed  to  the  sea,  but  at  such  a 
distance  that  it  required  eight  months  to  reach  its  mouth.  In  this  state- 
ment the  Mississippi  and  its  tributaries  were  considered  as  one  stream. 
LaSalle  believing,  as  most  of  the  French  at  that  period  did,  that  the  great 
rivers  flowing  west  emptied  into  the  Sea  of  California,  was  anxious  to 
embark  in  the  enterprise  of  discovering  a  route  across  the  continent  to 
the  commerce  of  China  and  Japan. 

He  repaired  at  once  to  Quebec  to  obtain  the  approval  of  the  Gov- 
ernor. His  eloquent  appeal  prevailed.  The  Governor  and  the  Intendant, 
Talon,  issued  letters  patent  authorizing  the  enterprise,  but  made  no  pro- 
vision to  defray  the  expenses.  At  this  juncture  the  seminary  of  St.  Sul- 
pice  decided  to  send  out  missionaries  in  connection  with  the  expedition, 
and  LaSalle  offering  to  sell  his  improvements  at  LaChine  to  raise  money, 
the  offer  was  accepted  by  the  Superior,  and  two  thousand  eight  hundred 
dollars  were  raised,  with  which  LaSalle  purchased  four  canoes  and  the 
necessary  supplies  for  the  outfit. 

On  the  6th  of  July,  1669,  the  party,  numbering  twenty-four  persons, 
embarked  in  seven  canoes  on  the  St.  Lawrence ;  two  additional  canoes 
carried  the  Indian  guides.  In  three  days  they  were  gliding  over  the 
bosom  of  Lake  Ontario.  Their  guides  conducted  them  directly  to  the 
Seneca  village  on  the  bank  of  the  Genesee,  in  the  vicinity  of  the  present 
City  of  Rochester,  New  York.  Here  they  expected  to  procure  guides  to 
conduct  them  to  the  Ohio,  but  in  this  they  were  disappointed. 

The  Indians  seemed  unfriendly  to  the  enterprise.  LaSalle  suspected 
that  the  Jesuits  had  prejudiced  their  minds  against  his  plans.  After 
waiting  a  month  in  the  hope  of  gaining  their  object,  they  met  an  Indian 
from  the  Iroquois  colony  at  the  head  of  Lake  Ontario,  who  assured  them 
that  they  could  there  find  guides,  and  offered  to  conduct  them  thence. 

On  their  way  they  passed  the  mouth  of  the  Niagara  River,  when  they 
heard  for  the  first  time  the  distant  thunder  of  the  cataract.  Arriving 
among  the  Iroquois,  they  met  with  a  friendly  reception,  and  learned 
from  a  Shawanee  prisoner  that  they  could  reach  the  Ohio  in  six  weeks. 
Delighted  with  the  unexpected  good  fortune,  they  made  ready  to  resume 
their  journey  ;  but  just  as  they  were  about  to  start  they  heard  of  the 
arrival  of  two  Frenchmen  in  a  neighboring  village.  One  of  them  proved 
to  be  Louis  Joliet,  afterwards  famous  as  an  explorer  in  the  West.     He 


had  been  sent  by  the  Canadian  Government  to  explore  the  copper  mines 
on  Lake  Superior,  but  had  failed,  and  was  on  his  way  back  to  Quebec. 
He  gave  the  missionaries  a  map  of  the  country  he  had  explored  in  the 
lake  region,  together  with  an  account  of  the  condition  of  the  Indians  in 
that  quarter.  This  induced  the  priests  to  determine  on  leaving  the 
expedition  and  going  to  Lake  Superior.  LaSalle  warned  them  that  the 
Jesuits  were  probably  occupying  that  field,  and  that  they  would  meet 
with  a  cold  reception.  Nevertheless  they  persisted  in  their  purpose,  and 
after  worship  on  the  lake  shore,  parted  from  LaSalle.  On  arriving  at 
Lake  Superior,  they  found,  as  LaSalle  had  predicted,  the  Jesuit  Fathers, 
Marquette  and  Dablon,  occupying  the  field. 

These  zealous  disciples  of  Loyola  informed  them  that  they  wanted 
no  assistance  from  St.  Sulpice,  nor  from  those  who  made  him  their  patron 
saint ;  and  thus  repulsed,  they  returned  to  Montreal  the  following  June 
without  having  made  a  single  discovery  or  converted  a  single  Indian. 

After  parting  with  the  priests,  LaSalle  went  to  the  chief  Iroquois 
viUage  at  Onondaga,  where  he  obtained  guides,  and  passing  thence  to  a 
tributary  of  the  Ohio  south  of  Lake  Erie,  he  descended  the  latter  as  far 
as  the  falls  at  Louisville.  Thus  was  the  Ohio  discovered  by  LaSalle,  the 
persevering  and  successful  French  explorer  of  the  West,  in  1669. 

The  account  of  the  latter  part  of  his  journey  is  found  in  an  anony- 
mous paper,  which  purports  to  have  been  taken  from  the  lips  of  LaSalle 
himself  during  a  subsequent  visit  to  Paris.  In  a  letter  written  to  Count 
Frontenac  in  1667,  shortly  after  the  discovery,  he  himself  says  that  he 
discovered  the  Ohio  and  descended  it  to  the  falls.  This  was  regarded  as 
an  indisputable  fact  by  the  French  authorities,  who  claimed  the  Ohio 
Valley  upon  another  ground.  When  Washington  was  sent  by  the  colony 
of  Virginia  in  1753,  to  demand  of  Gordeur  de  St.  Pierre  why  the  French 
had  built  a  fort  on  the  Monongahela,  the  haughty  commandant  at  Quebec 
replied :  "  We  claim  the  country  on  the  Ohio  by  virtue  of  the  discoveries 
of  LaSalle,  and  will  not  give  it  up  to  the  English.  Our  orders  are  to 
make  prisoners  of  every  Englishman  found  trading  in  the  Ohio  Valley." 


When  the  new  year  of  1750  broke  in  upon  the  Father  of  Waters 
and  the  Great  Northwest,  all  was  still  wild  save  at  the  French  posts 
already  described.  In  1749,  when  the  English  first  began  to  think  seri- 
ously about  sending  men  into  the  West,  the  greater  portion  of  the  States 
of  Indiana,  Ohio,  Illinois,  Michigan,  Wisconsin,  and  Minnesota  were  yet 
under  the  dominion  of  the  red  men.    The  English  knew,  however,  pretty 


conclusively  of  the  nature  of  the  wealth  of  these  wildg.  As  early  as 
1710,  Governor  Spotswood,  of  Virginia,  had  commenced  movements  to 
secure  the  country  west  of  the  Alleghenies  to  the  EngHsh  crown.  In 
Pennsylvania,  Governor  Keith  and  James  Logan,  secretary  of  the  prov- 
ince, from  1719  to  1731,  represented  to  the  powers  of  England  the  neces- 
sity of  securing  the  Western  lands.  Nothing  was  done,  however,  by  that 
power  save  to  take  some  diplomatic  steps  to  secure  the  claims  of  Britain 
to  this  unexplored  wilderness. 

England  had  from  the  outset  claimed  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific, 
on  the  ground  that  the  discovery  of  the  seacoast  and  its  possession  was  a 
discovery  and  possession  of  the  country,  and,  as  is  well  known,  her  grants 
to  the  colonies  extended  "  from  sea  to  sea."  This  was  not  all  her  claim. 
She  had  purchased  from  the  Indian  tribes  large  tracts  of  land.  This  lat- 
ter was  also  a  strong  argument.  As  early  as  1684,  Lord  H  oward.  Gov- 
ernor of  Virginia,  held  a  treaty  with  the  six  nations.  These  were  the 
great  Northern  Confederacy,  and  comprised  at  first  the  Mohawks,  Onei- 
das,  Onondagas,  Cayugas,  and  Senecas.  Afterward  the  Tuscaroras  were 
taken  into  the  confederacy,  and  it  became  known  as  the  Six  Nations. 
They  came  under  the  protection  of  the  mother  country,  and  again  in 
1701,  they  repeated  the  agreement,  and  in  September,  1726,  a  formal  deed 
was  drawn  up  and  signed  by  the  chiefs.  The  validity  of  this  claim  has 
often  been  disputed,  but  never  successfully.  In  1744,  a  purchase  was 
made  at  Lancaster,  Pennsylvania,  of  certain  lands  within  the  "  Colony  of 
Virginia,"  for  which  the  Indians  received  £200  in  gold  and  a  like  sum  in 
goods,  with  a  promise  that,  as  settlements  increased,  more  should  be  paid. 
The  Commissioners  from  Virginia  were  Colonel  Thomas  Lee  and  Colonel 
William  Beverly.  As  settlements  extended,  the  promise  of  more  pay  was 
called  to  mind,  and  Mr.  Conrad  Weiser  was  sent  across  the  mountains  with 
presents  to  appease  the  savages.  Col.  Lee,  and  some  Virginians  accompa- 
nied him  with  the  intention  of  sounding  the  Indians  upon  their  feelings 
regarding  the  English.  They  were  not  satisfied  with  their  treatment, 
and  plainly  told  the  Commissioners  why.  The  English  did  not  desire  the 
cultivation  of  the  country,  but  the  monopoly  of  the  Indian  trade.  In 
1748,  the  Ohio  Company  was  formed,  and  petitioned  the  king  for  a  grant 
of  land  beyond  the  Alleghenies.  This  was  granted,  and  the  government 
of  Virginia  was  ordered  to  grant  to  them  a  half  million  acres,  two  hun- 
dred thousand  of  which  were  to  be  located  at  once.  Upon  the  12th  of 
June,  1749,  800,000  acres  from  the  line  of  Canada  north  and  west  was 
made  to  the  Loyal  Company,  and  on  the  29th  of  October,  1751,  100,000 
acres  were  given  to  the  Greenbriar  Company.  All  this  time  the  French 
were  not  idle.  They  saw  that,  should  the  British  gain  a  foothold  in  the 
West,  especially  upon  the  Ohio,  they  might  not  only  prevent  the  French 


settling  upon  it,  but  in  time  would  come  to  the  lower  posts  and  so  gain 
possession  of  the  whole  country.  Upon  the  10th  of  May,  1747,  Vaud- 
reuil,  Governor  of  Canada  and  the  French  possessions,  well  knowing  the 
consequences  that  must  arise  from  allowing  the  English  to  build  trading 
posts  in  the  Northwest,  seized  some  of  their  frontier  posts,  and  to  further 
secure  the  claim  of  the  French  to  the  West,  he,  in  1749,  sent  Louis  Cel- 
eron with  a  party  of  soldiers  to  plant  along  the  Ohio  River,  in  the  mounds 
and  at  the  mouths  of  its  principal  tributaries,  plates  of  lead,  on  which 
were  inscribed  the  claims  of  France.  These  were  heard  of  in  1752,  and 
within  the  memory  of  residents  now  living  along  the  "■  Oyo,"  as  the 
beautiful  river  was  called  by  the  French.  One  of  these  plates  was  found 
with  the  inscription  partly  defaced.  It  bears  date  August  16,  1749,  and 
a  copy  of  the  inscription  with  particular  account  of  the  discovery  of  the 
plate,  was  sent  by  DeWitt  Clinton  to  the  American  Antiquarian  Society, 
among  whose  journals  it  may  now  be  found.*  These  measures  did  not, 
however,  deter  the  English  from  going  on  with  their  explorations,  and 
though  neither  party  resorted  to  arms,  yet  the  conflict  was  gathering,  and 
it  was  only  a  question  of  time  when  the  storm  would  burst  upon  the 
frontier  settlements.  In  1750,  Christopher  Gist  was  sent  by  the  Ohio 
Company  to  examine  its  lands.  He  went  to  a  village  of  the  Twigtwees, 
on  the  Miami,  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles  above  its  mouth.  He 
afterward  spoke  of  it  as  very  populous.  From  there  he  went  down 
the  Ohio  River  nearly  to  the  falls  at  the  present  City  of  Louisville, 
and  in  November  he  commenced  a  survey  of  the  Company's  lands.  Dur- 
ing the  Winter,  General  Andrew  Lewis  performed  a  similar  work  for  the 
Greenbriar  Company.  Meanwhile  the  French  were  busy  in  preparing 
their  forts  for  defense,  and  in  opening  roads,  and  also  sent  a  small  party 
of  soldiers  to  keep  the  Ohio  clear.  This  party,  having  heard  of  the  Eng- 
lish post  on  the  Miami  River,  early  in  1652,  assisted  by  the  Ottawas  and 
Chippewas,  attacked  it,  and,  after  a  severe  battle,  in  which  fourteen  of 
the  natives  were  killed  and  others  wounded,  captured  the  garrison. 
(They  were  probably  garrisoned  in  a  block  house).  The  traders  were 
carried  away  to  Canada,  and  one  account  says  several  were  burned.  This 
fort  or  post  was  called  by  the  English  Pickawillany.  A  memorial  of  the 
king's  ministers  refers  to  it  as  '"  Pickawillanes,  in  the  center  of  the  terri- 
tory between  the  Ohio  and  the  Wabash.  The  name  is  probably  some 
variation  of  Pickaway  or  Picqua  in  1773,  written  by  Rev.  David  Jones 

*  The  following  is  a  trailslation  of  the  inscription  on  the  plate:  "In  the  year  1749.  reign  of  Louis  XV.. 
King  of  France,  we,  Celeron,  commandant  of  a  detachment  by  Monsieur  the  Marquis  of  Gallisoniere,  com- 
mander-in-chief of  New  France,  to  establish  tranquility  in  certain  Indian  villages  of  these  cantons,  have 
buried  this  plate  at  the  confluence  of  the  Toradakoin,  this  twenty- ninth  of  July,  near  the  river  Ohio,  otherwise 
Beautiful  River,  as  a  monument  of  renewal  of  possession  which  we  have  taken  of  the  said  river,  and  all  its 
tributaries;  inasmuch  as  the  preceding  Kings  of  France  have  enjoyed  it,  and  maintained  it  by  their  arms  and 
txeaties;  especially  by  those  of  Eyswick,  Utrecht,  and  Aix  La  Cliapelle." 


This  was  the  first  blood  shed  between  the  French  and  English,  and 
occurred  near  the  present  City  of  Piqua,  Ohio,  or  at  least  at  a  point  about 
forty-seven  miles  north  of  Dayton.  Each  nation  became  now  more  inter- 
ested in  the  progress  of  events  in  the  Northwest.  The  English  deter- 
mined to  purchase  from  the  Indians  a  title  to  the  lands  they  wished  to 
occupy,  and  Messrs.  Fry  (afterward  Commander-in-chief  over  Washing- 
ton at  the  commencement  of  the  French  War  of  1775-1763),  Lomax  and 
Pattou  were  sent  in  the  Spring  of  1752  to  hold  a  conference  with  the 
natives  at  Logstown  to  learn  what  they  objected  to  in  the  treaty  of  Lan- 
caster already  noticed,  and  to  settle  all  difficulties.  On  the  9th  of  June, 
these  Commissioners  met  the  red  men  at  Logstown,  a  little  village  on  the 
north  bank  of  the  Ohio,  about  seventeen  miles  below  the  site  of  Pitts- 
burgh. Here  had  been  a  trading  point  for  many  years,  but  it  was  aban- 
doned by  the  Indians  in  1750.  At  first  the  Indians  declined  to  recognize 
the  treaty  of  Lancaster,  but,  the  Commissioners  taking  aside  Montour, 
the  interpreter,  who  was  a  sou  of  the  famous  Catharine  Montour,  and  a 
chief  among  the  six  nations,  induced  him  to  use  his  influence  in  their 
favor.  This  he  did,  and  upon  the  loth  of  June  they  all  united  in  signing 
a  deed,  confirming  the  Lancaster  treaty  in  its  full  extent,  consenting  to  a 
settlement  of  the  southeast  of  the  Ohio,  and  guaranteeing  that  it  should 
not  be  disturbed  by  them.  These  were  the  means  used  to  obtain  the  first 
treaty  with  the  Indians  in  the  Ohio  Valley. 

Meanwhile  the  powers  beyond  the  sea  were  trying  to  out-manoeuvre 
each  other,  and  were  professing  to  be  at  peace.  The  English  generally 
outwitted  the  Indians,  and  failed  in  many  instances  to  fulfill  their  con- 
tracts. They  thereby  gained  the  ill-will  of  the  red  men,  and  further 
increased  the  feeling  by  failing  to  provide  them  with  arms  and  ammuni- 
tion. Said  an  old  chief,  at  Easton,  in  1758  :  "  The  Indians  on  the  Ohio 
left  you  because  of  your  own  fault.  When  we  heard  the  French  were 
coming,  we  asked  you  for  help  and  arms,  but  we  did  not  get  them.  The 
French  came,  they  treated  us  kindly,  and  gained  our  affections.  The 
Governor  of  Virginia  settled  on  our  lands  for  his  own  benefit,  and,  when 
we  wanted  help,  forsook  us." 

At  the  beginning  of  1653,  the  English  thought  they  had  secured  by 
title  the  lands  in  the  West,  but  the  French  had  quietly  gathered  cannon 
and  military  stores  to  be  in  readiness  for  the  expected  blow.  The  Eng- 
lish made  other  attempts  to  ratify  these  existing  treaties,  but  not  until 
the  Summer  could  the  Indians  be  gathered  together  to  discuss  the  plans 
of  the  French.  They  had  sent  messages  to  the  French,  warning  them 
away  ;  but  they  replied  that  they  intended  to  complete  the  chain  of  forts 
already  begun,  and  would  not  abandon  the  field. 

Soon  after  this,  no  satisfaction  being  obtained  from  the  Ohio  regard- 



ing  the  positions  and  purposes  of  the  French,  Governor  Dinwiddie  of 
Virginia  determined  to  send  to  them-  another  messenger  and  learn  from 
them,  if  possible,  their  intentions.  For  this  purpose  he  selected  a  young 
man,  a  surveyor,  who,  at  the  early  age  of  nineteen,  had  received  the  rank 
of  major,  and  who  was  thoroughly  posted  regarding  frontier  life.  This 
personage  was  no  other  than  the  illustrious  George  Washington,  who  then 
held  considerable  interest  in  Western  lands.  He  was  at  this  time  just 
twenty-two  years  of  age.  Taking  Gist  as  his  guide,  the  two,  accompanied 
by  four  servitors,  set  out  on  their  perilous  march.  They  left  Will's 
Creek  on  the  10th  of  November,  1753,  and  on  the  22d  reached  the  Monon- 
gahela,  about  ten  miles  above  the  fork.  From  there  they  went  to 
Logstown,  where  Washington  had  a  long  conference  with  the  chiefs  of 
the  Six  Nations.  From  them  he  learned  the  condition  of  the  French,  and 
also  heard  of  their  determination  not  to  come  down  the  river  till  the  fol- 
lowing Spring.  The  Indians  were  non-committal,  as  they  were  afraid  to 
turn  either  way,  and,  as  far  as  they  could,  desired  to  remain  neutral. 
Washington,  finding  nothing  could  be  done  with  them,  went  on  to 
Venango,  an  old  Indian  town  at  the  mouth  of  French  Creek.  Here  the 
French  had  a  fort,  called  Fort  Machault.  Through  the  rum  and  flattery 
of  the  French,  he  nearly  lost  all  his  Indian  followers.  Finding  nothing 
of  importance  here,  he  pursued  his  way  amid  great  privations,  and  on  the 
11th  of  December  reached  the  fort  at  the  head  of  French  Creek.  Here 
he  delivered  Governor  Dinwiddle's  letter,  received  his  answer,  took  his 
observations,  and  on  the  16th  set  out  upon  his  return  journey  with  no  one 
but  Gist,  his  guide,  and  a  few  Indians  who  still  remained  true  to  him, 
notwithstanding  the  endeavors  of  the  French  to  retain  them.  Their 
homeward  journey  was  one  of  great  peril  and  suffering  from  the  cold,  yet 
they  reached  home  in  safety  on  the  6th  of  January,  1754. 

From  the  letter  of  St.  Pierre,  commander  of  the  French  fort,  sent  by 
Washington  to  Governor  Dinwiddie,  it  was  learned  that  the  French  would 
not  give  up  without  a  struggle.  Active  preparations  were  at  once  made 
in  all  the  English  colonies  for  the  coming  conflict,  while  the  French 
finished  the  fort  at  Venango  and  strengthened  their  lines  of  fortifications, 
and  gathered  their  forces  to  be  in  readiness. 

The  Okl  Dominion  was  all  alive.  Virginia  was  the  center  of  great 
activities ;  volunteers  were  called  for,  and  from  all  the  neighboring 
colonies  men  rallied  to  the  conflict,  and  everywhere  along  the  Potomac 
men  were  enlisting  under  the  Governor's  proclamation — which  promised 
two  hundred  thousand  acres  on  the  Ohio.  Along  this  river  they  were 
gathering  as  far  as  Will's  Creek,  and  far  beyond  this  point,  whither  Trent 
had  come  for  assistance  for  his  little  band  of  forty-one  men,  who  were 


working  away  in  hunger  and  want,  to  fortify  that  point  at  the  fork  of 
the  Ohio,  to  which  both  parties  were  looking  with  deep  interest. 
^  "  The  first  birds  of '  Spring  filled  the  air  with  their  song ;  the  swift 
river  rolled  by  the  Allegheny  hillsides,  swollen  by  the  melting  snows  of 
Spring  and  the  April  showers.  The  leaves  were  appearing  ;  a  ?ew  Indian 
scouts  were  seen,  but  no  enemy  seemed  near  at  hand  ;  and  all  was  so  quiet, 
that  Frazier,  an  old  Indian  scout  and  trader,  who  had  been  left  by  Tren 
m  command,  ventured  to  his  home  at  the  mouth  of  Turtle  Creek,  ten 
miles  up  the  Monongahela.  But,  though  all  was  so  quiet  in  that  wilder- 
ness  keen  eyes  had  seen  the  low  intrenchment  rising  at  the  fork,  and 

7llXr}T'^^^^  ^-^  ^^P«-  the  morning 

of  the  1  ah    of  April,  Ensign  Ward,  who  then  had  charge  of  it,  saw 
upon  the  Allegheny  a  ^ght  that  made  his  heart  sink-sixty  tatteaux  and 

^;:  '^f  ;^'  —  ^''^^  .-^^I^   --'  -^  ^-^-^  ^-P  -^^  cannon  and 
T\X  .  ^      u  ^"^'"'"^  ^''  '"PP"^  '^^^^  ^'^  captor,  Contrecoeur, 

and  the  next  day  he  was  bowed  off  by  the  Frenchman,  and  with  his  men 
and  tools,  marched  up  the  Monongahela." 

The   French   and   Indian  war   had  begun.     The  treaty  of  Aix   la 
Chapelle,in    1<48,  had   left  the   boundaries   between   the   French   and 
English  possessions  unsettled,  and  the  events  already  narrated  show  the 
French  were  determined  to  hold  the  country  watered  by  the  Mississippi 
and  Its  tributaries  ;  while  the  English  laid  claims  to  the  country  by  virtue 
of  the  discoveries  of  the  Cabots,  and  claimed  all  the  country  from  New- 
found and  to  Florida,  extending  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific.     The 
hrst  decisive  blow  had  now  been  struck,  and  the  first  attempt  of  the 
English,  through  the  Ohio  Company,  to  occupy  these  lands,  had  resulted 
disastrously  to  them.     The  French  and  Indians  immediately  completed 
the  fortifications  begun  at  the  Fork,  which  they  had  so  easily  captured, 
and  when  completed  gave  to  the  fort  the  name  of  DuQuesne.     Washing- 
ton was  at  Will's  Creek  when  the  news  of  the  capture  of  the  fort  arrived 
He  at  once  departed  to  recapture  it.     On  his  way  he  entrenched  him- 
self at  a  place  called  the   "Meadows,"  where  he  erected  a  fort  called 
by  him  Fort  Necessity.     From  there  he  surprised  and  captured  a  force  of 
J^rench  and  Indians  marching  against  him,  but  was  soon  after  attacked 
m  his  fort  by  a  much  superior  force,  and  was  obliged  to  yield  on  the 
mornmg  of  July  4th.-    He  was  allowed  to  return  to  Virginia. 

The  English  Government  immediately  planned  fou?  campaigns ;  one 
against  iort  DuQuesne;  one  against  Nova  Scotia;  one  against  Fort 
JNiagara,  and  one  against  Crown  Point.  These  occurred  durino-  1755-6 
and  were  not  successful  in  driving  the  French  from  their  possessions.' 
ihe  expedition  against  Fort  DuQuesne  was  led  by  the  famous  General 
iiraddock,  who,  refusing  to  listen  to  the  advice  of  Washington  and  those 


acquainted  with  Indian  warfare,  suffered  such  an  inglorious  defeat.  This 
occurred  on  the  morning  of  July  9th,  and  is  generally  known  as  the  battle 
of  Mouongahela,  or  "  Braddock's  Defeat."  The  war  continued  with 
various  vicissitudes  through  the  years  1756-7  ;  when,  at  the  commence- 
ment of  1758,  in  accordance  with  the  plans  of  William  Pitt,  then  Secre- 
tary of  State,  afterwards  Lord  Chatham,  active  preparations  were  made  to 
carry  on  the  war.  Three  expeditions  were  planned  for  this  year :  one, 
under  General  Amherst,  against  Louisburg ;  another,  under  Abercrombie, 
against  Fort  Ticonderoga  ;  and  a  third,  under  General  Forbes,  against 
Fort  DuQuesne.  On  the  26th  of  July,  Louisburg  surrendered  after  a 
desperate  resistance  of  more  than  forty  days,  and  the  eastern  part  of  the 
Canadian  possessions  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  British.  Abercrombie 
captured  Fort  Frontenac,  and  when  the  expedition  against  Fort  DuQuesne, 
of  which  Washington  had  the  active  command,  arrived  there,  it  was 
found  in  flames  and  deserted.  The  English  at  once  took  possession, 
rebuilt  the  fort,  and  in  honor  of  their  illustrious  statesman,  changed  the 
name  to  Fort  Pitt. 

The  great  object  of  the  campaign  of  1759,  was  the  reduction  of 
Canada.  General  Wolfe  was  to  lay  siege  to  Quebec ;  Amherst  was  to 
reduce  Ticonderoga  and  Crown  Point,  and  General  Prideaux  was  to 
capture  Niagara.  This  latter  place  was  taken  in  July,  but  the  gallant 
Prideaux  lost  his  life  in  the  attempt.  Amherst  captured  Ticonderoga 
and  Crown  Point  without  a  blow  ;  and  Wolfe,  after  making  the  memor- 
able ascent  to  the  Plains  of  Abraham,  on  September  13th,  defeated 
Montcalm,  and  on  the  18th,  the  city  capitulated.  In  this  engagement 
Montcolm  and  Wolfe  both  lost  their  lives.  De  Levi,  Montcalm's  successor, 
marched  to  Sillery,  three  miles  above  the  city,  with  the  purpose  of 
defeating  the  English,  and  there,  on  the  28th  of  the  following  April,  was 
fought  one  of  the  bloodiest  battles  of  the  French  and  Indian  War.  It 
resulted  in  the  defeat  of  the  French,  and  the  fall  of  the  City  of  Montreal. 
The  Governor  signed  a  capitulation  by  which  the  whole  of  Canada  was 
surrendered  to  the  English.  This  practically  concluded  the  war,  but  it 
was  not  until  1763  that  the  treaties  of  peace  between  France  and  England 
were  signed.  This  was  done  on  the  10th  of  February  of  that  year,  and 
under  its  provisions  all  the  country  east  of  the  Mississippi  and  north  of 
the  Iberville  River,  in  Louisiana,  were  ceded  to  England.  At  the  same 
time  Spain  ceded  Florida  to  Great  Britain. 

On  the  13th  of  September,  1760,  Major  Robert  Rogers  was  sent 
from  Montreal  to  take  charge  of  Detroit,  the  only  remaining  French  post 
in  the  territory.  He  arrived  there  on  the  19th  of  November,  and  sum- 
moned the  place  to  surrender.  At  first  the  commander  of  the  post, 
Beletre,  refused,  but  on  the  29th,  hearing  of  the  continued  defeat  of  the 


French  arms,  surrendered.  Rogers  remained  there  until  December  23d 
under  the  personal  protection  of  the  celebrated  chief,  Pontiac,  to  whom, 
no  doubt,  he  owed  his  safety.  Pontiac  had  come  here  to  inquire  the 
purposes  of  the  English  in  taking  possession  of  the  country.  He  was 
assured  that  they  came  simply  to  trade  with  the  natives,  and  did  not 
desire  their  country.  This  answer  conciliated  the  savages,  and  did  much 
to  insure  the  safety  of  Rogers  and  his  party  during  their  stay,  and  while 
on  their  journey  home. 

Rogers  set  out  for  Fort  Pitt  on  December  23,  and  was  just  one 
month  on  the  way.  His  route  was  from  Detroit  to  Maumee,  thence 
across  the  present  State  of  Ohio  directly  to  the  fort.  This  was  the  com- 
mon trail  of  the  Indians  in  their  journeys  from  Sandusky  to  the  fork  of 
the  Ohio.  It  went  from  Fort  Sandusky,  where  Sandusky  City  now  is, 
crossed  the  Huron  river,  then  called  Bald  Eagle  Creek,  to  "  Mohickon 
John's  Town "  on  Mohickon  Creek,  the  northern  branch  of  White 
Woman's  River,  and  thence  crossed  to  Beaver's  Town,  a  Delaware  town 
on  what  is  now  Sandy  Creek.  At  Beaver's  Town  were  probably  one 
hundred  and  fifty  warriors,  and  not  less  than  three  thousand  acres  of 
cleared  land.  From  there  the  track  went  up  Sandy  Creek  to  and  across 
Big  Beaver,  and  up  the  Ohio  to  Logstown,  thence  on  to  the  fork. 

The  Northwest  Territory  was  now  entirely  under  the  English  rule. 
New  settlements  began  to  be  rapidly  made,  and  the  promise  of  a  large 
trade  was  speedily  manifested.  Had  the  British  carried  out  their  promises 
with  the  natives  none  of  those  savage  butcheries  would  have  been  perpe- 
trated, and  the  country  would  have  been  spared  their  recital. 

The  renowned  chief,  Pontiac,  was  one  of  the  leading  spirits  in  these 
atrocities.  We  will  now  pause  in  our  narrative,  and  notice  the  leading 
events  in  his  life.  The  earliest  authentic  information  regarding  this 
noted  Indian  chief  is  learned  from  an  account  of  an  Indian  trader  named 
Alexander  Henry,  who,  in  the  Spring  of  1761,  penetrated  his  domains  as 
far  as  Missillimacnac.  Pontiac  was  then  a  great  friend  of  the  French, 
but  a  bitter  foe  of  the  English,  whom  he  considered  as  encroaching  on  his 
hunting  grounds.  Henry  was  obliged  to  disguise  himself  as  a  Canadian 
to  insure  safety,  but  was  discovered  by  Pontiac,  who  bitterly  reproached 
him  and  the  English  for  their  attempted  subjugation  of  the  West.  He 
declared  that  no  treaty  had  been  made  with  them;  no  presents  sent 
them,  and  that  he  would  resent  any  possession  of  the  West  by  that  nation. 
He  was  at  the  time  about  fifty  years  of  age,  tall  and  dignified,  and  was 
civil  and  military  ruler  of  the  Ottawas,  Ojibwas  and  Pottawatamies. 

The  Indians,  from  Lake  Michigan  to  the  borders  of  North  Carolina, 
were  united  in  this  feeling,  and  at  the  time  of  the  treaty  of  Paris,  ratified 
February  10,  1763,  a   general  conspiracy  was  formed  to  fall  suddenly 


upon  the  frontier  British  posts,  and  with  one  blow  strike  every  man  dead. 
Poutiac  was  the  marked  leader  in  all  this,  and  was  the  commander 
of  the  Chippewas,  Ottawas,  Wyandots,  Miamis,  Shawanese,  Delawares 
and  Mingoes,  who  had,  for  the  time,  laid  aside  their  local  quarrels  to  \imt& 
in  this  enterprise. 

The  blow  came,  as  near  as  can  now  be  ascertained,  on  May  7,  176-'^. 
Nine  British  posts  fell,  and  the  Indians  drank,  "  scooped  up  in  the  hollow 
of  joined  hands,"  the  blood  of  many  a  Briton. 

Pontiac's  immediate  field  of  action  was  the  garrison  at  Detroit. 
Here,  however,  the  plans  were  frustrated  by  an  Indian  woman  disclosing 
the  plot  the  evening  previous  to  his  arrival.  Everything  was  carried  out, 
however,  according  to  Pontiac's  plans  until  the  moment  of  action,  when 
Major  Gladwyn,  the  commander  of  the  post,  stepping  to  one  of  the  Indian 
chiefs,  suddenly  drew  aside  his  blanket  and  disclosed  the  concealed 
musket.  Pontiac,  though  a  brave  man,  turned  pale  and  trembled.  He 
saw  his  plan  was  known,  and  that  the  garrison  were  prepared.  Ke 
endeavored  to  exculpate  himself  from  any  such  intentions  ;  but  the  guilt 
was  evident,  and  he  and  his  followers  were  dismissed  with  a  severe 
reprimand,  and  warned  never  to  again  enter  the  walls  of  the  post. 

Pontiac  at  once  laid  siege  to  the  fort,  and  until  the  treaty  of  peace 
between  the  British  and  the  Western  Indians,  concluded  in  August,  1764, 
continued  to  harass  and  besiege  the  fortress.  He  organized  a  regular 
commissariat  department,  issued  bills  of  credit  written  out  on  bark, 
which,  to  his  credit,  it  may  be  stated,  were  punctually  redeemed.  At 
the  conclusion  of  the  treaty,  in  which  it  seems  he  took  no  part,  he  went 
further  south,  living  many  yeass  among  the  Illinois. 

He  had  given  up  all  hope  of  saving  his  country  and  race.  After  a 
time  he  endeavored  to  unite  the  Illinois  tribe  and  those  about  St.  Louis 
in  a  war  with  the  whites.  His  efforts  were  fruitless,  and  only  ended  in  a 
quarrel  between  himself  and  some  Kaskaskia  Indians,  one  of  whom  soon 
afterwards  killed  him.  His  death  was,  however,  avenged  by  the  northern 
Indians,  who  nearly  exterminated  the  Illinois  in  the  wars  which  followed. 

Had  it  not  been  for  the  treachery  of  a  few  of  his  followers,  his  plan 
for  the  extermination  of  the  whites,  a  masterly  one,  would  undoubtedly 
have  been  carried  out. 

It  was  in  the  Spring  of  the  year  following  Rogers'  visit  that  Alex- 
ander Henry  went  to  Missillimacnac,  and  everywhere  found  the  strongest 
feelings  against  the  English,  who  had  not  carried  out  their  promises,  and 
were  doing  nothing  to  conciliate  the  natives.  Here  he  met  the  chief, 
Pontiac,  who,  after  conveying  to  him  in  a  speech  the  idea  that  their 
French  father  would  awake  soon  and  utterly  destroy  his  enemies,  said : 
"  Englishman,  although  you  have  conquered  the  French,  you  have  not 


yet  conquered  us  !  We  are  not  your  slaves!  These  lakes,  these  woods, 
these  mountains,  were  left  us  by  our  ancestors.  They  are  our  inheritance, 
and  we  will  part  with  them  to  none.  Your  nation  supposes  that  we,  like 
the  white  people,  can  not  live  without  bread  and  pork  and  beef.  But  you 
ought  to  know  that  He,  the  Great  Spirit  and  Master  of  Life,  has  provided 
food  for  us  upon  these  broad  lakes  and  in  these  mountains." 

He  then  spoke  of  the  fact  that  no  treaty  had  been  made  with  them, 
no  presents  sent  them,  and  that  he  and  his  people  were  yet  for  war. 
Such  were  the  feelings  of  the  Northwestern  Indians  immediately  after 
the  English  took  possession  of  their  country.  These  feelings  were  no 
doubt  encouraged  by  the  Canadians  and  French,  who  hoped  that  yet  the 
French  arms  might  prevail.  The  treaty  of  Paris,  however,  gave  to  the 
English  the  right  to  this  vast  domain,  and  active  preparations  were  going 
on  to  occupy  it  and  enjoy  its  trade  and  emoluments. 

In  1762,  France,  by  a  secret  treaty,  ceded  Louisiana  to  Spain,  to  pre- 
vent it  falling  into  the  hands  of  the  English,  who  were  becoming  masters 
of  the  entire  West.  The  next  year  the  treaty  of  Paris,  signed  at  Fon- 
tainbleau,  gave  to  the  English  the  domain  of  the  country  in  question. 
Twenty  years  after,  by  the  treaty  of  peace  between  the  United  States 
and  England,  that  part  of  Canada  lying  south  and  west  of  the  Great 
Lakes,  comprehending  a  large  territory  which  is  the  subject  of  these 
sketches,  was  acknowledged  to  be  a  portion  of  the  United  States  ;  and 
twenty  years  still  later,  in  1803,  Louisiana  was  ceded  by  Spain  back  to 
France,  and  by  France  sold  to  the  United  States. 

In  the  half  centur}^  from  the  building  of  the  Fort  of  Crevecoeur  by 
LaSalle,  in  1680,  up  to  the  erection  of  Fort  Chartres,  many  French  set- 
tlements had  been  made  in  that  quarter.  These  have  already  been 
noticed,  being  those  at  St.  Vincent  (Vincennes),  Kohokia  or  Cahokia, 
Kaskaskia  and  Prairie  du  Rocher,  on  the  American  Bottom,  a  large  tract 
of  rich  alluvial  soil  in  Illinois,  on  the  Mississippi,  opposite  the  site  of  St. 

By  the  treaty  of  Paris,  the  regions  east  of  the  Mississippi,  including 
all  these  and  other  towns  of  the  Northwest,  were  given  over  to  England; 
but  they  do  not  appear  to  have  been  taken  possession  of  until  1765,  when 
Captain  Stirling,  in  the  name  of  the  Majesty  of  England,  established  him- 
self at  Fort  Chartres  bearing  with  him  the  proclamation  of  General  Gage, 
dated  December  30,  1764,  which  promised  religious  freedom  to  all  Cath- 
olics who  worshiped  here,  and  a  right  to  leave  the  country  with  their 
effects  if  they  wished,  or  to  remain  with  the  privileges  of  Englishmen. 
It  was  shortly  after  the  occupancy  of  the  West  by  the  British  that  the 
war  with  Pontiac  opened.  It  is  already  noticed  in  the  sketch  of  that 
chieftain.     By  it  many  a  Briton  lost  his  life,  and  many  a  frontier  settle- 


ment  in  its  infancy  ceased  to  exist.  This  was  not  ended  until  the  year 
1764,  when,  failing  to  capture  Detroit,  Niagara  and  Fort  Pitt,  his  confed- 
eracy became  disheartened,  and,  receiving  no  aid  from  the  French,  Pon- 
tiac  abandoned  the  enterprise  and  departed  to  the  Illinois,  among  whom 
he  afterward  lost  his  life. 

As  soon  as  these  difficulties  were  definitely  settled,  settlers  began 
rapidly  to  survey  the  country  and  prepare  for  occupation.  During  the 
year  1770,  a  number  of  persons  from  Virginia  and  other  British  provinces 
explored  and  marked  out  nearly  all  the  valuable  lands  on  the  Mononga- 
hela  and  along  the  banks  of  the  Ohio  as  far  as  the  Little  Kanawha.  This 
was  followed  by  another  exploring  expedition,  in  which  George  Washing- 
ton was  a  party.  The  latter,  accompanied  by  Dr.  Craik,  Capt.  Crawford 
and  others,  on  the  20th  of  October,  1770,  descended  the  Ohio  from  Pitts- 
burgh to  the  mouth  of  the  Kanawha  ;  ascended  that  stream  about  fourteen 
miles,  marked  out  several  large  tracts  of  land,  shot  several  buffalo,  which 
were  then  abundant  in  the  Ohio  Valley,  and  returned  to  the  fort. 

Pittsburgh  Avas  at  this  time  a  trading  post,  about  which  was  clus- 
tered a  village  of  some  twenty  houses,  inhabited  by  Indian  traders.  This 
same  year,  Capt.  Pittman  visited  Kaskaskia  and  its  neighboring  villages. 
He  found  there  about  sixty-five  resident  families,  and  at  Cahokia  only 
fortj^-five  dwellings.  At  Fort  Chartres  was  another  small  settlement,  and 
at  Detroit  the  garrison  were  quite  prosperous  and  strong.  For  a  year 
or  two  settlers  continued  to  locate  near  some  of  these  posts,  generally 
Fort  Pitt  or  Detroit,  owing  to  the  fears  of  the  Indians,  who  still  main- 
tained some  feelings  of  hatred  to  the  English.  The  trade  from  the  posts 
was  quite  good,  and  from  those  in  Illinois  large  quantities  of  pork  and 
flour  found  their  way  to  the  New  Orleans  market.  At  this  time  the 
policy  of  the  British  Government  was  strongly  opposed  to  the  extension 
of  the  colonies  west.  In  1763,  the  King  of  England  forbade,  by  roj-al 
proclamation,  his  colonial  subjects  from  making  a  settlement  beyond  the 
sources  of  the  rivers  which  fall  into  the  Atlantic  Ocean.  At  the  instance 
of  the  Board  of  Trade,  measures  were  taken  to  prevent  the  settlement 
without  the  limits  prescribed,  and  to  retain  the  commerce  within  easy 
reach  of  Great  Britain. 

The  commander-in-chief  of  the  king's  forces  wrote  in  17G9  :  "  In  the 
course  of  a  few  years  necessity  will  compel  the  colonists,  should  they 
extend  their  settlements  west,  to  provide  manufactures  of  some  kind  for 
themselves,  and  when  all  connection  upheld  by  commerce  with  the  mother 
country  ceases,  an  independency  in  their  government  will  soon  follow.'' 

In  accordance  with  this  policy,  Gov.  Gage  issued  a  proclamation 
in  1772,  commanding  the  inhabitants  of  Vincennes  to  abandon  their  set- 
tlements and  join  some  of  the  Eastern  English  colonies.     To  this  they 


strenuously  objected,  giving  good  reasons  therefor,  and  were  allowed  to 
remain.  The  strong  opposition  to  this  policy  of  Great  Britain  led  to  its 
change,  and  to  such  a  course  as  to  gain  the  attachment  of  the  French 
population.  In  December,  1773,  influential  citizens  of  Quebec  petitioned 
the  king  for  an  extension  of  the  boundary  lines  of  that  province,  which 
was  granted,  and  Parliament  passed  an  act  on  June  2,  1774,  extend- 
ing the  boundary  so  as  to  include  the  territory  lying  within  the  present 
States  of  Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois  and  Michigan. 

In  consequence  of  the  liberal  policy  pursued  by  the  British  Govern- 
ment toward  the  French  settlers  in  the  West,  they  were  disposed  to  favor 
that  nation  in  the  war  which  soon  followed  with  the  colonies ;  but  the 
early  alliance  between  France  and  America  soon  brought  them  to  the  side 
of  the  war  for  independence. 

In  1774,  Gov.  Dunmore,  of  Virginia,  began  to  encourage  emigration 
to  the  Western  lands.  He  appointed  magistrates  at  Fort  Pitt  under  the 
pretense  that  the  fort  was  under  the  government  of  that  commonwealth. 
One  of  these  justices,  John  Connelly,  who  possessed  a  tract  of  land  in  the 
Ohio  Valley,  gathered  a  force  of  men  and  garrisoned  the  fort,  calling  it 
Fort  Dunmore.  This  and  other  parties  were  formed  to  select  sites  for 
settlements,  and  often  came  in  conflict  with  the  Indians,  who  yet  claimed 
portions  of  the  valley,  and  several  battles  followed.  These  ended  in  the 
famous  battle  of  Kanawha  in  July,  where  the  Indians  were  defeated  and 
driven  across  the  Ohio. 

During  the  years  1775  and  1776,  by  the  operations  of  land  companies 
and  the  perseverance  of  individuals,  several  settlements  were  firmly  estab- 
lished between  the  Alleghanies  and  the  Ohio  River,  and  western  land 
speculators  were  busy  in  Illinois  and  on  the  Wabash.  At  a  council  held 
in  Kaskaskia  on  July  5,  1773,  an  association  of  English  traders,  calling 
themselves  the  "Illinois  Land  Company,"  obtained  from  ten  chiefs  of  the 
Kaskaskia,  Cahokia  and  Peoria  tribes  two  large  tracts  of  land  lying  on 
the  east  side  of  the  Mississippi  River  south  of  the  Illinois.  In  1775,  a  mer- 
chant from  the  Illinois  Country,  named  Viviat,  came  to  Post  Vincennes 
as  the  agent  of  the  association  called  the  "  Wabash  Land  Company."  On 
the  8th  of  October  he  obtained  from  eleven  Piankeshaw  chiefs,  a  deed  for 
37,497,600  acres  of  land.  This  deed  was  signed  by  the  grantors,  attested 
by  a  number  of  the  inhabitants  of  Vincennes,  and  afterward  recorded  in 
the  office  of  a  notary  public  at  Kaskaskia.  This  and  other  land  com- 
panies had  extensive  schemes  for  the  colonization  of  the  West ;  but  all 
were  frustrated  by  the  breaking  out  of  the  Revolution.  On  the  20th  of 
April,  1780,  the  two  companies  named  consolidated  under  the  name  of  the 
"  United  Illinois  and  Wabash  Land  Company."     They  afterward  made 


strenuous  efforts  to  have  these  grants  sanctioned  by  Congress,  but  all 
signally  failed. 

When  the  War  of  the  Revolution  commenced,  Kentucky  was  an  unor- 
ganized countr}',  though  there  were  several  settlements  within  her  borders. 

In  Hutchins'  Topography  of  Virginia,  it  is  stated  that  at  that  time 
"  Kaskaskia  contained  80  houses,  and  nearly  1,000  white  and  black  in- 
habitants —  the  whites  being  a  little  the  more  numerous.  Cahokia  con- 
tains 50  houses  and  300  white  inhabitants,  and  80  negroes.  There  were 
east  of  the  Mississippi  River,  about  the  year  1771  " — when  these  observa- 
tions were  made  — "  300  white  men  capable  of  bearing  arms,  and  230 

From  1775  until  the  expedition  of  Clark,  nothing  is  recorded  and 
nothing  known  of  these  settlements,  save  what  is  contained  in  a  report 
made  by  a  committee  to  Congress  in  June,  1778.  From  it  the  following 
extract  is  made  : 

"  Near  the  mouth  of  the  River  Kaskaskia,  there  is  a  village  which 
appears  to  have  contained  nearly  eighty  families  from  the  beginning  of 
the  late  revolution.  There  are  twelve  families  in  a  small  village  at  la 
Prairie  du  Rochers,  and  near  fifty  families  at  the  Kahokia  Village.  There 
are  also  four  or  five  families  at  Fort  Chartres  and  St.  Philips,  which  is  five 
miles  further  up  the  river." 

St.  Louis  had  been  settled  in  February,  1764,  and  at  this  time  con- 
tained, including  its  neighboring  towns,  over  six  hundred  whites  and  one 
hundred  and  fifty  negroes.  It  must  be  remembered  that  all  the  country 
west  of  the  Mississijipi  was  now  under  French  rule,  and  remained  so  until 
ceded  again  to  Spain,  its  original  owner,  who  afterwards  sold  it  and  the 
country  including  New  Orleans  to  the  United  States.  At  Detroit  there 
were,  according  to  Capt.  Carver,  who  was  in  the  Northwest  from  1766  to 
1768,  more  than  one  hundred  houses,  and  the  river  was  settled  for  more 
than  twenty  miles,  although  poorly  cultivated — the  people  being  engaged 
in  the  Indian  trade.  This  old  town  has  a  history,  which  we  will  here 

It  is  the  oldest  town  in  the  Northwest,  having  been  founded  by 
Antoine  de  Lamotte  Cadillac,  in  1701.  It  was  laid  out  in  the  form  of  an 
oblong  square,  of  two  acres  in  length,  and  an  acre  and  a  half  in  width. 
As  described  by  A.  D.  Frazer,  who  first  visited  it  and  became  a  permanent 
resident  of  the  place,  in  1778,  it  comprised  within  its  limits  that  space 
between  Mr.  Palmer's  store  (Conant  Block)  and  Capt.  Perkins'  house 
(near  the  Arsenal  building),  and  extended  back  as  far  as  the  public  barn, 
and  was  bordered  in  front  by  the  Detroit  River.  It  was  surrounded  by 
oak  and  cedar  pickets,  about  fifteen  feet  long,  set  in  the  ground,  and  had 
four  gates  —  east,  west,  north  and  south.     Over  the  first  three  of  these 


gates  were  block  houses  provided  with  four  guns  apiece,  each  a  six- 
pounder.  Two  six-gun  batteries  were  planted  fronting  the  river  and  in  a 
parallel  direction  with  the  block  houses.  There  were  four  streets  running 
east  and  west,  the  main  street  being  twenty  feet  wide  and  the  rest  fifteen 
feet,  while  the  four  streets  crossing  these  at  right  angles  were  from  ten 
to  fifteen  feet  in  width. 

At  the  date  spoken  of  by  Mr.  Frazer,  there  was  no  fort  within  the 
enclosure,  but  a  citadel  on  the  ground  corresponding  to  the  present 
northwest  corner  of  Jefferson  Avenue  and  Wayne  Street.  The  citadel  was 
inclosed  by  pickets,  and  within  it  were  erected  barracks  of  wood,  two 
stories  high,  sufficient  to  contain  ten  officers,  and  also  barracks  sufficient 
to  contain  four  hundred  men,  and  a  provision  store  built  of  brick.  The 
citadel  also  contained  a  hospital  and  guard-house.  The  old  town  of 
Detroit,  in  1778,  contained  about  sixty  houses,  most  of  them  one  story, 
with  a  few  a  story  and  a  half  in  height.  They  were  all  of  logs,  some 
hewn  and  some  round.  There  was  one  building  of  splendid  appearance, 
called  the  "  King's  Palace,"  two  stories  high,  which  stood  near  the  east 
gate.  It  was  built  for  Governor  Hamilton,  the  first  governor  commissioned 
by  the  British.  There  were  two  guard-houses,  one  near  the  west  gate  and 
the  other  near  the  Government  House.  Each  of  the  guards  consisted  of 
twenty-four  men  and  a  subaltern,  who  mounted  regularly  every  morning 
between  nine  and  ten  o'clock,  Each  furnished  four  sentinels,  who  were 
relieved  every  two  hours.  There  was  also  an  officer  of  the  day,  who  per- 
formed strict  duty.  Each  of  the  gates  was  shut  regularly  at  sunset, 
even  wicket  gates  were  shut  at  nine  o'clock,  and  all  the  keys  were 
delivered  into  the  hands  of  the  commanding  officer.  They  were  opened 
in  the  morning  at  sunrise.  No  Indian  or  squaw  was  permitted  to  enter 
town  with  any  weapon,  such  as  a  tomahawk  or  a  knife.  It  was  a  stand- 
ing order  that  the  Indians  should  deliver  their  arms  and  instruments  of 
every  kind  before  they  were  permitted  to  pass  the  sentinel,  and  they  were 
restored  to  them  on  their  return.  No  more  than  twenty-five  Indians  were 
allowed  to  enter  the  town  at  any  one  time,  and  they  were  admitted  only 
at  the  east  and  west  gates.  At  sundown  the  drums  beat,  and  all  the 
Indians  were  required  to  leave  town  instantly.  There  was  a  council  house 
near  the  water  side  for  the  purpose  of  holding  council  with  the  Indians. 
The  population  of  the  town  was  about  sixty  families,  in  all  about  two 
hundred  males  and  one  hundred  females.  This  town  was  destroyed  by 
fire,  all  except  one  dwelling,  in  1805.  After  which  the  present  "  new  " 
town  was  laid  out. 

On  the  breaking  out  of  the  Revolution,  the  British  held  every  post  of 
importance  in  the  West.  Kentucky  was  formed  as  a  component  part  of 
Virginia,  and  the  sturdy  pioneers  of  the  West,  alive  to  their  interests, 


and  recognizing  the  great  benefits  of  obtaining  the  control  of  the  trade  in 
this  part  of  the  New  World,  held  steadily  to  their  purposes,  and  those 
within  the  commonwealth  of  Kentucky  proceeded  to  exercise  their 
civil  privileges,  by  electing  John  Todd  and  Richard  Gallaway» 
burgesses  to  represent  them  in  the  Assembly  of  the  parent  state. 
Early  in  September  of  that  year  (1777)  the  first  court  was  held 
in  Harrodsburg,  and  Col.  Bowman,  afterwards  major,  who  had  arrived 
in  August,  was  made  the  commander  of  a  militia  organization  which 
had  been  commenced  the  March  previous.  Thus  the  tree  of  loyalty 
was  growing.  The  chief  spirit  in  this  far-out  colony,  who  had  represented 
her  the  year  previous  east  of  the  mountains,  was  now  meditating  a  move 
unequaled  in  its  boldness.  He  had  been  watching  the  movements  of  the 
British  throughout  the  Northwest,  and  understood  their  whole  plan.  He 
saw  it  was  through  their  possession  of  the  posts  at  Detroit,  Vincennes, 
Kaskaskia,  and  other  places,  which  would  give  them  constant  and  easy 
access  to  the  various  Indian  tribes  in  the  Northwest,  that  the  British 
intended  to  penetrate  the  country  from  the  north  and  soutn,  ana  annihi- 
late the  frontier  fortresses.  This  moving,  energetic  man  was  Colonel, 
afterwards  General,  George  Rogers  Clark.  He  knew  the  Indians  were  not 
unanimously  in  accord  with  the  English,  and  he  was  convinced  that,  could 
the  British  be  defeated  and  expelled  from  the  Northwest,  the  natives 
might  be  easily  awed  into  neutrality ;  and  by  spies  sent  for  the  purpose, 
he  satisfied  himself  that  the  enterprise  against  the  Illinois  settlements 
might  easily  succeed.  Having  convinced  himself  of  the  certainty  of  the 
project,  he  repaired  to  the  Capital  of  Virginia,  which  place  he  reached  on 
November  5th.  While  he  was  on  his  way,  fortunately,  on  October  17th, 
Burgoyne  had  been  defeated,  and  the  spirits  of  the  colonists  greatly 
encouraged  thereby.  Patrick  Henry  was  Governor  of  Virginia,  and  at 
once  entered  heartily  into  Clark's  plans.  The  same  plan  had  before  been 
agitated  in  the  Colonial  Assemblies,  but  there  was  no  one  until  Clark 
came  who  was  sufficiently  acquainted  with  the  condition  of  affairs  at  the 
scene  of  action  to  be  able  to  guide  them. 

Clark,  having  satisfied  the  Virginia  leaders  of  the  feasibility  of  his 
plan,  received,  on  the  2d  of  January,  two  sets  of  instructions — one  secret, 
the  other  open  —  the  latter  authorized  him  to  proceed  to  enlist  seven 
companies  to  go  to  Kentucky,  subject  to  his  orders,  and  to  serve  three 
months  from  their  arrival  in  the  West.  The  secret  order  authorized  him 
to  arm  these  troops,  to  procure  his  powder  and  lead  of  General  Hand 
at  Pittsburgh,  and  to  proceed  at  once  to  subjugate  the  country. 

With  these  instructions  Clark  repaired  to  Pittsburgh,  choosing  rather 
to  raise  his  men  west  of  the  mountains,  as  he  well  knew  all  were  needed 
in  the  colonies  in  the  conflict  there.     He  sent  Col.  W.  B.  Smith  to  Hoi- 


ston  for  the  same  purpose,  but  neither  succeeded  in  raising  the  required 
number  of  men.  The  settlers  in  these  parts  were  afraid  to  leave  their 
own  firesides  exposed  to  a  vigilant  foe,  and  but  few  could  be  induced  to 
join  the  proposed  expedition.  With  three  companies  and  several  private 
volunteers,  Clark  at  length  commenced  his  descent  of  the  Ohio,  which  he 
navigated  as  far  as  the  Falls,  where  he  took  possession  of  and  fortified 
Corn  Island,  a  small  island  between  the  present  Cities  of  Louisville, 
Kentucky,  and  New  Albany,  Indiana.  Remains  of  this  fortification  may 
yet  be  found.  At  this  place  he  appointed  Col.  Bowman  to  meet  him 
with  such  recruits  as  had  reached  Kentucky  by  the  southern  route,  and 
as  many  as  could  be  spared  from  the  station.  Here  he  announced  to 
the  men  their  real  destination.  Having  completed  his  arrangements, 
and  chosen  his  party,  he  left  a  small  garrison  upon  the  island,  and  on  the 
2-ith  of  June,  during  a  total  eclipse  of  the  sun,  which  to  them  augured 
no  good,  and  which  fixes  beyond  dispute  the  date  of  starting,  he  with 
his  chosen  band,  fell  down  the  river.  His  plan  was  to  go  by  water  as 
far  as  Fort  Massac  or  Massacre,  and  thence  march  direct  to  Kaskaskia. 
Here  he  intended  to  surprise  the  garrison,  and  after  its  capture  go  to 
Cahokia,  then  to  Vincennes,  and  lastly  to  Detroit.  Should  he  fail,  he 
intended  to  march  directly  to  the  Mississippi  River  and  cross  it  into  the 
Spanish  country.  Before  his  start  he  received  two  good  items  of  infor- 
mation :  one  that  the  alliance  had  been  formed  between  France  and  the 
United  States ;  and  the  other  that  the  Indians  throughout  the  Illinois 
country  and  the  inhabitants,  at  the  various  frontier  posts,  had  been  led  to 
believe  by  the  British  that  the  "  Long  Knives  "  or  Virginians,  were  the 
most  fierce,  bloodthirsty  and  cruel  savages  that  ever  scalped  a  foe.  With 
this  impression  on  their  minds,  Clark  saw  that  proper  management  would 
cause  them  to  submit  at  once  from  fear,  if  surprised,  and  then  from  grati- 
tude would  become  friendly  if  treated  with  unexpected  leniency. 

The  march  to  Kaskaskia  was  accomplished  through  a  hot  July  sun, 
and  the  town  reached  on  the  evening  of  July  4.  He  captured  the  fort 
near  the  village,  and  soon  after  the  village  itself  by  surprise,  and  without 
the  loss  of  a  single  man  or  by  killing  any  of  the  enemy.  After  sufi&ciently 
working  upon  the  fears  of  the  natives,  Clark  told  them  they  were  at  j)er- 
fect  liberty  to  worship  as  they  pleased,  and  to  take  whichever  side  of  the 
great  conflict  they  would,  also  he  would  protect  them  from  any  barbarity 
from  British  or  Indian  foe.  This  had  the  desired  effect,  and  the  inhab- 
itants, so  unexpectedly  and  so  gratefully  surprised  by  the  unlooked 
for  turn  of  affairs,  at  once  swore  allegiance  to  the  American  arms,  and 
when  Clark  desired  to  go  to  Cahokia  on  the  6th  of  July,  they  accom- 
panied him,  and  through  their  influence  the  inhabitants  of  the  place 
surrendered,  and  gladly  placed  themselves  under  his  protection.     Thus 


the  two  important  posts  in  Illinois  passed  from  the  hands  of  the  English 
into  the  possession  of  Virginia. 

In  the  person  of  the  priest  at  Kaskaskia,  M.  Gibault,  Clark  found  a 
powerful  ally  and  generous  friend.  Clark  saw  that,  to  retain  possession 
of  the  Northwest  and  treat  successfully  with  the  Indians  within  its  boun- 
daries, he  must  establish  a  government  for  the  colonies  he  had  taken. 
St.  Vincent,  the  next  important  post  to  Detroit,remained  yet  to  be  taken 
before  the  Mississippi  Valley  was  conquered.  M.  Gibault  told  him  that 
he  would  alone,  by  persuasion,  lead  Vincennes  to  throw  off  its  connection 
with  England.  Clark  gladly  accepted  his  offer,  and  on  the  14th  of  July, 
in  company  with  a  fellow-townsman,  M.  Gibault  started  on  his  mission  of 
peace,  and  on  the  1st  of  August  returned  with  the  cheerful  intelligence 
that  the  post  on  the  "  Oubache  "  had  taken  the  oath  of  allegiance  to 
the  Old  Dominion.  During  this  interval,  Clark  established  his  courts, 
placed  garrisons  at  Kaskaskia  and  Cahokia,  successfully  re-enlisted  his 
men,  sent  word  to  have  a  fort,  which  proved  the  germ  of  Louisville, 
erected  at  the  Falls  of  the  Ohio,  and  dispatched  Mr.  Rocheblave,  who 
had  been  commander  at  Kaskaskia,  as  a  prisoner  of  war  to  Richmond. 
In  October  the  County  of  Illinois  was  established  by  the  Legislature 
of  Virginia,  John  Todd  appointed  Lieutenant  Colonel  and  Civil  Governor, 
and  in  November  General  Clark  and  his  men  received  the  thanks  of 
the  Old  Dominion  through  their  Legislature. 

In  a  speech  a  few  days  afterward,  Clark  made  known  fully  to  the 
natives  his  plans,  and  at  its  close  all  came  forward  and  swore  alle- 
giance to  the  Long  Knives.  While  he  was  doing  this  Governor  Hamilton, 
having  made  his  various  arrangements,  had  left  Detroit  and  moved  down 
the  Wabash  to  Vincennes  intending  to  operate  from  that  point  in  reducing 
the  Illinois  posts,  and  then  proceed  on  down  to  Kentucky  and  drive  the 
rebels  from  the  West.  Gen.  Clark  had,  on  the  return  of  M.  Gibault, 
dispatched  Captain  Helm,  of  Fauquier  County,  Virginia,  with  an  attend- 
ant named  Henry,  across  the  Illinois  prairies  to  command  the  fort. 
Hamilton  knew  nothing  of  the  capitulation  of  the  post,  and  was  greatly 
surprised  on  his  arrival  to  be  confronted  by  Capt.  Helm,  who,  standing  at 
the  entrance  of  the  fort  by  a  loaded  cannon  ready  to  fire  upon  his  assail- 
ants, demanded  upon  what  terms  Hamilton  demanded  possession  of  the 
fort.  Being  granted  the  rights  of  a  prisoner  of  war,  he  surrendered  to 
the  British  General,  who  could  scarcely  believe  his  eyes  when  he  saw  the 
force  in  the  garrison. 

Hamilton,  not  realizing  the  character  of  the  men  with  whom  he  was 
contending,  gave  up  his  intended  campaign  for  the  Winter,  sent  his  four 
Jiundred  Indian  wan'iors  to  prevent  troops  from  coming  down  the  Ohio, 


and  to  annoy  the  Americans  in  all  ways,  and  sat  quietly  down  to  pass  the 
Winter.  Information  of  all  these  proceedings  having  reached  Clark,  he 
saw  that  immediate  and  decisive  action  was  necessary,  and  that  unless 
he  captured  Hamilton,  Hamilton  would  capture  him.  Clark  received  the 
news  on  the  29th  of  January,  1779,  and  on  February  4th,  having  suffi- 
ciently garrisoned  Kaskaskia  and  Cahokia,  he  sent  down  the  Mississippi 
a  "  battoe,"  as  Major  Bowman  writes  it,  in  order  to  ascend  the  Ohio  and 
Wabash,  and  operate  with  the  land  forces  gathering  for  the  fray. 

On  the  next  day,  Clark,  with  his  little  force  of  one  hundred  and 
twenty  men,  set  out  for  the  post,  and  after  incredible  hard  marching 
through  much  mud,  the  ground  being  thawed  by  the  incessant  spring 
rains,  on  the  22d  reached  the  fort,  and  being  joined  by  his  "battoe,"  at 
once  commenced  the  attack  on  the  post.  The  aim  of  the  American  back- 
woodsman was  unerring,  and  on  the  24th  the  garrison  surrendered  to  the 
intrepid  boldness  of  Clark.  The  French  were  treated  with  great  kind- 
ness, and  gladly  renewed  their  allegiance  to  Virginia.  Hamilton  was 
sent  as  a  prisoner  to  Virginia,  where  he  was  kept  in  close  confinement. 
During  his  command  of  the  British  frontier  posts,  he  had  offered  prizes 
to  the  Indians  for  all  the  scalps  of  Americans  they  would  bring  to  him, 
and  had  earned  in  consequence  thereof  the  title  "  Hair-buyer  General," 
by  which  he  was  ever  afterward  known. 

Detroit  was  now  without  doubt  within  easy  reach  of  the  enterprising 
Virginian,  could  he  but  raise  the  necessary  force.  Governor  Henry  being 
apprised  of  this,  promised  him  the  needed  reinforcement,  and  Clark  con- 
cluded to  wait  until  he  could  capture  and  sufficiently  garrison  the  posts. 
Had  Clark  failed  in  this  bold  undertaking,  and  Hamilton  succeeded  in 
uniting  the  western  Indians  for  the  next  Spring's  campaign,  the  West 
would  indeed  have  been  swept  from  the  Mississippi  to  the  Allegheny 
Mountains,  and  the  great  blow  struck,  which  had  been  contemplated  from 
the  commencement,  by  the  British. 

"But  for  this  small  army  of  dripping,  but  fearless  Virginians,  the 
union  of  all  the  tribes  from  Georgia  to  Maine  against  the  colonies  might 
have  been  effected,  and  the  whole  current  of  our  history  changed." 

•At  this  time  some  fears  were  entertained  by  the  Colonial  Govern- 
ments that  the  Indians  in  the  North  and  Northwest  were  inclining  to  the 
British,  and  under  the  instructions  of  Washington,  now  Commander-in- 
Chief  of  the  Colonial  army,  and  so  bravely  fighting  for  American  inde- 
pendence, armed  forces  were  sent  against  the  Six  Nations,  and  upon  the 
Ohio  frontier,  Col.  Bowman,  acting  under  the  same  general's  orders, 
marched  against  Indians  within  the  present  limits  of  that  State.  These 
expeditions  were  in  the  main  successful,  and  the  Indians  were  compelled 
to  sue  for  peace. 


During  this  same  year  (1779)  the  famous  "  Land  Laws"  of  Virginia 
were  passed.  The  passage  of  these  laws  was  of  more  consequence  to  the 
pioneers  of  Kentucky  and  the  Northwest  than  the  gaining  of  a  few  Indian 
conflicts.  These  laws  confirmed  in  main  all  grants  made,  and  guaranteed 
to  all  actual  settlers  their  rights  and  privileges.  After  providing  for  the 
settlers,  the  laws  provided  for  selling  the  balance  of  the  public  lands  at 
forty  cents  per  acre.  To  carry  the  Land  Laws  into  effect,  the  Legislature 
sent  four  Virginians  westward  to  attend  to  the  various  claims,  over  many 
of  which  great  confusion  prevailed  concerning  their  validity.  These 
gentlemen  opened  their  court  on  October  13,  1779,  at  St.  Asaphs,  and 
continued  until  April  26,  1780,  when  they  adjourned,  having  decided 
three  ..thousand  claims.  They  were  succeeded  by  the  surveyor,  who 
came  in  the  person  of  Mr.  George  May,  and  assumed  his  duties  on  the 
10th  day  of  the  month  whose  name  he  bore.  With  the  opening  of  the 
next  year  (1780)  the  troubles  concerning  the  navigation  of  the  Missis- 
sippi commenced.  The  Spanish  Government  exacted  such  measures  in 
relation  to  its  trade  as  to  cause  the  overtures  made  to  the  United  States 
to  be  rejected.  The  American  Government  considered  they  had  a  right 
to  navigate  its  channel.  To  enforce  their  claims,  a  fort  was  erected  below 
the  mouth  of  the  Ohio  on  the  Kentucky  side  of  the  river.  The  settle- 
ments in  Kentucky  were  being  rapidly  filled  by  emigrants.  It  was  dur- 
ing this  year  that  the  first  seminary  of  learning  was  established  in  the 
West  in  this  young  and  enterprising  Commonwealth. 

The  settlers  here  did  not  look  upon  the  building  of  this  fort  in  a 
friendly  manner,  as  it  aroused  the  hostility  of  the  Indians.  Spain  had 
been  friendly  to  the  Colonies  during  their  struggle  for  independence, 
and  though  for  a  while  this  friendship  appeared  in  danger  from  the 
refusal  of  the  free  navigation  of  the  river,  yet  it  was  finally  settled  to  the 
satisfaction  of  both  nations. 

The  Winter  of  1779-80  was  one  of  the  most  unusually  severe  ones 
ever  experienced  in  the  West.  The  Indians  always  referred  to  it  as  the 
"Great  Cold."  Numbers  of  wild  animals  perished,  and  not  a  few 
pioneers  lost  their  lives.  The  following  Summer  a  party  of  Canadians 
and  Indians  attacked  St.  Louis,  and  attempted  to  take  possession  of  it 
in  consequence  of  the  friendly  disposition  of  Spain  to  the  revolting 
colonies.  They  met  with  such  a  determined  resistance  on  the  part  of  the 
inhabitants,  even  the  women  taking  part  in  the  battle,  that  they  weie 
compelled  to  abandon  the  contest.  They  also  made  an  attack  on  the 
settlements  in  Kentucky,  but,  becoming  alarmed  in  some  unaccountable 
manner,  they  fled  the  country  in  great  haste. 

About  this  time  arose  the  question  in  the  Colonial  Congress  con- 
cerning the  western  lands  claimed  by  Virginia,  New  York,  Massachusetts 


and  Connecticut.  The  agitation  concerning  this  subject  finally  led  New 
York,  on  the  19th  of  February,  1780,  to  pass  a  law  giving  to  the  dele- 
gates of  that  State  in  Congress  the  power  to  cede  her  western  lands  for 
the  benefit  of  the  United  States.  This  law  was  laid  before  Congress 
during  the  next  month,  but  no  steps  were  taken  concerning  it  until  Sep- 
tember 6th,  when  a  resolution  passed  that  body  calling  upon  the  States 
claiming  western  lands  to  release  their  claims  in  favor  of  the  whole  body. 
This  basis  formed  the  union,  and  was  the  first  after  all  of  those  legislative 
measures  which  resulted  in  the  creation  of  the  States  of  Ohio,  Indiana, 
Illinois,  Michigan,  Wisconsin  and  Minnesota.  In  December  of  the  same 
year,  the  plan  of  conquering  Detroit  again  arose.  The  conquest  might 
have  easily  been  effected  by  Clark  had  the  necessary  aid  been  furnished 
him.  Nothing  decisive  was  done,  yet  the  heads  of  the  Government  knew 
that  the  safety  of  the  Northwest  from  British  invasion  lay  in  the  capture 
and  retention  of  that  important  post,  the  only  unconquered  one  in  the 

Before  the  close  of  the  year,  Kentucky  was  divided  into  the  Coun- 
ties of  Lincoln,  Fayette  and  Jefferson,  and  the  act  establishing  the  Town 
of  Louisville  was  passed.  This  same  year  is  also  noted  in  the  annals  of 
American  history  as  the  year  in  which  occurred  Arnold's  treason  to  the 
United  States. 

Virginia,  in  accordance  with  the  resolution  of  Congress,  on  the  2d 
day  of  January,  1781,  agreed  to  yield  her  western  lands  to  the  United 
States  upon  certain  conditions,  which  Congress  would  not  accede  to,  and 
the  Act  of  Cession,  on  the  part  of  the  Old  Dominion,  failed,  nor  was 
anything  farther  done  until  1783.  During  all  that  time  the  Colonies 
were  busily  engaged  in  the  struggle  with  the  mother  country,  and  in 
consequence  thereof  but  little  heed  was  given  to  the  western  settlements. 
Upon  the  4th  of  July,  1773,  the  first  birth  north  of  the  Ohio  River  of 
American  parentage  occurred,  being  that  of  John  L.  Roth,  son  of  John 
Roth,  one  of  the  Moravian  missionaries,  whose  band  of  Christian  Indians 
sufi'ered  in  after  years  a  horrible  massacre  by  the  hands  of  the  frontier 
settlers,  who  had  been  exasperated  by  the  murder  of  several  of  their 
neighbors,  and  in  their  rage  committed,  without  regard  to  humanity,  a 
deed  which  forever  afterward  cast  a  shade  of  shame  upon  their  lives. 
For  this  and  kindred  outrages  on  the  part  of  the  whites,  the  Indians 
committed  many  deeds  of  cruelty  which  darken  the  years  of  1771  and 
1772  in  the  history  of  the  Northwest. 

During  the  year  1782  a  number  of  battles  among  the  Indians  and 
frontiersmen  occurred,  and  between  the  Moravian  Indians  and  the  Wyan- 
dots.  In  these,  horrible  acts  of  cruelty  were  practised  on  the  captives, 
many  of  such  dark  deeds  transpiring  under  the  leadership  of  the  notorious 



frontier  outlaw,  Simon  Girty,  whose  name,  as  well  as  those  of  his  brothers, 
was  a  terror  to  women  and  children.  These  occurred  chiefly  in  the  Ohio 
valleys.  Cotemporary  with  them  were  several  engagements  in  Kentucky, 
in  which  the  famous  Daniel  Boone  engaged,  and  who,  often  by  his  skill 
and  knowledge  of  Indian  warfare,  saved  the  outposts  from  cruel  destruc- 
tion. By  the  close  of  the  year  victory  had  perched  upon  the  American 
banner,  and  on  the  30th  of  November,  provisional  articles  of  peace  had 
been  arranged  between  the  Commissioners  of  England  and  her  uncon- 
querable colonies.  Cornwallis  had  been  defeated  on  the  19th  of  October 
preceding,  and  the  liberty  of  America  was  assured.  On  the  19th  of 
April  following,  the  anniversary  of  the  battle  of  Lexington,  peace  was 
proclaimed  to  the  army  of  the  United  States,  and  on  the  3d  of  the  next 
September,  the  definite  treaty  which  ended  our  revolutionary  struggle 
was  concluded.  By  the  terms  of  that  treaty,  the  boundaries  of  the  West 
were  as  follows :  On  the  north  the  line  was  to  extend  along  the  center  of 
the  Great  Lakes ;  from  the  western  point  of  Lake  Superior  to  Long  Lake ; 
thence  to  the  Lake  of  the  Woods ;  thence  to  the  head  of  the  Mississippi 
River  ;  down  its  center  to  the  31st  parallel  of  latitude,  then  on  that  line 
east  to  the  head  of  the  Appalachicola  River  ;  down  its  center  to  its  junc- 
tion with  the  Flint ;  thence  straight  to  the  head  of  St.  Mary's  River,  and 
thence  down  along  its  center  to  the  Atlantic  Ocean. 

Following  the  cessation  of  hostilities  with  England,  several  posts 
were  still  occupied  by  the  British  in  the  North  and  West.  Among  these 
was  Detroit,  still  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  Numerous  engagements 
with  the  Indians  throughout  Ohio  and  Indiana  occurred,  upon  whose 
lands  adventurous  whites  would  settle  ere  the  title  had  been  acquired  by 
the  proper  treaty. 

To  remedy  this  latter  evil.  Congress  appointed  commissioners  to 
treat  with  the  natives  and  purchase  their  lands,  and  prohibited  the  settle- 
ment of  the  territory  until  this  could  be  done.  Before  the  close  of  the 
3;  ear  another  attempt  was  made  to  capture  Detroit,  which  was,  however, 
not  pushed,  and  Virginia,  no  longer  feeling  the  interest  in  the  Northwest 
she  had  formerly  done,  withdrew  her  troops,  having  on  the  20th  of 
December  preceding  authorized  the  whole  of  her  possessions  to  be  deeded 
to  the  United  States.  This  was  done  on  the  1st  of  March  following,  and 
the  Northwest  Territory  passed  from  the  control  of  the  Old  Dominion. 
To  Gen.  Clark  and  his  soldiers,  however,  she  gave  a  tract  of  one  hundred 
and  fifty  thousand  acres  of  land,  to  be  situated  any  where  north  of  the 
Ohio  wherever  they  choose  to  locate  them.  They  selected  the  region 
opposite  the  falls  of  the  Ohio,  where  is  now  the  dilapidated  village  of 
Clarksville,  about  midway  between  the  cities  of  New  Albany  and  Jeffer- 
son ville,  Indiana. 


While  the  frontier  remained  thus,  and  Gen.  Haldimand  at  Detroit 
refused  to  evacuate,  alleging  that  he  had  no  orders  from  his  King  to  do 
so,  settlers  were  rapidly  gathering  about  the  inland  forts.  In  the  Spring 
of  1784,  Pittsburgh  was  regularly  laid  out,  and  from  the  journal  of  Arthur 
Lee,  who  passed  through  the  town  soon  after  on  his  way  to  the  Indian 
council  at  Fort  Mcintosh,  we  suppose  it  was  not  very  prepossessing  in 
appearance.     He  says : 

''  Pittsburgh  is  inhabited  almost  entirely  by  Scots  and  Irish,  who 
live  in  paltry  log  houses,  and  are  as  dirty  as  if  in  the  north  of  Ireland  or 
even  Scotland.  There  is  a  great  deal  of  trade  carried  on,  the  goods  being 
brought  at  the  vast  expense  of  forty-five  shillings  per  pound  from  Phila- 
delphia and  Baltimore.  They  take  in  the  shops  flour,  wheat,  skins  and 
money.  There  are  in  the  town  four  attorneys,  two  doctors,  and  not  a 
priest  of  any  persuasion,  nor  church  nor  chapel." 

Kentucky  at  this  time  contained  thirty  thousand  inhabitants,  and 
was  beginning  to  discuss  measures  for  a  separation  from  Virginia.  A 
land  office  was  opened  at  Louisville,  and  measures  were  adopted  to  take 
defensive  precaution  against  the  Indians,  who  were  yet,  in  some  instances, 
incited  to  deeds  of  violence  by  the  British.  Before  the  close  of  this  year, 
1784,  the  military  claimants  of  land  began  to  occupy  them,  although  no 
entries  were  recorded  until  1787. 

The  Indian  title  to  the  Northwest  was  not  yet  extinguished.  They 
held  large  tracts  of  land,  and  in  order  to  prevent  bloodshed  Congress 
adopted  means  for  treaties  with  the  original  owners  and  provided  for  the 
surveys  of  the  lands  gained  thereby,  as  well  as  for  those  north  of  the 
Ohio,  now  in  its  possession. 

On  January  31,  1786,  a  treaty  was  made  with  the  Wabash  Indians. 
The  treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix  had  been  made  in  1784.  That  at  Fort  Mc- 
intosh in  1785,  and  through  these  much  land  was  gained.  The  Wabash 
Indians,  however,  afterward  refused  to  comply  with  the  provisions  of  the 
treaty  made  with  them,  and  in  order  to  compel  their  adherence  to  its 
provisions,  force  was  used. 

During  the  year  1786,  the  free  navigation  of  the  Mississippi  came  up 
in  Congress,  and  caused  various  discussions,  which  resulted  in  no  definite 
action,  only  serving  to  excite  speculation  in  regard  to  the  western  lands. 
Congress  had  promised  bounties  of  land  to  the  soldiers  of  the  Revolution, 
but  owing  to  the  unsettled  condition  of  affairs  along  the  Mississippi 
respecting  its  navigation,  and  the  trade  of  the  Northwest,  that  body  had, 
in  1783,  declared  its  inability  to  fulfill  these  promises  until  a  treaty  could 
be  concluded  between  the  two  Governments. 

Before  the  close  of  the  year  1786,  however,  it  was  able,  through  the 
treaties   with   the   Indians,  to   allow  some   grants  and   the   settlement 


thereon,  and  on  the  14th  of  September,  Connecticut  ceded  to  the  General 
Government  the  tract  of  land  known  as  the  "Connecticut  Reserve," 
and  before  the  close  of  the  following  year  a  large  tract  of  land  north 
of  the  Ohio  was  sold  to  a  company,  who  at  once  took  measures  to 
settle  it. 

By  the  provisions  of  this  grant,  the  company  were  to  pay  the  United 
States  one  dollar  per  acre,  subject  to  a  deduction  of  one-third  for  bad 
lands  and  other  contingencies.  They  received  750,000  acres,  bounded 
on  the  south  by  the  Ohio,  on  the  east  by  the  seventh  range  of  townships, 
on  the  west  by  the  sixteenth  range,  and  on  the  north  by  a  line  so  drawn 
as  to  make  the  grant  complete  without  the  reservations.  In  addi- 
tion to  this,  Congress  afterward  granted  100,000  acres  to  actual  set- 
tlers, and  214,285  acres  as  army  bounties  under  the  resolutions  of  1789 
and  1790. 

While  Dr.  Cutler,  one  of  the  agents  of  the  company,  was  pressing 
its  claims  before  Congress,  that  body  was  bringing  into  form  an  ordinance 
for  the  political  and  social  organization  of  this  Territory.  When  the 
cession  was  made  by  Virginia,  in  1784,  a  plan  was  offered,  but  rejected. 
A  motion  had  been  made  to  strike  from  the  proposed  plan  the  prohibition 
of  slavery,  which  prevailed.  The  plan  was  then  discussed  and  altered, 
and  finally  passed  unanimously,  with  the  exception  of  South  Carolina. 
By  this  proposition,  the  Territory  was  to  have  been  divided  into  states 
by  parallels  and  meridian  lines.  This,  it  was  thought,  would  make  ten 
states,  which  were  to  have  been  named  as  follows — beginning  at  the 
northwest  corner  and  going  southwardly :  Sylvania,  Michigania,  Cher- 
sonesus,Assenisipia,  Metropotamia,  Illenoia,  Saratoga,  Washington,  Poly- 
potamia  and  Pelisipia. 

There  was  a  more  serious  objection  to  this  plan  than  its  category  of 
names, —  the  boundaries.  The  root  of  the  difficulty  was  in  the  resolu- 
tion of  Congress  passed  in  October,  1780,  which  fixed  the  boundaries 
of  the  ceded  lands  to  be  from  one  hundred  to  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles 
square.  These  resolutions  being  presented  to  the  Legislatures  of  Vir- 
ginia and  Massachusetts,  they  desired  a  change,  and  in  July,  1786,  the 
subject  was  taken  up  in  Congress,  and  changed  to  favor  a  division  into 
not  more  than  five  states,  and  not  less  than  three.  This  was  approved  by 
the  State  Legislature  of  Virginia. 

The  subject  of  the  Government  was  again  taken  up  by  Congress  in 
1786,  and  discussed  throughout  that  year  and  until  July,  1787,  when  the 
famous  "  Compact  of  1787  "  was  passed,  and  the  foundation  of  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  Northwest  laid.  This  compact  is  fully  discussed  and 
explained  in  the  history  of  Ohio  in  this  book,  and  to  it  the  reader  is  re- 


The  passage  of  this  act  and  the  grant  .to  the  New  England  Company 
was  soon  followed  by  an  application  to  the  Government  by  John  Cleves 
Symmes,  of  New  Jersey^  for  a  grant  of  the  land  between  the  Miamis. 
This  gentleman  had  visited  these  lands  soon  after  the  treaty  of  1786,  and, 
being  greatly  pleased  with  them,  offered  similar  terms  to  those  given  to 
the  New  England  Company.  The  petition  was  referred  to  the  Treasury 
Board  with  power  to  act,  and  a  contract  was  concluded  the  following 

During  the  Autumn  the  directors  of  the  New  England  Company 
were  preparing  to  occupy  their  grant  the  following  Spring,  and  upon  the 
23d  of  November  made  arrangements  for  a  party  of  forty-seven  men, 
under  the  superintendency  of  Gen.  Rufus  Putnam,  to  set  forward.  Six 
boat-builders  were  to  leave  at  once,  and  on  the  first  of  January  the  sur- 
veyors and  their  assistants,  twenty-six  in  number,  were  to  meet  at  Hart- 
ford and  proceed  on  their  journey  westward ;  the  remainder  to  follow  as 
soon  as  possible.  Congress,  in  the  meantime,  upon  the  3d  of  October, 
had  ordered  seven  hundred  troops  for  defense  of  the  western  settlers,  and 
to  prevent  unauthorized  intrusions  ;  and  two  days  later  appointed  Arthur 
St.  Clair  Governor  of  the  Territory  of  the  Northwest. 


The  civil  organization  of  the  Northwest  Territory  was  now  com- 
plete, and  notwithstanding  the  uncertainty  of  Indian  affairs,  settlers  from 
the  East  began  to  come  into  the  country  rapidly.  The  New  England 
Company  sent  their  men  during  the  Winter  of  1787-8  pressing  on  over 
the  Alleghenies  by  the  old  Indian  path  which  had  been  opened  into 
Braddock's  road,  and  which  has  since  been  made  a  national  turnpike 
from  Cumberland  westward.  Through  the  weary  winter  days  they  toiled 
on,  and  by  April  were  all  gathered  on  the  Youghiogheny,  where  boats  had 
been  built,  and  at  once  started  for  the  Muskingum.  Here  they  arrived 
on  the  7th  of  that  month,  and  unless  the  Moravian  missionaries  be  regarded 
as  the  pioneers  of  Ohio,  this  little  band  can  justly  claim  that  honor. 

Gen.  St.  Clair,  the  appointed  Governor  of  the  Northwest,  not  having 
yet  arrived,  a  set  of  laws  were  passed,  written  out,  and  published  by 
being  nailed  to  a  tree  in  the  embryo  town,  and  Jonathan  Meigs  appointed 
to  administer  them. 

Washington  in  writing  of  this,  the  first  American  settlement  in  the 
Northwest,  said :  "  No  colony  in  America  was  ever  settled  under  such 
favorable  auspices  as  that  which  has  just  commenced  at  Muskingum. 
Information,  property  and  strength  will  be  its  characteristics.     I  know 


many  of  its  settlers  personally,  and  there  never  were  men  better  calculated 
to  promote  the  welfare  of  such  a  community." 

On  the  2d  of  July  a  meeting  of  the  director^  and  agents  was  held  on 
the  banks  of  the  Muskingum,  "  for  the  purpose  of  naming  the  new-born 
city  and  its  squares."  As  yet  the  settlement  was  known  as  the  "  Mus- 
kingum," but  that  was  now  changed  to  the  name  Marietta,  in  honor 
of  Marie  Antoinette,  The  square  upon  which  the  block-houses  stood 
was  called  '•''Campus  Martins;''^  square  number  19,  ^^  Cajntoliuni ;^^ 
square  number  61,  "  Cecilia;''  and  the  great  road  through  the  covert 
way,  "  Sacra  Via.^'  Two  days  after,  an  oration  was  delivered  by  James 
M.  Varnum,  who  with  S.  H.  Parsons  and  John  Armstrong  had  been 
appointed  to  the  judicial  bench  of  the  territory  on  the  16th  of  October, 
1787.  On  July  9,  Gov.  St.  Clair  arrived,  and  the  colony  began  to  assume 
form.  The  act  of  1787  provided  two  district  grades  of  government  for 
the  Northwest,  under  the  first  of  which  the  whole  power  was  invested  in 
the  hands  of  a  governor  and  three  district  judges.  This  was  immediately 
formed  upon  the  Governor's  arrival,  and  the  first  laws  of  the  colony 
passed  on  the  25th  of  July.  These  provided  for  the  organization  of 
the  militia,  and  on  the  next  day  appeared  the  Governor's  proclamation, 
erecting  all  that  country  that  had  been  ceded  by  the  Indians  east  of  the 
Scioto  River  into  the  County  of  Washington.  From  that  time  forward^ 
notwithstanding  the  doubts  yet  existing  as  to  the  Indians,  all  Marietta 
prospered,  and  on  the  2d  of  September  the  first  court  of  the  territory  was 
held  with  imposing  ceremonies. 

The  emigration  westward  at  this  time  was  very  great.  The  com- 
mander at  Fort  Harmer,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Muskingum,  reported  four 
thousand  five  hundred  persons  as  having  passed  that  post  between  Feb- 
ruary and  June,  1788  —  many  of  whom  would  have  purchased  of  the 
"  Associates,"  as  the  New  England  Company  was  called,  had  they  been 
ready  to  receive  them. 

On  the  26th  of  November,  1787,  Sj^mmes  issued  a  pamphlet  stating 
the  terms  of  his  contract  and  the  plan  of  sale  he  intended  to  adopt.  In 
January,  1788,  Matthias  Denman,  of  New  Jersey,  took  an  active  interest 
in  Symmes'  purchase,  and  located  among  other  tracts  the  sections  upon 
which  Cincinnati  has  been  built.  Retaining  one-third  of  this  locality,  he 
sold  the  other  two-thirds  to  Robert  Patterson  and  John  Filson,  and  the 
three,  about  August,  commenced  to  lay  out  a  town  on  the  spot,  which 
was  designated  as  being  opposite  Licking  River,  to  the  mouth  of  which 
they  proposed  to  have  a  road  cut  from  Lexington.  The  naming  of  the 
town  is  thus  narrated  in  the  "  Western  Annals" : — "  Mr.  Filson,  who  had 
been  a  schoolmaster,  was  appointed  to  name  the  town,  and,  in  respect  to 
its  situation,  and  as  if  with  a  prophetic  perception  of  the  mixed  race  that 


were  to  inhabit  it  in  after  days,  he  named  it  Losantiville,  which,  being 
interpreted,  means :  ville,  the  town  ;  anti^  against  or  opposite  to  ;  os,  the 
mouth  ;  L.  of  Licking." 

Meanwhile,  in  July,  Symmes  got  thirty  persons  and  eight  four-horse 
teams  under  way  from  the  West.  These  reached  Limestone  (now  Mays- 
ville)  in  September,  where  were  several  persons  from  Redstone.  Here 
Mr.  Symmes  tried  to  found  a  settlement,  but  the  great  freshet  of  1789 
caused  the  "  Point,"  as  it  was  and  is  yet  .called,  to  be  fifteen  feet  under 
water,  and  the  settlement  to  be  abandoned.  The  little  band  of  settlers 
removed  to  the  mouth  of  the  Miami.  Before  Symmes  and  his  colony  left 
the  "  Point,"  two  settlements  had  been  made  on  his  purchase.  The  first 
was  by  Mr.  Stiltes,  the  original  projector  of  the  whole  plan,  who,  with  a 
colony  of  Redstone  people,  had  located  at  the  mouth  of  the  Miami, 
whither  Symmes  went  with  his  Maysville  colony.  Here  a  clearing  had 
been  made  by  the  Indians  owing  to  the  great  fertility  of  the  soil.  Mr. 
Stiltes  with  his  colony  came  to  this  place  on  the  18th  of  November,  1788, 
with  twenty-six  persons,  and,  building  a  block-house,  prepared  to  remain 
through  the  Winter.  They  named  the  settlement  Columbia.  Here  they 
were  kindly  treated  by  the  Indians,  but  suffered  greatly  from  the  flood 
of  1789. 

On  the  4th  of  March,  1789,  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
went  into  operation,  and  on  April  30,  George  Washington  was  inau- 
gurated President  of  the  American  people,  and  during  the  next  Summer, 
an  Indian  war  was  commenced  by  the  tribes  north  of  the  Ohio.  The 
President  at  first  used  pacific  means ;  but  these  failing,  he  sent  General 
Harmer  against  the  hostile  tribes.  He  destroyed  several  villages,  but 
was  defeated  in  two  battles,  near  the  present  City  of  Fort  Wayne, 
Indiana.  From  this  time  till  the  close  of  1795,  the  principal  events  were 
the  wars  with  the  various  Indian  tribes.  In  1796,  General  St.  Clair 
was  appointed  in  command,  and  marched  against  the  Indians;  but  while 
he  was  encamped  on  a  stream,  the  St.  Mary,  a  branch  of  the  Maumee, 
he  was  attacked  and  defeated  with  the  loss  of  six  hundred  men. 

General  Wayne  was  now  sent  against  the  savages.  In  August,  1794, 
he  met  them  near  the  rapids  of  the  Maumee,  and  gained  a  complete 
victory.  This  success,  followed  by  vigorous  measures,  compelled  the 
Indians  to  sue  for  peace,  and  on  the  30th  of  July,  the  following  year,  the 
treaty  of  Greenville  was  signed  by  the  principal  chiefs,  by  which  a  large 
tract  of  country  was  ceded  to  the  United  States. 

Before  proceeding  in  our  narrative,  we  will  pause  to  notice  Fort 
Washington,  erected  in  the  early  part  of  this  war  on  the  site  of  Cincinnati. 
Nearly  all  of  the  great  cities   of  the   Northwest,   and   indeed   of  the 


whole  country,  have  had  their  nuclei  in  those  rude  pioneer  structures, 
known  as  forts  or  stockades.  Thus  Forts  Dearborn,  Washington,  Pon- 
chartrain,  mark  the  original  sites  of  the  now  proud  Cities  of  Chicago, 
Cincinnati  and  Detroit.  So  of  most  of  the  flourishing  cities  east  and  west 
of  the  Mississippi.  Fort  Washington,  erected  by  Doughty  in  1790,  was  a 
rude  but  highly  interesting  structure.  It  was  composed  of  a  number  of 
strongly-built  hewed  log  cabins.  Those  designed  for  soldiers'  barracks 
were  a  story  and  a  half  high,  while  those  composing  the  officers  quarters 
were  more  imposing  and  more  conveniently  arranged  and  furnished. 
The  whole  were  so  placed  as  to  form  a  hollow  square,  enclosing  about  an 
acre  of  ground,  with  a  block  house  at  each  of  the  four  angles. 

The  logs  for  the  construction  of  this  fort  were  cut  from  the  ground 
upon  which  it  was  erected.  It  stood  between  Third  and  Fourth  Streets 
of  the  present  city  (Cincinnati)  extending  east  of  Eastern  Row,  now 
Broadway,  which  was  then  a  narrow  alley,  and  the  eastern  boundary  of 
of  the  town  as  it  was  originally  laid  out.  On  the  bank  of  the  river, 
immediately  in  front  of  the  fort,  was  an  appendage  of  the  fort,  called  the 
Artificer's  Yard.  It  contained  about  two  acres  of  ground,  enclosed  by 
small  contiguous  buildings,  occupied  by  workshops  and  quarters  of 
laborers.  Within  this  enclosure  there  was  a  large  two-story  frame  house, 
familiarly  called  the  "  Yellow  House,"  built  for  the  accommodation  of 
the  Quartermaster  General.  For  many  years  this  was  the  best  finished 
and  most  commodious  edifice  in  the  Queen  City.  Fort  Washington  was 
for  some  time  the  headquarters  of  both  the  civil  and  military  governments 
of  the  Northwestern  Territory. 

Following  the  consummation  of  the  treaty  various  gigantic  land  spec- 
ulations were  entered  into  by  different  persons,  who  hoped  to  obtain 
from  the  Indians  in  Michigan  and  northern  Indiana,  large  tracts  of  lands. 
These  were  generally  discovered  in  time  to  prevent  the  outrageous 
schemes  from  being  carried  out,  and  from  involving  the  settlers  in  war. 
On  October  27,  1795,  the  treaty  between  the  United  States  and  Spain 
was  signed,  whereby  the  free  navigation  of  the  Mississippi  was  secured. 

No  sooner  had  the  treat}'-  of  1795  been  ratified  than  settlements  began 
to  pour  rapidly  into  the  West.  The  great  event  of  the  year  1796  was  the 
occupation  of  that  part  of  the  Northwest  including  Michigan,  which  was 
this  year,  under  the  provisions  of  the  treaty,  evacuated  by  the  British 
forces.  The  United  States,  owing  to  certain  conditions,  did  not  feel 
justified  in  addressing  the  authorities  in  Canada  in  relation  to  Detroit 
and  other  frontier  posts.  When  at  last  the  British  authorities  were 
called  to  give  them  up,  they  at  once  complied,  and  General  Wayne,  who 
had  done  so  much  to  preserve  the  frontier  settlements,  and  who,  before 
the    year's    close,  sickened    and  died  near  Erie,  transferred  his  head- 


quarters  to  the  neighborhood  of  the  lakes,  where  a  county  named  after 
him  was  formed,  which  included  the  northwest  of  Ohio,  all  of  Michigan, 
and  the  northeast  of  Indiana.  During  this  same  year  settlements  were 
formed  at  the  present  City  of  Chillicothe,  along  the  Miami  from  Middle- 
town  to  Piqua,  while  in  the  more  distant  West,  settlers  and  speculators 
began  to  appear  in  great  numbers.  In  September,  the  City  of  Cleveland 
was  laid  out,  and  during  the  Summer  and  Autumn,  Samuel  Jackson  and 
Jonathan  Sharpless  erected  the  first  manufactory  of  paper — the  "  Red- 
stone Paper  Mill" — in  the  West.  St.  Louis  contained  some  seventy 
houses,  and  Detroit  over  three  hundred,  and  along  the  river,  contiguous 
to  it,  were  more  than  three  thousand  inhabitants,  mostly  French  Canadians, 
Indians  and  half-breeds,  scarcely  any  Americans  venturing  yet  into  that 
part  of  the  Northwest. 

The  election  of  representatives  for  the  territory  had  taken  place, 
and  on  the  4th  of  February,  1799,  they  convened  at  Losantiville  —  now 
known  as  Cincinnati,  having  been  named  so  by  Gov.  St.  Clair,  and 
considered  the  capital  of  the  Territory — to  nominate  persons  from  whom 
the  members  of  the  Legislature  were  to  be  chosen  in  accordance  with 
a  previous  ordinance.  This  nomination  being  made,  the  Assembly 
adjourned  until  the  16th  of  the  following  September.  From  those  named 
the  President  selected  as  members  of  the  council,  Henry  Vandenburg, 
of  Vincennes,  Robert  Oliver,  of  Marietta,  James  Findlay  and  Jacob 
Burnett,  of  Cincinnati,  and  David  Vance,  of  Vanceville.  On  the  16th 
of  September  the  Territorial  Legislature  met,  and  on  the  24th  the  two 
houses  were  duly  organized,  Henry  Vandenburg  being  elected  President 
of  the  Council. 

The  message  of  Gov.  St.  Clair  was  addressed  to  the  Legislature 
September  20th,  and  on  October  13th  that  body  elected  as  a  delegate  to 
Congress  Gen.  Wm.  Henry  Harrison,  who  received  eleven  of  the  votes 
cast,  being  a  majority  of  one  over  his  opponent,  Arthur  St.  Clair,  son  of 
Gen.  St.  Clair. 

The  whole  number  of  acts  passed  at  this  session,  and  approved  by 
the  Governor,  were  thirty-seven  —  eleven  others  were  passed,  but  received 
his  veto.  The  most  important  of  those  passed  related  to  the  militia,  to 
the  administration,  and  to  taxation.  On  the  19th  of  December  this  pro- 
tracted session  of  the  first  Legislature  in  the  West  was  closed,  and  on  the 
30th  of  December  the  President  nominated  Charles  Willing  Bryd  to  the 
office  of  Secretary  of  the  Territory  vice  Wm.  Henry  Harrison,  elected  to 
Congress.     The  Senate  confirmed  his  nomination  the  next  day. 



The  increased  emigration  to  the  Northwest,  the  extent  of  the  domain, 
and  the  inconvenient  modes  of  travel,  made  it  very  difficult  to  conduct 
the  ordinary  operations  of  government,  and  rendered  the  efficient  action 
of  courts  almost  impossible.  To  remedy  this,  it  was  deemed  advisable  to 
divide  the  territory  for  civil  purposes.  Congress,  in  1800,  appointed  a 
•  committee  to  examine  the  question  and  report  some  means  for  its  solution. 
This  committee,  on  the  3d  of  March,  reported  that : 

"In  the  three  western  countries  there  has  been  but  one  court  having 
cognizance  of  crimes,  in  five  years,  and  the  immunity  which  offenders 
experience  attracts,  as  to  an  asylum,  the  most  vile  and  abandoned  crim- 
inals, and  at  the  same  time  deters  useful  citizens  from  making  settlements 
in  such  society.  The  extreme  necessity  of  judiciary  attention  and  assist- 
ance is  experienced  in  civil  as  well  as  in  criminal  cases.  *  *  *  *  Xo 
minister  a  remedy  to  these  and  other  evils,  it  occurs  to  this  committee 
that  it  is  expedient  that  a  division  of  said  territory  into  two  distinct  and 
separate  governments  should  be  made ;  and  that  such  division  be  made 
by  a  line  beginning  at  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Miami  River,  running 
directly  north  until  it  intersects  the  boundary  between  the  United  States 
and  Canada." 

The  report  was  accepted  by  Congress,  and,  in  accordance  with  its 
suggestions,  that  body  passed  an  Act  extinguishing  the  Northwest  Terri- 
tory, which  Act  was  approved  May  7.     Among  its  provisions  were  these  : 

"  That  from  and  after  July  4  next,  all  that  part  of  the  Territory  of 
the  United  States  northwest  of  the  Ohio  River,  which  lies  to  the  westward 
of  a  line  beginning  at  a  point  on  the  Ohio,  opposite  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Kentucky  River,  and  running  thence  to  Fort  Recovery,  and  thence  north 
until  it  shall  intersect  the  territorial  line  between  the  United  States  and 
Canada,  shall,  for  the  purpose  of  temporary  government,  constitute  a 
separate  territory,  and  be  called  the  Indiana  Territory." 

After  providing  for  the  exercise  of  the  civil  and  criminal  powers  of 
the  territories,  and  other  provisions,  the  Act  further  provides : 

"  That  until  it  shall  otherwise  be  ordered  by  the  Legislatures  of  the 
said  Territories,  respectively,  Chillicothe  on  the  Scioto  River  shall  be  the 
seat  of  government  of  the  Territory  of  the  United  States  northwest  of  the 
Ohio  River ;  and  that  St.  Vincennes  on  the  Wabash  River  shall  be  the 
seat  of  government  for  the  Indiana  Territory." 

Gen.  Wm.  Henry  Harrison  was  appointed  Governor  of  the  Indiana 
Territory,  and  entered  upon  his  duties  about  a  year  later.  Connecticut 
also  about  this  time  released  her  claims  to  the  reserve,  and  in  March  a  law 


"was  passed  accepting  this  cession.  Settlements  had  been  made  upon 
thirty -five  of  the  townships  in  the  reserve,  mills  had  been  built,  and  seven 
hundred  miles  of  road  cut  in  various  directions.  On  the  3d  of  November 
the  General  Assembly  met  at  Chillicothe.  Near  the  close  of  the  year, 
the  first  missionary  of  the  Connecticut  Reserve  came,  who  found  no 
township  containing  more  than  eleven  families.  It  was  upon  the  first  of 
October  that  the  secret  treaty  had  been  made  between  Napoleon  and  the 
King  of  Spain,  whereby  the  latter  agreed  to  cede  to  France  the  province 
of  Louisiana. 

In  January,  1802,  the  Assembly  of  the  Northwestern  Territory  char- 
tered the  college  at  Athens.  From  the  earliest  dawn  of  the  western 
colonies,  education  was  promptly  provided  for,  and  as  early  as  1787, 
newspapers  were  issued  from  Pittsburgh  and  Kentucky,  and  largely  read 
throughout  the  frontier  settlements.  Before  the  close  of  this  year,  the 
Congress  of  the  United  States  granted  to  the  citizens  of  the  Northwestern 
territory  the  formation  of  a  State  government.  One  of  the  provisions  of 
the  "compact  of  1787"  provided  that  whenever  the  number  of  inhabit- 
ants within  prescribed  limits  exceeded  45,000,  they  should  be  entitled  to 
a  separate  government.  The  prescribed  limits  of  Ohio  contained,  from  a 
census  taken  to  ascertain  the  legality  of  the  act,  more  than  that  number, 
and  on  the  30th  of  April,  1802,  Congress  passed  the  act  defining  its  limits, 
and  on  the  29th  of  November  the  Constitution  of  the  new  State  of  Ohio, 
so  named  from  the  beautiful  river  forming  its  southern  boundary,  came 
into  existence.  The  exact  limits  of  Lake  Michigan  were  not  then  known, 
but  the  territory  now  included  within  the  State  of  Michigan  was  wholly 
within  the  territory  of  Indiana. 

Gen.  Harrison,  while  residing  at  Vincennes,  made  several  treaties 
with  the  Indians,  thereby  gaining  large  tracts  of  lands.  The  next  year  is 
memorable  in  the  history  of  the  West  for  the  purchase  of  Louisiana  from 
France  by  the  United  States  for  815,000,000.  Thus  by  a  peaceful  mode, 
the  domain  of  the  United  States  was  extended  over  a  large  tract  of 
country  west  of  the  Mississippi,  and  was  for  a  time  under  the  jurisdiction 
of  the  Northwest  government,  and,  as  has  been  mentioned  in  the  early 
part  of  this  narrative,  was  called  the  "New  Northwest."  The  limits 
of  this  history  will  not  allow  a  description  of  its  territory.  The  same  year 
large  grants  of  land  were  obtained  from  the  Indians,  and  the  House  of 
Representatives  of  the  new  State  of  Ohio  signed  a  bill  respecting  the 
College  Township  in  the  district  of  Cincinnati. 

Before  the  close  of  the  year,  Gen.  Harrison  obtained  additional 
grants  of  lands  from  the  various  Indian  nations  in  Indiana  and  the  present 
limits  of  Illinois,  and  on  the  18th  of  August,  1804,  completed  a  treaty  at 
St.  Louis,  whereby  over  51,000,000  acres  of  lands  were  obtained  from  the 


aborigines.  Measures  were  also  taken  to  learn  the  condition  of  affairs  in 
and  about  Detroit. 

C.  Jouett,  the  Indian  agent  in  Michigan,  still  a  part  of  Indiana  Terri- 
tory, reported  as  follows  upon  the  condition  of  matters  at  that  post  : 

"  The  Town  of  Detroit. — The  charter,  which  is  for  fifteen  miles 
square,  was  granted  in  the  time  of  Louis  XIV.  of  France,  and  is  now, 
from  the  best  information  I  have  been  able  to  get,  at  Quebec.  Of  those 
two  hundred  and  twenty-five  acres,  only  four  are  occupied  by  the  town 
and  Fort  Lenault.  The  remainder  is  a  common,  except  twenty-four 
acres,  which  were  added  twenty  years  ago  to  a  farm  belonging  to  Wm. 
Macomb.  *  *  *  A  stockade  incloses  the  town,  fort  and  citadel.  The 
pickets,  as  well  as  the  public  houses,  are  in  a  state  of  gradual  decay.  The 
streets  are  narrow,  straight  and  regular,  and  intersect  each  other  at  right 
angles.     The  houses  are,  for  the  most  part,  low  and  inelegant." 

During  this  year,  Congress  granted  a  township  of  land  for  the  sup- 
port of  a  college,  and  began  to  offer  inducements  for  settlers  in  these 
wilds,  and  the  country  now  comprising  the  State  of  Michigan  began  to 
fill  rapidly  with  settlers  along  its  southern  borders.  This  same  year,  also, 
a  law  was  passed  organizing  the  Southwest  Territory,  dividing  it  into  two 
portions,  the  Territory  of  New  Orleans,  which  city  was  made  the  seat  of 
government,  and  the  District  of  Louisiana,  which  was  annexed  to  the 
domain  of  Gen.  Harrison. 

On  the  11th  of  January,  1805,  the  Territory  of  Michigan  was  formed, 
Wm.  Hull  was  appointed  governor,  with  headquarters  at  Detroit,  the 
change  to  take  effect  on  June  30.  On  the  11th  of  that  month,  a  fir& 
occurred  at  Detroit,  which  destro5''ed  almost  every  building  in  the  place. 
When  the  officers  of  the  new  territory  reached  the  post,  they  found  it  in 
ruins,  and  the  inhabitants  scattered  throughout  the  country.  Rebuild- 
ing, however,  soon  commenced,  and  ere  long  the  town  contained  more 
houses  than  before  the  fire,  and  many  of  them  much  better  built. 

While  this  was  being  done,  Indiana  had  passed  to  the  second  grade 
of  government,  and  through  her  General  Assembly  had  obtained  large 
tracts  of  land  from  the  Indian  tribes.  To  all  this  the  celebrated  Indian, 
Tecumthe  or  Tecumseh,  vigorously  protested,  and  it  was  the  main  cause 
of  his  attempts  to  unite  the  various  Indian  tribes  in  a  conflict  with  the 
settlers.  To  obtain  a  full  account  of  these  attempts,  the  workings  of  the 
British,  and  the  signal  failure,  culminating  in  the  death  of  Tecumseh  at 
the  battle  of  the  Thames,  and  the  close  of  the  war  of  1812  in  the  Northwest, 
we  will  step  aside  in  our  story,  and  relate  the  principal  events  of  his  life,, 
and  his  connection  with  this  conflict. 



This  famous  Indian  chief  was  born  about  the  year  1768,  not  far  from 
the  site  of  the  present  city  of  Springfield,  Ohio.  His  father,  Puckeshinwa, 
was  a  member  of  the  Kisopok  tribe  of  the  Swanoese  nation,  and  his 
mother,  Methontaske,  was  a  member  of  the  Turtle  tribe  of  the  same 
people.  They  removed  from  Florida  about  the  middle  of  the  last  century 
to  the  birthplace  of  Tecumseh.  In  1774,  his  father,  who  had  risen  to  be 
chief,  was  slain  at  the  battle  of  Point  Pleasant,  and  not  long  after  Tecum- 
seh, by  his  bravery,  became  the  leader  of  his  tribe.  In  1795  he  was 
declared  chief,  and  then  lived  at  Deer  Creek,  near  the  site  of  the 
present  City  of  Urbana.  He  remained  here  about  one  year,  when  he 
returned  to  Piqua,  and  in  1798,  he  went  to  White  River,  Indiana.  In 
1805,  he  and  his  brother,  Laulewasikan  (Open  Door),  who  had  announced 
himself  as  a  prophet,  went  to  a  tract  of  land  on  the  Wabash  River,  given 
them  by  the  Pottawatomies  and  Kickapoos.  From  this  date  the  chief 
comes  into  prominence.  He  was  now  about  thirty-seven  years  of  age, 
was  five  feet  and  ten  inches  in  height,  was  stoutly  built,  and  possessed  of 
enormous  powers  of  endurance.  His  countenance  was  naturally  pleas- 
ing, and  he  was,  in  general,  devoid  of  those  savage  attributes  possessed 
by  most  Indians.  It  is  stated  he  could  read  and  write,  and  had  a  confi- 
dential secretary  and  adviser,  named  Billy  Caldwell,  a  half-breed,  who 
afterward  became  chief  of  the  Pottawatomies.  He  occupied  the  first 
house  built  on  the  site  of  Chicago.  At  this  time,  Tecumseh  entered 
upon  the  great  work  of  his  life.  He  had  long  objected  to  the  grants  of 
land  made  by  the  Indians  to  the  whites,  and  determined  to  unite  all  the 
Indian  tribes  into  a  league,  in  order  that  no  treaties  or  grants  of  land 
could  be  made  save  by  the  consent  of  this  confederation. 

He  traveled  .constantly,  going  from  north  to  south  ;  from  the  south 
to  the  north,  everywhere  urging  the  Indians  to  this  step.  He  was  a 
matchless  orator,  and  his  burning  words  had  their  effect. 

Gen.  Harrison,  then  Governor  of  Indiana,  by  watching  the  move- 
ments of  the  Indians,  became  convinced  that  a  grand  conspiracy  was 
forming,  and  made  preparations  to  defend  the  settlements.  Tecumseh's 
plan  was  similar  to  Pontiac's,  elsewhere  described,  and  to  the  cunning 
artifice  of  that  chieftain  was  added  his  own  sagacity. 

During  the  year  1809,  Tecumseh  and  the  prophet  were  actively  pre- 
paring for  the  work.  In  that  year,  Gen.  Harrison  entered  into  a  treaty 
with  the  Delawares,  Kickapoos,  Pottawatomies,  Miamis,  Eel  River  Indians 
and  Weas,  in  which  these  tribes  ceded  to  the  whites  certain  lands  upon 
the  Wabash,  to  all  of  which  Tecumseh  entered  a  bitter  protest,  averring 


as  one  principal  reason  that  he  did  not  want  the  Indians  to  give  up  any 
lands  north  and  west  of  the  Ohio  River. 

Tecumseh,  in  Auf^ust,  1810,  visited  the  General  at  Vincennes  and 
held  a  council  relating  to  the  grievances  of  the  Indians.  Becoming  unduly 
angry  at  this  conference  he  was  dismissed  from  the  village,  and  soon  after 
departed  to  incite  the  southern  Indian  tribes  to  the  conflict. 

Gen.  Harrison  determined  to  move  upon  the  chief's  headquarters  at 
Tippecanoe,  and  for  this  purpose  went  about  sixty-five  miles  up  the 
Wabash,  where  he  built  Fort  Harrison.  From  this  place  he  went  to  the 
Prophet's  town,  where  he  informed  the  Indians  he  had  no  hostile  inten- 
tions, provided  they  were  true  to  the  existing  treaties.  He  encamped 
near  the  village  early  in  October,  and  on  the  morning  of  November  7,  he 
was  attacked  by  a  large  force  of  the  Indians,  and  the  famous  battle  of 
Tippecanoe  occurred.  The  Indians  were  routed  and  their  town  broken 
up.  Tecumseh  returning  not  long  after,  was  greatly  exasperated  at  his 
brother,  the  Prophet,  even  threatening  to  kill  him  for  rashly  precipitating 
the  war,  and  foiling  his  (Tecumseh's)  plans. 

Tecumseh  sent  word  to  Gen.  Harrison  that  he  was  now  returned 
from  the  South,  and  was  ready  to  visit  the  President  as  had  at  one  time 
previously  been  proposed.  Gen.  Harrison  informed  him  he  could  not 
go  as  a  chief,  which  method  Tecumseh  desired,  and  the  visit  was  never 
made.  In  June  of  the  following  year,  he  visited  the  Indian  agent  at 
Fort  Wayne.  Here  he  disavowed  any  intention  to  make  a  war  against 
the  United  States,  and  reproached  Gen.  Harrison  for  marching  against  his 
people.  The  agent  replied  to  this  ;  Tecumseh  listened  with  a  cold  indif- 
ference, and  after  making  a  few  general  remarks,  with  a  haughty  air  drew 
his  blanket  about  him,  left  the  council  house,  and  departed  for  Fort  Mai- 
den, in  Upper  Canada,  where  he  joined  the  British  standard. 

In  the  Summer  of  1813,  Perry's  victory  on  Lake  Erie  occurred,  and 
shortly  after  active  preparations  were  made  to  capture- Maiden.  On  the 
27th  of  September,  the  American  army,  under  Gen.  Harrison,  set  sail  for 
the  shores  of  Canada,  and  in  a  few  hours  stood  around  the  ruins  of  Mai- 
den, from  which  the  British  army,  under  Proctor,  had  retreated  to  Sand- 
wich, intending  to  make  its  way  to  the  heart  of  Canada  by  the  Valley  of 
the  Thames.  On  the  29th  Gen.  Harrison  was  at  Sandwich,  and  Gen. 
Mc Arthur  took  possession  of  Detroit  and  the  territory  of  Michigan. 

The  pursuit  of  Proctor  began  October  2.  He  was  overtaken  on  the 
5th  at  the  Thames.  Tecumseh  fell  *  in  that  battle  and  British  power 
was  forever  broken,  Canada  alone  being  left  them,  as  the  Americans  had 
no  orders  to  follow  up  their  victory  eastward.  Burr's  incipient 
insurrection  of  1805  was  quelled,  and  the  murderer  of  the  eloquent 
Hamilton  driven  from  his  beautiful  island  fortress  in  the  Ohio  River. 

*  Supposed  at  the  hands  of  Col.  R.  M.  Johnson  of  Kentucky. 


In  January,  1807,  Governor  Hull,  of  Michigan  Territory,  made  a 
treaty  with  the  Indians,  whereby  all  that  peninsula  was  ceded  to  the 
United  States.  Before  the  close  of  the  year,  a  stockade  was  built  about 
Detroit.  It  was  also  during  this  year  that  Indiana  and  Illinois  endeavored 
to  obtain  the  repeal  of  that  section  of  the  compact  of  1787,  whereby 
slavery  was  excluded  from  the  Northwest  Territory.  These  attempts, 
however,  all  signally  failed. 

In  1809  it  was  deemed  advisable  to  divide  the  Indiana  Territory. 
This  was  done,  and  the  Territory  of  Illinois  was  formed  from  the  western 
part,  the  seat  of  government  being  fixed  at  Kaskaskia.  The  next  year, 
the  intentions  of  Tecumseh  manifested  themselves  in  open  hostilities,  and 
then  began  the  events  already  narrated. 

While  this  war  was  in  progress,  emigration  to  the  West  went  on  with 
surprising  rapidity.  In  1811,  under  Mr.  Roosevelt  of  New  York,  the 
first  steamboat  trip  was  made  on  the  Ohio,  much  to  the  astonishment  of 
the  natives,  many  of  whom  fled  in  terror  at  the  appearance  of  the 
"  monster."  It  arrived  at  Louisville  on  the  10th  day  of  October.  At  the 
close  of  the  first  week  of  January,  1812,  it  arrived  at  Natchez,  after  being 
nearly  overwhelmed  in  the  great  earthquake  which  occurred  while  on  its 
downward  trip. 

The  battle  of  the  Thames  was  fought  on  October  6,  1813.  It 
effectually  closed  hostilities  in  the  Northwest,  although  peace  was  not 
fully  restored  until  July  22,  1814,  when  a  treaty  was  formed  at  Green- 
ville, under  the  direction  of  General  Harrison,  between  the  United  States 
and  the  Indian  tribes,  in  which  it  was  stipulated  that  the  Indians  should 
cease  hostilities  against  the  Americans  if  the  war  were  continued.  Such, 
happily,  was  not  the  case,  and  on  the  24th  of  December  the  treaty 
of  Ghent  was  signed  by  the  representatives  of  England  and  the  United 
States.  This  treaty  was  followed  the  next  year  by  treaties  with  various 
Indian  tribes  throughout  the  West  and  Northwest,  and  quiet  was  again 
restored  in  this  part  of  the  new  world. 

On  the  18th  of  March,  1816,  Pittsburgh  was  incorporated  as  a  city. 
It  then  had  a  population  of  8,000  people,  and  was  already  noted  for  its 
manufacturing  interests.  On  April  19,  Indiana  Territory  was  allowed 
to  form  a  state  government.  At  that  time  there  were  thirteen  counties 
organized,  containing  about  sixty-three  thousand  inhabitants.  Th«  first 
election  of  state  officers  was  held  in  August,  when  Jonathan  Jennings 
was  chosen  Governor.  The  officers  were  sworn  in  on  November  7,  and 
on  December  11,  the  State  was  formally  admitted  into  the  Union.  For 
some  time  the  seat  of  government  was  at  Corydon,  but  a  more  central 
location  being  desirable,  the  present  capital,  Indianapolis  (City  of  Indiana),, 
was  laid  out  January  1,  1825. 


On  the  28th  of  December  the  Bank  of  Illinois,  at  Shawneetown,  was 
chartered,  with  a  capital  of  $300,000.  At  this  period  all  banks  were 
under  the  control  of  the  States,  and  were  allowed  to  establish  branches 
at  different  convenient  points. 

Until  this  time  Chillicothe  and  Cincinnati  had  in  turn  enjoyed  the 
privileges  of  being  the  capital  of  Ohio.  But  the  rapid  settlement  of  the 
northern  and  eastern  portions  of  the  State  demanded,  as  in  Indiana,  a 
more  central  location,  and  before  the  close  of  the  year,  the  site  of  Col- 
umbus was  selected  and  surveyed  as  the  future  capital  of  the  State. 
Banking  had  begun  in  Ohio  as  early  as  1808,  when  the  first  bank  was 
chartered  at  Marietta,  but  here  as  elsewhere  it  did  not  bring  to  the  state 
the  hoped-for  assistance.  It  and  other  banks  were  subsequently  unable 
to  redeem  their  currency,  and  were  obliged  to  suspend. 

In  1818,  Illinois  was  made  a  state,  and  all  the  territory  north  of  her 
northern  limits  was  erected  into  a  separate  territory  and  joined  to  Mich- 
igan for  judicial  purposes.  By  the  following  year,  navigation  of  the  lakes 
was  increasing  with  great  rapidity  and  affording  an  immense  source  of 
revenue  to  the  dwellers  in  the  Northwest,  but  it  was  not  until  1826  that 
the  trade  was  extended  to  Lake  Michigan,  or  that  steamships  began  to 
navigate  the  bosom  of  that  inland  sea. 

Until  the  year  1832,  the  commencement  of  the  Black  Hawk  War, 
but  few  hostilities  were  experienced  with  the  Indians.  Roads  were 
opened,  canals  were  dug,  cities  were  built,  common  schools  were  estab- 
lished, universities  were  founded,  many  of  which,  especially  the  Michigan 
University,  have  achieved  a  world  wide-reputation.  The  people  were 
becoming  wealthy.  The  domains  of  the  United  States  had  been  extended, 
and  had  the  sons  of  the  forest  been  treated  with  honesty  and  justice,  the 
record  of  many  years  would  have  been  that  of  peace  and  continuous  pros- 


This  conflict,  though  confined  to  Illinois,  is  an  important  epoch  in 
the  Northwestern  history,  being  the  last  war  with  the  Indians  in  this  part 
of  the  United  States. 

Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiah,  or  Black  Hawk,  was  born  in  the  principal 
Sac  village,  about  three  miles  from  the  junction  of  Rock  River  with  the 
Mississippi,  in  the  year  1767.  His  father's  name  was  Py-e-sa  or  Pahaes ; 
his  grandfather's,  Na-na-ma-kee,  or  the  Thunderer.  Black  Hawk  early 
distinguished  himself  as  a  warrior,  and  at  the  age  of  fifteen  was  permitted 
to  paint  and  was  ranked  among  the  braves.  About  the  year  1783,  he 
went  on  an  expedition  against  the  enemies  of  his  nation,  the  Osages,  one 


of  whom  he  killed  and  scalped,  and  for  this  deed  of  Indian  bravery  he  was 
permitted  to  join  in  the  scalp  dance.  Three  or  four  years  after  he,  at  the 
head  of  two  hundred  braves,  went  on  another  expedition  against  the 
Osages,  to  avenge  the  murder  of  some  women  and  children  belonging  to 
his  own  tribe.  Meeting  an  equal  number  of  Osage  warriors,  a  fierce 
battle  ensued,  in  which  the  latter  tribe  lost  one-half  their  number.  The 
Sacs  lost  only  about  nineteen  warriors.  He  next  attacked  the  Cherokees 
for  a  similar  cause.  In  a  severe  battle  with  them,  near  the  present  City 
of  St.  Louis,  his  father  was  slain,  and  Black  Hawk,  taking  possession  of 
the  "  Medicine  Bag,"  at  once  announced  himself  chief  of  the  Sac  nation. 
He  had  now  conquered  the  Cherokees,  and  about  the  year  1800,  at  the 
head  of  five  hundred  Sacs  and  Foxes,  and  a  hundred  lowas,  he  waged 
war  against  the  Osage  nation  and  subdued  it.  For  two  years  he  battled 
successfully  with  other  Indian  tribes,  all  of  whom  he  conquered. 

Black  Hawk  does  not  at  any  time  seem  to  have  been  friendly  to 
the  Americans.  When  on  a  visit  to  St.  Louis  to  see  his  "  Spanish 
Father,"  he  declined  to  see  any  of  the  Americans,  alleging,  as  a  reason^ 
he  did  not  want  two  fathers. 

The  treaty  at  St.  Louis  was  consummated  in  1804.  The  next  year  the 
United  States  Government  erected  a  fort  near  the  head  of  the  Des  Moines 
Rapids,  called  Fort  Edwards.  This  seemed  to  enrage  Black  Hawk,  who 
at  once  determined  to  capture  Fort  Madison,  standing  on  the  west  side  of 
the  Mississippi  above  the  mouth  of  the  Des  Moines  River.  The  fort  was 
garrisoned  by  about  fifty  men.  Here  he  was  defeated.  The  difficulties 
with  the  British  Government  arose  about  this  time,  and  the  War  of  1812 
followed.  That  government,  extending  aid  to  the  Western  Indians,  by 
giving  them  arms  and  ammunition,  induced  them  to  remain  hostile  to  the 
Americans.  In  August,  1812,  Black  Hawk,  at  the  head  of  about  five 
hundred  braves,  started  to  join  the  British  forces  at  Detroit,  passing  on 
his  way  the  site  of  Chicago,  where  the  famous  Fort  Dearborn  Massacre 
had  a  few  days  before  occurred.  Of  his  connection  with  the  British 
Government  but  little  is  known.  In  1813  he  with  his  little  band  descended 
the  Mississippi,  and  attacking  some  United  States  troops  at  Fort  Howard 
was  defeated. 

In  the  early  part  of  1815,  the  Indian  tribes  west  of  the  Mississippi 
were  notified  that  peace  had  been  declared  between  the  United  States 
and  England,  and  nearly  all  hostilities  had  ceased.  Black  Hawk  did  not 
sign  any  treaty,  however,  until  May  of  the  following  year.  He  then  recog- 
nized the  validity  of  the  treaty  at  St.  Louis  in  1804.  From  the  time  of 
signing  this  treaty  in  1816,  until  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  in  1832,  he 
and  his  band  passed  their  time  in  the  common  pursuits  of  Indian  life. 

Ten  years  before  the  commencement  of  this  war,  the  Sac  and  Fox 


Indians  were  urged  to  join  the  lowas  on  the  west  bank  of  the  Father  of 
Waters.  All  were  agreed,  save  the  band  known  as  the  British  Band,  of 
which  Black  Hawk  was  leader.  He  strenuously  objected  to  the  removal, 
and  was  induced  to  comply  only  after  being  threatened  with  the  power  of 
the  Government.  This  and  various  actions  on  the  part  of  the  white  set- 
tlers provoked  Black  Hawk  and  his  band  to  attempt  the  capture  of  hit> 
native  village  now  occupied  by  the  whites.  The  war  followed.  He  and 
his  actions  were  undoubtedly  misunderstood,  and  had  his  wishes  been 
acquiesced  in  at  the  beginning  of  the  struggle,  much  bloodshed  would 
have  been  prevented. 

Black  Hawk  was  chief  now  of  the  Sac  and  Fox  nations,  and  a  noted 
warrior.  He  and  his  tribe  inhabited  a  village  on  Rock  River,  nearly  three 
miles  above  its  confluence  with  the  Mississippi,  where  the  tribe  had  lived 
many  generations.  When  that  portion  of  Illinois  was  reserved  to  them» 
they  remained  in  peaceable  possession  of  their  reservation,  spending  their 
time  in  the  enjoyment  of  Indian  life.  The  fine  situation  of  their  village 
and  the  quality  of  their  lands  incited  the  more  lawless  white  settlers,  who 
from  time  to  time  began  to  encroach  upon  the  red  men's  domain.  From 
one  pretext  to  another,  and  from  one  step  to  another,  the  crafty  white 
men  gained  a  foothold,  until  through  whisky  and  artifice  they  obtained 
deeds  from  many  of  the  Indians  for  their  possessions.  The  Indians  were 
finally  induced  to  cross  over  the  Father  of  Waters  and  locate  among  the 
lowas.  Black  Hawk  was  strenuously  opposed  to  all  this,  but  as  the 
authorities  of  Illinois  and  the  United  States  thought  this  the  best  move,  he 
was  forced  to  comply.  Moreover  other  tribes  joined  the  whites  and  urged 
the  removal.  Black  Hawk  would  not  agree  to  the  terms  of  the  treaty 
made  with  his  nation  for  their  lands,  and  as  soon  as  the  military,  called  to 
enforce  his  removal,  had  retired,  he  returned  to  the  Illinois  side  of  the 
river.  A  large  force  was  at  once  raised  and  marched  against  him.  On 
the  evening  of  May  14,  1832,  the  first  engagement  occurred  between  a 
band  from  this  army  and  Black  Hawk's  band,  in  which  the  former  were 

This  attack  and  its  result  aroused  the  whites.  A  large  force  of  men 
was  raised,  and  Gen.  Scott  hastened  from  the  seaboard,  by  way  of  the 
lakes,  with  United  States  troops  and  artillery  to  aid  in  the  subjugation  of 
the  Indians.  On  the  24th  of  June,  Black  Hawk,  with  200  warriors,  was 
repulsed  by  Major  Demont  between  Rock  River  and  Galena,  The  Ameri- 
can army  continued  to  move  up  Rock  River  toward  the  main  body  of 
the  Indians,  and  on  the  21st  of  July  came  upon  Black  Hawk  and  his  band, 
and  defeated  them  near  the  Blue  Mounds. 

Before  this  action,  Gen.  Henry,  in  command,  sent  word  to  the  main 
army  by  whom  he  was  immediately  rejoined,  and  the  v/hole  crossed  the 


Wisconsin  in  pursuit  of  Black  Hawk  and  his  band  who  were  fleeing  to  the 
Mississippi.  They  were  overtaken  on  the  2d  of  August,  and  in  the  battle 
which  followed  the  power  of  the  Indian  chief  was  completely  broken.  He 
fled,  but  was  seized  by  the  Winnebagoes  and  delivered  to  the  whites. 

On  the  21st  of  September,  1832,  Gen.  Scott  and  Gov.  Reynolds  con- 
cluded a  treaty  with  the  Winnebagoes,  Sacs  and  Foxes  by  which  they 
ceded  to  the  United  States  a  vast  tract  of  country,  and  agreed  to  remain 
peaceable  with  the  whites.  For  the  faithful  performance  of  the  provi- 
sions of  this  treaty  on  the  part  of  the  Indians,  it  was  stipulated  that 
Black  Hawk,  his  two  sons,  the  prophet  Wabokieshiek,  and  six  other  chiefs 
of  the  hostile  bands  should  be  retained  as  hostages  duriijg  the  pleasure 
of  the  President.    They  were  confined  at  Fort  Barracks  and  put  in  irons. 

The  next  Springy,  by  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  they  were  taken 
to  Washington.  From  there  they  were  removed  to  Fortress  Monroe, 
"there  to  remain  until  the  conduct  of  their  nation  was  such  as  to  justify 
their  being  set  at  liberty."  They  were  retained  here  until  the  4th  of 
June,  when  the  authorities  directed  them  to  be  taken  to  the  principal 
cities  so  that  they  might  see  the  folly  of  contending  against  the  white 
people.  Everywhere  they  were  observed  by  thousands,  the  name  of  the 
old  chief  being  extensively  known.  By  the  middle  of  August  they 
reached  Fort  Armstrong  on  Rock  Island,  where  Black  Hawk  was  soon 
after  released  to  go  to  his  countrymen.  As  he  passed  the  site  of  his  birth- 
place, now  the  home  of  the  white  man,  he  was  deeply  moved.  His  village 
where  he  was  born,  where  he  had  so  happily  lived,  and  where  he  had 
hoped  to  die,  was  now  another's  dwelling  place,  and  he  was  a  wanderer. 

On  the  next  day  after  his  release,  he  went  at  once  to  his  tribe  and 
his  lodge.  His  wife  was  yet  living,  and  with  her  he  passed  the  remainder 
of  his  days.  To  his  credit  it  may  be  said  that  Black  Hawk  always  re- 
mained true  to  his  wife,  and  served  her  with  a  devotion  uncommon  among 
the  Indians,  living  with  her  upward  of  forty  years. 

Black  Hawk  now  passed  his  time  hunting  and  fishing.  A  deep  mel- 
ancholy had  settled  over  him  from  which  he  could  not  be  freed.  At  all 
times  when  he  visited  the  whites  he  was  received  with  marked  atten- 
tion. He  was  an  honored  guest  at  the  old  settlers'  reunion  in  Lee  County, 
Illinois,  at  some  of  their  meetings,  and  received  many  tokens  of  esteem. 
In  September,  1838,  while  on  his  way  to  Rock  Island  to  receive  his 
annuity  from  the  Government,  he  contracted  a  severe  cold  which  resulted 
in  a  fatal  attack  of  bilious  fever  which  terminated  his  life  on  October  3. 
His  faithful  wife,  who  was  devotedly  attached  to  him,  mourned  deeply 
during  his  sickness.  After  his  death  he  was  dressed  in  the  uniform  pre- 
sented to  him  by  the  President  while  in  Washington.  He  was  buried  iu 
a  grave  six  feet  in  depth,  isituated  upon  a  beautiful  eminence.     "  The 


body  was  placed  in  the  middle  of  the  grave,  in  a  sitting  posture,  upon  a 
seat  constructed  for  the  purpose.  On  his  left  side,  the  cane,  given  him 
by  Henry  Clay,  was  placed  upright,  with  his  right  hand  resting  upon  it. 
Many  of  the  old  warrior's  trophies  were  placed  in  the  grave,  and  some 
Indian  garments,  together  with  his  favorite  weapons." 

No  sooner  was  the  Black  Hawk  war  concluded  than  settlers  began 
rapidly  to  pour  into  the  northern  parts  of  Illinois,  and  into  Wisconsin, 
now  free  from  Indian  depredations.  Chicago,  from  a  trading  post,  had 
grown  to  a  commercial  center,  and  was  rapidly  coming  into  prominence. 
In  1835,  the  formation  of  a  State  Government  in  Michigan  was  discussed, 
but  did  not  take  active  form  until  two  years  later,  when  the  State  became 
a  part  of  the  Federal  Union. 

The  main  attraction  to  that  portion  of  the  Northwest  lying  west  of 
Lake  Michigan,  now  included  in  the  State  of  Wisconsin,  was  its  alluvial 
wealth.  Copper  ore  was  found  about  Lake  Superior.  For  some  time  this 
region  was  attached  to  Michigan  for  judiciary  purposes,  but  in  1830  was 
made  a  territory,  then  including  Minnesota  and  Iowa.  The  latter  State 
was  detached  two  years  later.  In  1848,  Wisconsin  was  admitted  as  a 
State,  Madison  being  made  the  capital.  We  have  now  traced  the  various 
divisions  of  the  Northwest  Territory  (save  a  little  in  Minnesota)  from 
the  time  it  was  a  unit  comprising  this  vast  territory,  until  circumstances 
compelled  its  present  division. 





















Massachusetts .... 







New  Hampshire. 

New  Jersey 

New  York 

North  Carolina... 


















409, 706 











R.  R. 


8u2,ojo  l,o»l 
864,694  2,266 






939,946j    999 

648.936  1,021 

1,783,085  1,934 













1,399,750  1,619 





Pennsylvania  .... 

Khode  Island 

South   Carolina.. 





West  Virginia.... 

Total  States .. 


Arizona , 



Districtof  Columbia 



New  Mexico 




Total  Territories 

Aggregate  of  U.  S...  2,915,203 





















R.  R. 




38,555,983  50,155,783 












British  India 


United  States — with  Alaska 

German  Empire 


Austria  and  Hungary , 



Cxreat  Britain  and  Ireland.., 







Sweden  and  Norway 

Belgium < 



Dominion  of  Canada 



Peru , 






Argentine  Confederation .... 






San  Salvador 




San  Domingo 

Costa  Rica 

























































































St   Petersburg  (1881) 












Rio  de  Janiero 










La  Paz 





Buenos  Ayres  (1881)....... 


Santiago  de  Guatemala. 



Port  au'Prince 

San  Salvador 




San  Domingo 

San  Jose 
























The  State 




As  ti  tabula... 


Auglaize   ... 




Carroll  ...  . 
Champaign  . 


Clermont  ... 


Coshoctou  .. 
Crawford  . . . 
Cuyahoga    .. 



Delaware  ... 









Guernsey  ... 
Hamilton  ... 









Jackson  .. 



Licking  .. 















Muskingum  . 





Pickaway    .  . 







Sandusky  ... 






Trumbull  ... 
Tuscarawas  . 


Van  Wert  . . . 



Washington . 











































285 1 













































.351 16 




From  the  organization  of  the  first  civil  government  in  the  Northwest  Territory,  of  which  the  State  of  Ohio 
was  a  part,  until  the  year  1884. 

Term,  Two  Years. 





Arthur  St.  Clair  (1) 

Charles  W.  Byrd  (2)..., 

Edward  Tiffin  (3) 

Thomas  Kirker  (4) 

Samuel  Huntington Trumbull . 

Return  Jonathan  Meigs  (5)..}Washington.. 

Othniel  Looker* Hamilton 

Thomas  Worthington jRoss 

Ethan  Allen  Brown  (6) , Hamilton 

Allen  Trimble* JHighland 

Jeremiah  Morrow Warren.. 

Allen  Trimble 

Duncan  McArthur 

Robert  Lucas 

Joseph  Vance , 

Wilson  Shannon 

Thomas  Corwin 

Wilson  Shannon  (7)  ... 
Thomas  W.  Bartley*... 

Highland ... 




























Mordecai  Bartley Richland 

William  Bebb JButler 

Seabury  Ford  (8) .Geauga 

Reuben  Wood  (9) Cuyahoga 

William  Medill  (10) 'Fairfield 

Salmon  P.  Chase jHamilton 

William  Dennison iFranklin 

David  Tod Mahoning, 

.John  Brough  (11) iCuyahoga 

Charles  Andersonf jMontgomery.... 

Jacob  D.  Co.x Trumbull 

Rutherford  B.  Hayes Hamilton 

Edward  F.  Noyes iHamilton 

William  Allen iRoss 

Rutherford  B.  Hayes  (12)....|Sandusky 

Thomas  L.  Youngf Hamilton 

Richard  M.  Bishop Hamilton 

Charles  Foster jseneca 

George  Hoadly Hamilton 


(1)  Arthur  St.  Clair,  of  Pennsylvania,  was  Governor  of  the  Northwest  Territory,  of  which  Ohio  was  a  part, 
from  July  13,  1788,  when  the  first  civil  government  was  established  in  the  Territory,  until  about  the  close  of 
the  year  1802,  when  he  was  removed  by  the  President. 

(2)  Secretary  of  the  Territory,  and  was  acting  Governor  of  the  Territory  after  the  removal  of  Gov.  St. 

(3)  Resigned  March  3, 1807,  to  accept  the  office  of  United  States  Senator. 

(4)  Return  Jonathan  Meigs  was  elected  Governor  on  the  second  Tuesday  of  October,  1807,  over  Nathaniel 
Massie,  who  contested  the  election  of  Meigs  on  the  ground  "  that  he  had  not  been  a  resident  of  this  State  for 
four  years  next  preceding  the  election  as  required  by  the  Constitution,"  and  the  General  Assembly,  in  joint 
convention,  decided  that  he  was  not  eligible.  The  office  was  not  given  to  Massie,  nor  does  it  appear  from  the 
records  that  he  claimed  it,  but  Thomas  Kirker,  Acting  Governor,  continued  to  discharge  the  duties  of  the  office 
until  December  12,  1808,  when  Samuel  Huntington  was  inaugurated,  he  having  been  elected  on  the  second 
Tuesday  of  October  in  that  year. 

(5)  Resigned  March  25, 1814,  to  accept  the  office  of  Postmaster-General  of  the  United  States. 

(6)  Resigned  January  4,  1822,  to  accept  the  office  of  United  States  Senator. 

(7)  Resigned  April  13, 1844,  to  accept  the  office  of  Minister  to  Mexico. 

(8)  The  result  of  the  election  in  1848  was  not  finally  determined  in  joint  convention  of  the  two  houses  of 
the  General  Assembly  until  January  19,  1849,  and  the  inauguration  did  not  take  placa  until  the  22d  of  that 

(9)  Resigned  July  15, 1853,  to  accept  the  office  of  Consul  to  "Valparaiso. 

(10)  Elected  in  October,  1853,  for  the  regular  term,  to  commence  on  the  second  Monday  of  January,  1854. 

(11)  Died  August  29,  1865. 

(12)  Resigned  March  2, 1877,  to  accept  the  office  of  President  of  the  United  States. 
*  Acting  Governor.    Succeeded  to  office,  being  the  Speaker  of  the  Senate. 

t  Acting  Governor.    Succeeded  to  office,  being  the  Lieutenant-Governor. 



IT  is  not  our  province  in  a  volume  of  this  description,  to  delineate  the  chronol- 
ogy of  prehistoric  epochs,  or  to  dwell  at  length  upon  those  topics  pertaining 
to  the  scientific  causes  which  tended  to  the  formation  of  a  continent,  undiscov- 
ered for  centuries,  by  the  wisdom  and  energy  of  those  making  a  history  of  the 
Old  World,  by  the  advancement  of  enlightenment  in  tne  Eastern  Hemisphere. 
Naturally,  the  geological  formation  of  the  State  of  Ohio  cannot  be  entirely 
separated  from  facts  relative  to  the  strata,  which,  in  remote  ages  accumulated 
one  layer  above  the  other,  and  finally  constituted  a  "built-up"  America,  from 
a  vast  sea.  The  action  of  this  huge  body  of  water  washed  sediment  and  what- 
ever came  in  its  way  upon  primitive  rocks,  which  were  subjected  to  frequent 
and  repeated  submersions,  emerging  as  the  water  subsided,  thus  leaving  a 
stratum  or  layer  to  solidify  and  mark  its  number  in  the  series — a  system  of 
growth  repeated  in  trees  of  the  forest — in  those  descernible  rings  that  count  so 
many  years.  The  southeastern  part  of  North  America  emerging  a  second 
time  from  the  Silurian  Sea,  which  extended  west  to  the  Rocky  Mountains  and 
north  to  the  primitive  hills  of  British  America,  a  succession  of  rock -bound, 
salt-water  lakes  remained.  These  covered  a  large  portion  of  the  continent,  and 
their  water  evaporating,  organic  and  mineral  matter  remained  to  solidify.,  This 
thick  stratum  has  been  designated  by  geologists  as  the  water-lime  layer.  This 
constitutes  the  upper  layer  of  rock  in  the  larger  portion  of  the  west  half  of 
Ohio.     In  other  sections  it  forms  the  bed  rock. 

Following  the  lime-rock  deposit,  must  have  been  more  frequent  sweeps  of 
the  great  sea,  since  the  layers  are  comparatively  thin,  proving  a  more  speedy 
change.  During  this  scientific  rising  and  falling  of  the  sea,  other  actions  were 
taking  place,  such  as  volcanic  and  other  influences  which  displaced  the  regular- 
ity of  the  strata,  and  occasionally  came  out  in  an  upheaval  or  a  regular  perpen- 
dicular dip.  A  disturbance  of  this  character  formed  the  low  mountain  range 
extending  from  the  highlands  of  Canada  to  the  southern  boundary  of  Tennes- 
see. This  "bulge"  is  supposed  to  be  the  consequence  of  the  cooling  of  the 
earth  and  the  pressure  of  the  oceans  on  either  side  of  the  continent.  Geolo- 
gists designate  this  as  the  Cincinnati  arch.  This  forms  a  separation  between 
the  coal  fields  of  the  Alleghanies  and  those  of  Llinois. 

Passing  over  several  periods,  we  reach  the  glacial,  during  which  the  topog- 
raphy of  the  continent  was  considerably  modified,  and  which  is  among  the 
latest  epochs  of  geology,  though  exceedingly  remote  as  compared  with  human 


74  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

history.  Previously,  a  torrid  heat  prevailed  the  entire  Northern  hemisphere. 
Now  the  temperature  of  the  frigid  zone  crept  southward  until  it  reached  Cincin- 
nati. A  vast  field  of  ice,  perhaps  hundreds  of  feet  thick,  extended  from  the 
north  pole  to  this  point.  As  this  glacial  rigor  came  southward,  the  flow  of 
the  St.  Lawrence  River  was  stopped,  and  the  surplus  water  of  the  great  lake 
basin  was  turned  into  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi.  This  glacial  sea  was  by  no 
means  stationary  even  after  its  southern  limit  had  been  reached.  It  possessed 
the  properties  of  a  solid  and  a  fluid.  Its  action  was  slow  but  powerful,  grind- 
ing mountains  to  powder  and  forming  great  valleys  and  basins.  Separating 
into  two  glacial  portions,  one  moved  toward  the  watershed  north  of  the  Ohio 
River ;  and,  continuing  westerly,  it  hollowed  out  the  basin  of  Lake  Erie  and 
crushed  the  apex  of  the  Cincinnati  arch.  From  this  point,  it  turned  south- 
ward and  swept  with  a  regular  course  through  the  Maumee  and  Miami  Valleys 
to  the  Ohio  River.  The  southern  border  constantly  melting,  and  flowing  toward 
the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  the  great  field  was  pressed  forward  by  the  accumulations 
of  ice  in  the  northern  latitudes.  Thus  for  ages,  this  powerful  force  was  fitting 
the  earth  for  the  habitation  of  man.  The  surface  was  leveled,  huge  rocks 
broken  and  reduced  to  pebbles,  sand,  clay,  etc.,  other  soil  and  surface-material — 
■while  the  debris  was  embedded  at  the  bottom.  In  some  sections,  as  the  ice 
melted  and  freed  the  bowlders  and  rocks,  the  lighter  material  was  swept  away. 
The  glacier  moving  forward,  and  the  forces  proving  an  "  equilibrium,"  the 
edge  of  this  ice-field  was  held  in  a  solid  stronghold,  and  the  material  thus  de- 
posited forms  a  ridge,  called  by  geologists  "terminal  moraine,"  first  exemplified 
in  Ohio  by  the  "Black  Swamp,"  in  the  Maumee  Valley. 

The  most  extreme  rigor  of  this  period  beginning  to  wane,  the  ice  of  the 
Maumee  and  Miami  Valleys  began  to  move  slowly  forward,  toward  the  north, 
reaching  the  points  now  termed  Hudson,  Mich.;  Fort  Wayne,  Ind.,  and  Kenton, 
Ohio — reaching  somewhat  further  south  than  Lima  and  Van  "Wert.  The  edge  of 
the  glacier  was  defined  in  outline  by  the  present  western  border  of  Lake  Erie,  and 
parallel  with  it.  Climatic  influences  "  acting  and  counteracting,"  the  glacial 
force  was  concentrated,  the  Maumee  A^alley  being  subjected  to  a  grinding  proc- 
ess, and  a  deposit  of  material  going  on,  which  now  forms  the  boundary  of  the 
"Black  Swamp."  As  our  readers  are  aware,  the  waters  of  the  St.  Joseph  and 
St.  Mary's  meet  at  Fort  Wayne,  and  their  united  waters  form  the  Maumee ; 
thence  the  turn  is  northwest,  and,  wearing  an  outlet  through  the  ridge,  it 
reaches  the  head  of  Lake  Erie. 

The  torrid  zone  yet  gaining  the  ascendency,  the  ice-fields  continuing  their 
reverse  motion,  and  retreating  toward  the  north,  the  basin  of  the  great  lakes 
was  formed ;  and  the  blocks  of  ice  melting  therein,  a  vast  sea  of  fresh  water  was 
formed,  which  gradually  overflowed  a  portion  of  Canada  and  Michigan,  But 
the  St.  Lawrence,  that  important  outlet,  was  under  the  restraint  of  an  ice 
blockade,  and  the  surplus  water  of  the  fresh  sea  was  turned  into  the  Ohio  and 
and  Mississippi. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  75 

Later,  mountains  of  ice-float  were  drifted  from  the  north  by  winds  and  cur- 
rents, into  temperate  latitudes,  and  melting,  deposited  rocks,  stones  and  general 
debris.  Following  the  iceberg-drift,  came  the  permanent  elevation  above  the  ocean- 
level.  The  St.  Lawrence  outlet  was  formed.  The  inland  sea  was  assuming  its 
division  into  lakes.  The  united  waters  of  Erie  and  Huron  flowed  through  the 
IVabash  Valley  and  into  the  Ohio,  until,  through  some  agency,  that  section  was 
dry,  and  the  lakes  drained  in  another  direction.  The  action  of  the  glacial 
period  in  the  Erie  basin  vicinity  created  what  is  known  as  the  "  Niagara  lime- 
stone," by  grinding  upper  strata  and  drifting  the  debris  elsewhere.  This  seems 
to  have  occurred  at  intervals,  exposures  being  made  in  Seneca,  Sandusky  and 
Wood  Counties,  and  beneath  the  axis  of  the  Cincinnati  arch.  Oriskany  lime- 
stone is  also  available  in  another  stratum,  which  has  been  brought  to  the  surface. 
Again,  there  is  a  carboniferous  stratum  of  limestone,  and  along  the  Maumee  is 
a  thin  exposure  of  the  Hamilton  limestone  and  shale. 

A  glacier  having  both  fluid  and  solid  properties,  it  will  readily  be  compre- 
iended  that  obdurate  projections  of  rock  resisted  its  action,  and  created  currents 
in  other  directions,  for  its  forces.  When  this  specified  epoch  had  ceased  to  be, 
Ohio  was  a  rough,  irregular  and  crude  mixture  of  ridges  and  knobs  and  pinnacles, 
which  were  "  leveled  up  "  and  finished  by  iceberg-drift  and  inland-sea  deposits. 
This  settled  and  accumulated,  and  the  work  of  hundreds  af  years  produced  a 
beautiful  surface,  its  inequalities  overcome,  the  water  having  receded  and  "  terra 
£rma"  remaining.  A  deep  bed  of  clay,  sufficiently  compact  to  hold  the  germs 
of  organic  matter,  and  sufficiently  porous  to  absorb  moisture,  was  especially 
adapted  to  encourage  the  growth  of  vegetation.  These  seeds  had  been  brous^ht 
by  the  winds  and  waves  and  natural  agencies,  and  now  began  to  produce  plants 
and  shrubs,  which  withered  to  enrich  the  soil,  after  scattering  broadcast  seeds 
that  would  again  perpetuate  verdure.  Worms,  land  crabs  and  burrowing  ani- 
mals assisted  in  the  creation  of  soil,  while  the  buffalo,  deer  and  bear  followed, 
as  soon  as  forestry  appeared.  Decomposed  foliage  and  fallen  timber  aided  in 
the  great  work  of  preparing  the  present  State  of  Ohio  for  the  habitation  of  man. 
Prairie,  marsh,  forest,  rivers  and  lakes  were  formed,  which,  in  turn,  were  modi- 
:fied  and  prepared  for  a  grand  destiny  by  other  influences. 

In  glancing  over  the  compiled  histories  of  Ohio,  those  containing  details  of 
her  early  struggles,  afflictions  and  triumphs,  we  are  especially  impressed  with 
its  near  and  sympathetic  relation  with  the  great  Northwest,  and  the  republic  of 
the  United  States  of  America.  From  the  early  years  when  white  men  built 
their  rude  cabins  in  the  then  tangled  wilderness,  to  the  opulent  and  magnificent 
present  of  this  united  nation,  Ohio  has  been  stanch,  loyal  and  earnest,  both 
in  action  and  principle. 

We  shall  endeavor  to  trace  the  history  of  the  State  concisely  and  accurately, 
according  to  the  data  given  by  the  most  reliable  historians.  We  are  obliged  to 
glean  the  prominent  events  only,  our  space  being  limited,  compared  with  the 
multitudinous  interests  connected  with  this  important  part  of  the  United  States. 

76  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 


All  through  early  French  history,  is  the  fact  especially  prominent,  that  in 
their  explorations  and  expeditions,  they  united  piety  and  business.  They  were 
zealous  in  sending  out  their  missionaries,  but  they  were  always  attended  by 
traders  and  those  who  were  as  skilled  in  the  world's  profit  and  loss,  as  their 
companions  were  in  propagating  Christianity. 

Prior  to  the  landing  of  the  Pilgrim  Fathers  upon  Plymouth  Rock,  the 
Upper  Lakes  were  visited  by  the  French,  and  records  prove  that  during  the  first 
half  of  the  seventeenth  century,  a  vagabondish  set,  working  in  the  interests  of 
the  fur  company  of  New  France,  understood  the  geographical  position  of  the 
lakes  and  their  tributary  streams.  M.  Perrot,  an  intelligent  explorer,  made 
overtures  of  peace  to  the  Indian  tribes  around  these  bodies  of  water,  and 
efiected  a  treaty,  which,  it  is  claimed,  established  the  right  for  the  French,  in 
the  name  of  their  king,  to  hold  the  place  near  St.  Mary's  Falls.  They  further 
assert  that  the  Mississippi  was  discovered  by  the  French  from  Lake  Superior, 
but  this  is  not  authenticated,  and  Father  jNIarquette  and  ]M.  Joliet  are  accepted 
as  the  first  who  found  this  large  stream,  in  1763.  The  good  missionary  won 
his  way  with  his  patient  and  sympathetic  nature. 

Ohio  was,  like  the  other  portions  of  the  West,  originally  in  the  possession 
of  aborigines  or  Indians.  Of  their  origin,  many  suppositions  are  advanced, 
but  no  certainties  sustained.  From  practical  evidences,  the  Mound-Builders 
were  active  in  Ohio,  and  here  as  elsewhere,  their  work  marked  retrogression 
rather  than  advancement.  The  territory  of  Ohio  was  claimed  by  the  French, 
and  included  in  that  wide  tract  between  the  Alleghanies  and  the  Rockies,  held 
by  them  under  the  name  of  Louisiana.  Before  the  year  1750,  a  French  trad- 
ing-post was  established  at  the  mouth  of  the  Wabash,  and  communication  was 
established  between  that  point  and  the  Maumee,  and  Canada.  Between  the 
years  1678  and  1682,  the  intrepid  La  Salle  and  Father  Hennepin,  assisted  by 
Fondi,  an  Italian,  with  a  small  band  of  followers,  inaugurated  a  series  of 
explorations  about  the  great  lakes  and  the  Mississippi,  building  forts  on  their 
way  and  planting  the  French  priority.  In  1680,  La  Salle  erected  a  stockade  at 
the  foot  of  the  rapids  of  the  Maumee,  which  was  a  general  rendezvous  for  mission- 
aries, traders  and  explorers,  besides  constituting  a  primitive  "stock  exchange." 

The  English  colonies  were  at  this  time  east  of  the  Alleghanies,  while  the 
French  were  establishing  themselves  west  of  this  range,  gaining  an  entrance 
north  and  south,  the  two  portions  separated  by  hostile  and  barbarous  foes. 
La  Salle's  spirit  of  adventure  led  him  into  new  fields,  but  Father  Hennepin 
was  detailed  to  investigate  that  part  of  the  world  now  known  as  the  State  of 
Ohio.  The  records  assert  that  he  published  a  volume  containing  an  account  of 
his  observations  "in  the  country  between  New  Mexico  and  the  frozen  ocean," 
in  1684,  together  with  maps  of  Lakes  Erie,  Huron  and  Michigan,  and  a  plat 
of  the  larger  streams  in  Ohio. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  77 

Apparently,  the  French  more  speedily  comprehended  the  value  of  their 
advantages  in  the  New  World  than^the  English,  and  vigorously  inaugurated  and 
sustained  commercial  and  religious  projects.  They  were  essentially  benefited 
by  the  mediation  of  the  Catholic  priests  between  settlers  and  Indians,  this 
really  earnest  class  everywhere  ingratiating  themselves  with  the  savages.  The 
Order  of  Jesuits  were  very  vigorous,  and  representatives  were  stationed  at  every 
trading-post,  village  and  settlement.  The  English  colonists  engaged  mostly  in 
agriculture,  while  the  French  toot  a  lively  interest  in  the  fur  trade  with  the 
natives,  probably  from  their  former  settlement  in  Quebec  and  thereabouts,  where 
the  climate  is  advantageous  for  this  business.  This  added  to  the  influence  of 
the  priests,  and  the  natural  assimilation  of  French  and  the  Indians,  through 
the  tact  and  amiability  of  the  former,  the  French  possessions  gained  more 
rapidly  than  the  English  or  Spanish.  They  courted  their  daughters  and 
married  them.  They  engaged  in  feasts  and  trades,  and  took  advantage  of 
those  unimpeded  times  to  extend  their  dominion  with  surprising  celerity.  A 
chain  of  trading,  missionary  and  military  posts  extended  from  New  Orleans  to 
Quebec,  by  way  of  the  Mississippi  and  Illinois  Rivers,  thence  via  Mackinaw  and 
Detroit  to  Lakes  Erie  and  Ontario.  This  route  was  shortened  thereafter  by 
following  the  Ohio  River  to  the  "Wabash,  following  the  latter  upward,  and 
down  the  Maumee  to  Lake  Erie. 

About  the  same  time,  and  to  check  the  advancement  of  the  French,  the 
Ohio  Company  was  formed  by  the  English.  This  was  an  outgrowth  of  the 
contest  between  these  two  nations  for  the  ascendency,  whether  empire,  settle- 
ment or  individual.  After  thirty  years'  peace  between  these  two  nations, 
"King  George's  War"  opened  the  campaign  in  1744,  but  terminated  in  1748, 
the  treaty  at  Aix-la-Chapelle  unfortunately  omitting  a  settlement  of  any  division 
of  claims  in  America.  The  English,  French  and  Spanish  were  the  first  to 
enter  America,  and  the  right  of  possession  by  each  monarch  or  empire  was 
held  by  right  of  a  first  discovery.  The  only  right  that  England  could  advance 
regarding  Ohio  was  that  the  portion  of  the  Six  Nations  found  in  the  Ohio 
Valley  had  placed  some  of  their  lands  under  British  jurisdiction,  and  that  other 
portions  had  been  purchased  at  Lancaster,  Penn.,  by  means  of  a  treaty  with 
the  same  nations.  All  this  was  strenuously  denied  and  ignored  by  the  French. 
Thus  several  conflicting  influences  swept  carnage  over  fair  Ohio.  The  Indians  were 
allied  to  one  side  and  the  other,  and  were  against  each  other.  The  Indians  and 
French  would  advance  against  the  English,  and  they,  in  retaliation,  would 
make  a  raid  into  the  Indian  territory  and  overcome  a  French  settlement. 
Whenever  they  could  as  well,  Indians  would  take  the  cause  in  their  own  keep- 
ing and  fight  each  other.  The  wide,  verdant  fields  of  Ohio  were  drenched 
ghastly  red  under  a  glowing  sun,  and  the  great  forests  echoed  moans  from  the 
dying  and  distressed.  The  English  colonists  had  partially  overcome  their 
deprivation,  caused  by  a  struggle  for  subsistence,  and  means  to  guard  against 
the  savages — this  distress  augmented  by  campaigns  against  Canada — ^by  their 

78  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

increased  numbers  and  wealth,  but  were  now  alarmed  by  the  French  rule  in 
America,  which  gained  so  rapidly,  unmolested  as  it  was  by  Indian  raids  and 
other  devastating  circumstances.  A  constant  conflict  was  going  on  between 
Lake  Erie  and  the  Upper  Ohio.  Atrocities  and  massacres  were  committed 
indiscriminately,  which  opened  the  way  for  a  desperate  class  of  marauders  and 
villains  from  the  colonies  and  European  States.  These  people  enlisted  with 
the  Indians  on  either  side  for  the  purpose  of  leadership  and  plunder.  Every 
fortification,  trading-post  and  settlement  was  garrisoned  or  deserted,  and  the 
ground  between  the  Alleghanies  and  the  Maumee  became  a  conflict  field,  rife 
with  thrilling  deeds,  sacrifice  and  adventures,  the  half  never  having  been 
chronicled,  and  many  heroes  falling  uncrowned  by  even  a  lasting  memory,  since 
during  these  times  the  people  kept  few  annals,  and  cared  less  for  historical 
memories  than  anything  on  earth.  They  were  living,  and  dying,  and  struggling, 
and  that  was  more  than  they  could  carry  through  safely.  The  French  formed 
a  road  from  the  Ohio  River  to  Detroit,  via  the  foot  of  the  Lower  Rapids  of  the 
]\Iaumee,  and  the  foot  of  the  Lower  Rapids  of  the  Sandusky. 

The  Ohio  Company  obtained  a  charter  under  English  views,  from  the 
British  Government,  with  a  grant  of  6,000  acres  of  land  on  the  Ohio.  The 
English  now  reverted  to  the  times  of  the  Cabots,  and  protested  that  by  right 
they  held  the  entire  country  between  the  Atlantic  and  Pacific  Oceans,  bounded 
by  those  parallels  of  latitude  defining  their  Atlantic  coast  settlements.  France 
claimed  the  region  drained  by  the  Mississippi  and  tributaries,  the  great  lakes 
and  their  tributaries,  the  area  being  west  of  the  Alleghanies.  Ohio  was  thus 
included  in  the  disputed  tract. 

The  Ohio  Company  was  formed  in  1748,  by  a  number  of  Virginians  and 
Londoners,  two  brothers  of  George  Washington  taking  conspicuous  parts  in  the 
movement ;  Thomas  Lee  was  especially  active.  When  the  surveys  were  begun, 
the  Governor  of  Canada  entered  vigorous  protests,  and  indicated  his  displeasure 
by  a  prompt  line  of  posts  from  Erie  to  Pittsburgh,  named  respectively,  Presque 
Isle,  Le  Boeuf,  Vedango,  Kittaning  and  Du  Quesne.  The  latter  was  begun 
by  the  English,  captured  by  the  French,  and  by  them  completed. 

The  first  English  settlement  of  which  we  can  find  traces  was  a  block-house 
at  Piqua,  about  the  year  1752.  It  was  attacked,  and  a  bitter  struggle  ensued, 
resulting  in  the  death  of  fourteen  of  the  assailants.  Those  within  the  garrison 
suffered  severely,  many  being  burned,  and  the  remainder  captured  and  dis- 
patched to  Canada. 

In  1753,  the  French  and  Indian  war  actively  began.  It  did  not  extend 
beyond  the  American  continent  until  1756,  when  the  home  governments  took 
an  interest  in  its  progress  beyond  encouraging  their  respective  colonists  to  pur- 
sue the  war-path  to  a  direful  finale  for  their  adversaries.  For  four  years,  the 
French  captured  and  conquered,  spreading  terror  wherever  they  went,  and 
they  followed  every  Englishman  that  set  his  foot  on  Ohio  soil  to  the  death. 
We  may  state  that  these  people  had  not  retained  their   civilized  habits,  and 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  79 

constant  association  with  savages  had  embued  them  with  barbarous  methods  of 
warfare  which  were  sickening  and  revolting  to  the  English,  and  to  which  they 
could  not  resort.  It  is  highly  probable  that  French  success  was  vastly  brought 
about  by  these  means,  together  with  the  assistance  of  their  Indian  allies.  In 
1758,  when  the  English  hope  was  almost  exterminated,  the  elder  Pitt  being 
placed  at  the  head  of  the  administration,  a  new  and  energetic  system  was 
inaugurated,  wise  measures  instituted,  and  military  science  triumphed  over 
savage  cunning  and  French  intrigue.  The  first  brilliant  English  achievement 
was  the  conquest  of  Canada.  When  the  home  governments  interfered,  the 
war  assumed  the  character  of  a  French  and  English  conflict,  regardless  of 
Indian  right,  yet  the  tribes  continued  to  participate  in  the  carnage. 

A  certain  Christian,  Frederick  Post,  a  Moravian  missionary,  located  upon 
the  Muskingum,  near  Beavertown.  Heckewelder  consented  to  become  his 
associate.  The  Indians  receiving  them  kindly,  under  conditions  that  Post 
should  serve  as  tutor,  this  missionary  began  clearing  a  field  for  the  purpose  of 
planting  corn  for  sustenance.  This  did  not  accord  with  Indian  logic.  They 
had  stipulated  that  he  teach  and  he  was  planting  corn,  which  to  them  was  a 
signal  of  the  coming  of  other  whites,  the  building  of  a  fort  and  encroachments 
upon  the  Indians.  They  referred  to  the  French  priests,  who  were  in  good 
physical  condition,  did  not  till  land,  but  were  in  charge  of  the  Great  Spirit 
who  provided  for  them,  a  conclusive  proof  to  them  that  when  divine  work  was 
acceptable  to  the  Great  Spirit,  priests  were  somehow  sustained  by  other  than 
the  plans  which  disturbed  their  great  hunting-grounds.  However,  they 
allowed  him  a  small  space,  and  he  remained  with  them,  preaching  and  teaching 
during  the  summer  of  1762,  when,  accompanied  by  one  of  the  principal  chiefs, 
he  returned  to  Lancaster,  Penn.,  where  a  treaty  was  concluded.  On  his  return 
to  his  post,  he  was  met  by  Heckewelder,  who  imparted  the  tidings  that  friendly 
Indians  had  warned  him  that  the  war  was  about  to  sweep  over  their  section, 
and  destruction  awaited  them  if  they  remained.  The  mission  was  accordingly 
abandoned.  This  failure  was  not  so  bitter  as  the  English  effort  to  sustain  their 
trading-post  in  1749,  on  the  Great  Miami,  afterward  called  Laramie's  store. 
It  pursued  a  feeble  existence  until  1752,  when  a  French  raid  upon  the  Twig- 
twees  and  English  colonists  proved  fatal. 

A  European  treaty  now  excluded  the  French  from  any  rights  to  make 
treaties  with  the  Indians,  and  the  English,  in  their  flush  of  victory  after  Pitt's 
succession,  assumed  the  authority  over  Indians  and  lands.  The  savages  did 
not  accept  the  situation  with  anything  resembling  the  gentle  spirit  of  resigna- 
tion, and  the  Ottawa  chief,  Pontiac,  led  the  several  tribes  into  a  general  war 
against  the  intruders.  It  was  no  longer  Freuch  and  English,  but  Indian  and 
English,  the  former  being  instigated  and  assisted  many  times  by  the  French, 
now  despei-ate  and  unscrupulous  in  a  mad  spirit  for  revenge. 

The  intention  of  the  Indians  was  to  drive  the  whites  east  of  the  mountains, 
destroying  their  numerous  strongholds  in  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia,  if  they 

80  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

failed  in  their  hope  of  utteriy  exterminating  them.  Pontiac  had  effected  a 
consolidation  of  the  tribes  ranging  from  Mackinaw  to  North  Carolina,  thus 
being  enabled  to  swoop  down  upon  all  the  settlements  simultaneously.  A 
deadly  beginning  was  made  in  the  Ohio  Valley,  and  only  two  or  three  English 
traders  escaped  out  of  the  one  hundred  and  twenty  located  in  that  vicinity. 
The  forts  at  Presque  Isle,  St.  Joseph  and  Mackinaw,  were  captured  amid  scenes 
of  slaughter  too  terrible  to  perpetuate  in  description.  The  years  1763  and 
1764  were  literally  drenched  in  human  carnage  and  anguish.  Ohio  was  a 
great  field  of  crime,  murder,  pain  and  horror.  The  expeditions  of  Bradstreet 
and  Bouquet  crushed  the  war  in  1764,  and  Pontiac  with  his  Ottawas  removed 
to  the  Maumee  and  settled.  English  settlement  now  progressed  with  great 
rapidity,  but  this  was  destined  to  be  disturbed  in  1774,  by  the  action  of  Lord 
Dunmore,  who  led  an  expedition  against  the  tribes  of  the  Ohio  country,  termi- 
nated by  his  treaty  on  the  Scioto  plains.  At  this  period,  the  colonists  were  not 
in  strict  harmony  with  England,  and  the  spirit  of  revolution  was  spreading 
every  day. 

When  Lord  Dunmore  made  his  treaty,  the  affirmation  was  made  and  gained 
ground  that  he,  being  a  thorough  loyalist,  had  compromised  under  such  terms 
as  held  the  Indians  British  allies  against  the  settlers.  Directly  following  this 
treaty,  was  the  deliberate  murder  of  a  number  of  Indians,  near  Wheeling, 
including  the  family  of  the  great  chief,  Logan — which  inaugurated  retaliating 

In  the  year  1773,  July  4,  the  first  white  child  was  born  within  the 
present  limits  of  Ohio,  and  was  christened  John  L.  Roth,  son  of  a  Mora- 
vian missionary.  All  the  settlers  of  these  Moravian  towns  on  the  Muskingum 
were  made  prisoners  in  September  of  the  same  year.  Heckwelder  was  tran:- 
ported  to  Detroit,  but  English  tyranny  failed  to  find  any  evidence  against  him 
or  his  colaborers,  and  they  were  reluctantly  released,  and  returned  to  their  fam- 
ilies in  Sandusky.  Poverty  added  to  their  sufferings,  and  in  the  forlorn 
hope  of  finding  a  remnant  of  their  property  at  the  old  settlements,  which  might 
assist  in  mitigating  their  necessities,  they  wearily  went  thitherward.  They 
began  gathering  their  grain,  but  the  Wyandots  attacked  them,  and  many  lives 
were  lost.  Frontiersmen  had  also  grown  jealous  of  them,  and  a  body  of  about 
ninety  marched  out  together,  for  the  fiendish  purpose  of  pillaging,  slaughtering 
and  laying  waste  all  Moravian  towns  and  posts.  With  the  wily  insidiousness  of 
savages,  they  went  about  their  diabolical  plan.  The  Moravians  were  cordial  and 
bade  this  band  welcome,  when  they  reached  their  towns  in  the  guise  of  friend- 
ship. Williamson,  the  leader,  and  the  gleaners,  were  called  from  the  fields, 
when,  to  the  dismay  of  these  trusting  and  frank  people,  they  were  all  bound, 
and  only  fifteen  out  of  the  marauding  band  of  ninety  were  in  favor  of  even 
sparing  the  lives  of  these  hapless  men,  women  and  children.  Forty  men, 
twenty-two  women  and  thirty-four  children  were  then  cruelly  and  heartlessly 
murdered,  their  sufferings  laughed  to  scorn,  and  the  last  sound  that  fell  on  their 

.    A 


-  'it 

-  ■  i/^rd 


end  piled 

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r  Wieeiing, 

d  1  Mon- 

•  u«  tni:- 

mi  rifj 

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ears  was  exultant  derision.  Succeeding  this  tragic  event  was  the  expedition 
against  the  Indian  towns  upon  the  Sandusky.  The  hostile  Indians  had  been 
making  frequent  incursions  upon  the  settlements  of  Western  Pennsylvania  and 
Virginia,  destroying  both  life  and  property.  There  seemed  to  be  no  bounds 
to  their  bloody  work,  and  it  became  necessary,  for  the  peace  and  safety  of  the 
settlers,  to  take  some  measures  to  prevent  their  outrages.  Accordingly,  in 
May,  1782,  Gen.  William  Irvine,  who  was  then  commander  of  the  Western 
Military  Department,  with  headquarters  at  Fort  Pitt,  called  a  council  of  the 
officers  of  his  department  to  meet  at  Fort  Pitt.  At  this  meeting  it  was  de- 
cided to  form  and  equip  a  body  of  men,  and  make  an  expedition  into  the 
Indian  country.  Upper  Sandusky,  then  the  rendezvous  of  the  hostile  Wyan- 
dots,  Delawares,  Shawanese  and  Mingoes,  was  to  be  the  point  of  attack. 

Col.  William  Crawford  led  the  expedition,  which  counted  480  men.  Warn- 
ing had  in  some  manner  reached  the  towns,  and  the  troops  found  them  de- 
serted. But  the  Indians  were  incensed,  and  their  wrath  had  not  driven  them 
to  hiding-places,  but  to  a  preparation  to  meet  their  foes.  They  fought  desper- 
ately, and  Crawford's  troops  were  defeated  and  scattered,  many  being  capt- 
ured, and  among  them  Col.  Crawford  himself.  It  is  hardly  probable  that 
Crawford  could  justly  expect  much  mercy  at  the  hands  of  his  captors.  Ac- 
counts state  that  Crawford  implored  the  aid  of  Girty,  and  at  last  secured  a 
promise  to  use  his  power  to  obtain  the  Colonel's  pardon.  However,  this  was  of 
no  avail,  and  it  is  doubtful  whether  Girty  was  disposed  to  intercede.  The 
prisoners  were  tortured  and  put  to  death,  and  Crawford's  agonies  were  pro- 
tracted as  long  as  possible.  Dr.  Knight  managed  to  disable  the  Indian  who 
had  him  in  charge,  and  made  his  escape  to  the  settlements,  where  he  related 
the  result  of  the  expedition  and  the  tortures  of  the  captured. 

On  October  27,  1784,  a  treaty  was  concluded  at  Fort  Stanwix,  with  the 
sachems  and  warriors  of  the  Mohawks,  Onondagas,  Senecas,  Cayugas,  Onei- 
das  and  Tuscaroras,  and  the  Six  Nations  then  ceded  to  the  Colonial  Govern- 
ment all  claims  to  the  country  west  of  a  line  defined  by  the  western  boundary 
to  the  Ohio — thus  rendering  the  Indian  claim  to  a  large  portion  of  Ohio  lands 
practically  extinct. 

Although  the  French  and  Indian  war  was  a  series  of  heart-rending  events, 
it  was  a  serious  and  remarkable  school  of  discipline  for  the  untrained  troops 
which  soon  engaged  in  the  Revolutionary  struggle.  On  the  fields  of  Ohio,  many 
valuable  officers,  who  earned  distinction  in  the  war  of  independence,  learned 
their  first  lessons  in  intrepid  valor. 

During  the  Revolution,  the  colonial  troops  were  engaged  east  of  the  mount- 
ains, and  western  settlements  and  frontier  people  were  left  alone  to  defend 
themselves  and  their  property  against  encroachments  and  attacks. 

The  Indian  tribes  again  became  belligerent,  and  united  with  the  English 
against  the  "  Americans."  The  latter  held  a  line  of  posts  along  the  Upper 
Ohio,  while  the  British  were  stationed  in  the  old  French  strongholds  on  the 
lakes  and  the  Mississippi.  The  unscrupulous  whites  and  Indians  ranged  at  ran- 
dom between  this  boundary  and  the  Cuyahoga,  thence  southerly  to  the  Ohio, 

84  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

thus  including  the  Scioto  and  Miami  Valleys.  Southeastern  Ohio  constituted 
"the  neutral  ground." 

Gen.  Clarke's  expedition,  although  chiefly  confined  to  Indiana  and  Illinois, 
greatly  influenced  the  settlement  of  Ohio.  His  exploits  and  the  resolution  of 
his  troops  were  chiefly  instrumental  in  holding  the  country  west  of  the  Alle- 
ghanies,  and  insuring  its  possession  by  the  United  States  during  the  Revolution. 
The  British  had  been  emphatic,  in  the  Paris  treaty,  at  the  time  of  the  settlement 
of  the  French  and  English  difficulties,  in  demanding  the  Ohio  River  as  the 
northern  boundary  of  the  United  States.  The  American  Commissioners  relied 
upon  Gen.  Clarke's  valor  and  energy  in  holding  the  country  west  of  the  Alle- 
ghanies,  which  he  had  conquered,  and  the  British  Commissioners  were  compelled 
to  give  their  consent,  under  civil  and  military  measures.  In  1783,  by  the 
treaty  of  Paris,  at  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  war,  the  English  relinquished 
all  rights  to  the  fertile  territory  between  the  Alleghanies  and  the  Mississippi, 
and  the  United  States  held  undisputed  possession. 

January  10,  1786,  Gens.  Rufus  Putnam  and  Benjamin  Tupper  circulated  a 
pamphlet,  proposing  the  formation  of  a  company  for  the  purpose  of  settling  the 
Ohio  lands,  and  soliciting  the  attention  and  consideration  of  all  those  desiring  a 
future  home  and  prosperity.  A  meeting  was  also  called,  to  assemble  during  the 
following  February,  and  select  delegates  to  represent  each  county  in  Massachu- 
setts. These  dignitaries  should  convene  during  the  month  of  March,  at  the 
"  Bunch  of  Grapes  "  tavern,  in  Boston,  for  the  purpose  of  definitely  forming  the 
association,  and  adopting  such  measures  as  would  benefit  all  directly  interested. 
The  Meeting  and  "  convention  "  followed,  and  the  subscription  books  were  opened. 
One  million  dollars,  chiefly  represented  by  Continental  certificates,  was  the 
price  of  the  land.  The  shares  were  valued  at  $1,000  each,  and  there  was  a 
division  of  a  thousand  shares.  The  first  payment  was  to  be  |10  per  share,  this 
money  to  be  set  aside  for  such  expenses  as  might  accrue.  A  year's  interest  was 
to  be  devoted  to  the  establishment  of  the  settlement,  and  those  families  who 
were  unable  to  incur  the  expense  of  moving  were  to  be  assisted.  Those  who 
purchased  shares  to  the  number  of  twenty  were  entitled  to  a  representation  by 
an  agent,  who  was  permitted  to  vote  for  Directors.  This  plan  matured  and  was 
acted  upon  during  the  following  year.  It  may  be  that  the  action  of  Connecti- 
cut, in  ceding  her  territorial  claims  to  the  General  Government,  with  few  excep- 
tions, greatly  encouraged  this  new  undertaking.  That  tract  was,  until  recently, 
designated  the  "  Western  Reserve  " — an  extent  170  miles  from  the  western 
boundary  of  Pennsylvania,  and  parallel  thereto,  being  reserved. 

On  October  27,  1787,  a  contract  was  made  between  the  Board  of  the  Treas- 
ury, for  the  United  States,  and  Manasseh  Cutler  and  Winthrop  Sargent,  agents 
for  the  Directors  of  the  New  England  Ohio  Company,  for  the  purchase  of  a  tract 
of  land,  bounded  by  the  Ohio,  and  from  the  mouth  of  the  Scioto  to  the  inter- 
section of  the  western  boundary  of  the  seventh  townships,  then  surveying ; 
thence  by  said  boundary  to  the  northern  boundary  of  the  tenth  township  from 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  85 

the  Ohio  ;  thence,  by  a  due  west  line,  to  the  Scioto ;  thence,  by  the  Scioto,  to 
the  beginning. 

However  fertile  and  attractive  Ohio  was  known  to  have  been,  settlement  did 
not  gain  rapidly  after  the  close  of  the  war  with  England,  although  the  United 
States  has  gained  her  freedom.  It  was  more  than  six  years  after  Cornwallis 
laid  down  his  sword,  before  a  white  settlement  was  formed  on  the  Ohio  side  of  the 
river.  The  French  and  Indian  war  had  incited  the  English  to  be  jealous  of  her 
colonial  conquests,  and  mistrusting  their  loyalty,  they  had,  so  soon  as  the  French 
claims  were  annulled,  taken  measures  to  crush  all  colonial  claims  also,  and  a 
royal  proclamation  rescinded  all  colonial  land  grants  and  charters,  holding  all 
the  country  west  of  the  sources  of  the  Atlantic  rivers  under  the  protection  and 
sovereignty  of  the  king  of  Great  Britain,  for  the  use  of  the  Indians.  All  white 
persons  were  forbidden  to  remain  or  settle  within  the  prescribed  limits.  Parlia- 
ment then  attached  this  tract  to  Quebec,  and  the  English  Government  felt  assured 
that  the  thirteen  colonies  were  restricted  and  held  secure  east  of  the  Alleffhanies. 

The  result  of  the  war  between  the  colonies  and  England  did  not  constitute 
an  Indian  treaty.  Although  England  signed  over  her  title  and  right,  the  sava- 
ges held  the  land  and  ignored  all  white  agreements,  one  way  or  the  other. 
Whenever  an  attempt  at  settlement  was  undertaken,  Indian  depredations  proved 
disastrous.  The  tribes  were  encouraged  by  the  English  fur  traders,  and  the 
English  commandant  at  Detroit  incited  them  to  destroy  all  Americans  who 
attempted  to  usurp  the  rights  of  red  men. 

Added  to  this  serious  difficulty  was  the  unsettled  debate  regarding  State 
claims,  which  rendered  a  title  precarious.  A  treaty,  signed  at  Fort  Mcintosh, 
previous  to  the  war,  and  authenticated,  shows  that  during  the  conflict  the  Dela- 
wares  and  Wyandots  occupied  the  Indian  and  British  frontier,  on  the  southern 
shore  of  Lake  Erie,  from  the  Cuyahoga  to  the  Maumee,  and  from  the  lake  to 
the  sources  of  its  tributaries.  Later,  these  two  tribes  ceded  to  the  United 
States  "the  neutral  ground,"  by  warranty  deed,  and  by  quit-claim,  the  terri- 
tory south  and  west  of  the  described  tract,  set  apart  for  their  use. 

By  special  measures,  the  grant  of  Congress  in  the  matter  of  the  Ohio  Com- 
pany extended  to  nearly  5,000,000  acres,  valued  at  $3,500,000.  The  original 
Ohio  Company  obtained  1,500,000  acres,  the  remaining  being  reserved  by  indi- 
viduals, for  private  speculation. 

The  same  year.  Congress  appointed  Arthur  St.  Clair,  Governor,  and  Win- 
throp  Sargent,  Secretary,  of  the  Territory. 

Fort  Harmar  had  previously  been  built,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Muskingum, 
and  in  1788,  a  New  England  colony  attempted  the  "Muskingum  settlement," 
on  the  opposite  side,  which  was  afterward  named  Marietta.  In  July,  1788,  the 
Territorial  officers  were  received  in  this  village,  and  there  established  the  first 
form  of  civil  government,  as  set  forth  in  the  Ordinance  of  1787.  Three  United 
States  Judges  were  appointed,  and  Courts  of  Common  Pleas,  Probate  and 
Justice  were  established. 

86  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

If  the  stormy  times  were  supposed  to  be  of  the  past,  that  composure  was 
rudely  broken  by  the  utter  disregard  of  the  Shawnee  and  other  Indian  tribes, 
who  soon  induced  the  Delawares  and  Wyandots  to  repudiate  their  consent  in  the 
matter  of  settlement.  The  miseries  of  frontier  horrors  were  repeated.  The 
British  commandant  at  Detroit  instigated  many  of  these  hostilities,  yet  the 
American  Government  took  honorable  action  in  assuring  the  English  represent- 
ative that  American  military  preparations  in  the  West  was  not  an  expedition 
against  Detroit,  or  other  British  possessions,  although  the  possession  of  Detroit 
by  that  nation  was  in  direct  opposition  to  the  treaty  of  1783.  Gov.  St.  Clair, 
to  avert  the  direful  consequences  of  a  border  war,  dispatched  a  Frenchman, 
Gameline,  to  the  principal  Indian  towns  of  the  Wabash  and  Maumee  countries, 
to  request  them  to  meet  the  United  States  agents,  and  make  a  compromise  for 
the  benefit  of  both  parties,  at  the  same  time  reiterating  the  desire  of  the  General 
Government  to  adhere  to  the  Fort  Harmar  treaty.  The  Miamis,  Shawnees, 
Ottawas,  Kickapoos  and  Delawares  received  this  representative  kindly,  but 
declined  the  wampum  sent  by  the  Governor,  and  deferred  giving  an  answer 
until  they  had  considered  the  subject  with  the  "  father  at  Detroit." 

Blue  Jacket,  chief  of  the  Shawnees,  informed  the  Frenchman  that  the  Indi- 
ans doubted  the  sincerity  of  the  Americans.  The  new  settlement  on  the  Ohio 
was  a  proof  that  the  whites  intended  to  crowd  further  and  further,  until  the 
Indians  were  again  and  again  robbed  of  their  just  right.  He  then  emphatically 
asserted  that  unless  the  north  side  of  the  river  was  kept  free  from  these  inroads 
there  could  be  no  terms  of  peace  with  the  Shawnees,  and  many  other  tribes. 

Blue  Jacket  was  unusually  intelligent  and  sagacious,  and  expressed  himself 
eloquently.  He  was  persistent  in  his  determination  to  engage  in  the  war  of 
extermination,  should  the  white  settlements  continue  north  of  the  Ohio. 

These  overtures  were  continued,  but  they  failed  in  producing  any  arrange- 
ment that  permitted  the  whites  to  locate  north  of  the  Ohio. 

Congress  called  upon  Kentucky  and  Pennsylvania  to  lend  the  aid  of  their 
militia.  Gen.  Harmar  was  instructed  to  destroy  the  Miami  villages  at  the 
head  of  the  Maumee.     Late  in  the  fall  of  1790,  he  executed  this  order. 

The  Indians  had  stored  a  large  quantity  of  provisions,  in  expectation  of  a 
campaign,  and  this  dependence  was  devastated.  Without  authority,  and  with 
undue  carelessness,  he  divided  his  army  and  attempted  to  achieve  other  victo- 
ries. He  more  than  lost  what  he  had  gained. .  Two  raids  upon  the  Wabash  In- 
dians, thereafter,  proved  successful,  but  the  campaign  under  Gov.  St.  Clair  was 
not  calculated  to  establish  peace  or  obtain  power,  and  was  deemed  but  little  less 
than  a  failure. 

The  year  1792  was  a  series  of  skirmishes,  so  far  as  a  settlement  was  con- 
cerned, but  1793  succeeded  well  enough  to  convene  a  meeting  of  United  States 
Commissioners  and  representatives  of  the  hostile  tribes,  at  the  rapids  of  the 
Maumee.  It  is  highly  probable  that  a  satisfactory  treaty  might  have  been 
arranged,  had  it  not  been  for  the  intervention  and  malicious  influence  of  the 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  87 

British  Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs,  Col.  McKee,  his  assistant  Capt. 
Elliott,  and  the  notorious  Capt.  Simon  Girty,  who  instigated  the  savages  to 
deeds  more  horrible  than  their  own  barbarisms. 

It  was  evident  that  a  severe  struggle  must  ensue,  and  Capt.  Wayne,  in 
1792,  appointed  to  the  command  of  the  Western  army,  was  called  upon  to  con- 
duct the  campaign.  He  exhibited  his  wisdom  in  the  beginning,  by  preparing 
his  men  in  military  discipline  and  fully  equipping  them  before  marching  to  meet 
a  savage  foe  in  a  wilderness.  Various  causes  detained  the  army,  and  it  was  not 
until  the  fall  of  1793,  that  the  force  marched  from  Fort  Washington  (Cincin- 
nati) to  begin  the  battle. 

It  was  already  late  in  the  season,  and,  before  any  progress  had  been  made, 
the  army  went  into  winter  quarters  at  Greenville,  on  a  branch  of  the  Big 

In  the  mean  time,  the  Ohio  Company  had  not  matured  its  practical  "  settle- 
merit  plan,"  although  a  generous  grant  had  been  obtained.  In  1792,  they 
received  a  clear  title  to  750,000  acres  of  land,  for  which  the  full  price  had  pre- 
viously been  paid,  in  Continental  currency.  Congress  set  aside  214,285  acres 
as  army  bounties,  and  100,000  acres  to  actual  settlers.  The  two  latter  appro- 
priations joined  that  of  the  Ohio  Company. 

There  had  been  numerous  conventions,  discussions  and  other  fruitless 
attempts  to  somehow  form  a  plan  for  the  government  of  the  Northwest  Terri- 
tory, but  it  was  not  until  July  13,  1787,  that  an  ordinance  was  passed,  and  that 
was  the  result  of  Dr.  Cutler's  efforts.     Every  State  sustained  its  measures. 

This  ordinance  was  the  foundation  of  the  constitution  of  the  future  State  of 
Ohio,  and  indeed,  permeates  the  entire  Northwestern  creed. 

ORDINANCE  OF  1787.— No.  32. 
An  Ordinance  for  the  Government  of  the  Territory  of  the  United  States,  Northwest  of 
THE  Ohio  River. 

Be  it  ordained  by  the  United  States  in  Congress  assembled,  That  the  said  Territory,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  government,  be  one  district;  subject,  however,  to  be  divided  into  two  districts,  as  future  cir- 
cumstances may,  in  the  opinion  of  Congress,  make  it  expedient. 

Be  it  ordained  by  the  authority  aforesaid,  That  the  estates  of  both  resident  and  non-resident 
proprietors  in  the  said  Territory,  dying  intestate,  shall  descend  to  and  be  distributed  among  their 
children  and  the  descendants  of  a  deceased  child,  in  equal  parts;  the  descendants  of  a  deceased 
child  or  grandchild  to  take  the  share  of  their  deceased  parent  in  equal  parts  among  them.  And 
when  there  shall  be  no  children  or  descendants,  then  in  equal  parts  to  the  next  of  kin  in  equal 
degree ;  and  among  collaterals,  the  children  of  a  deceased  brother  or  sister  of  the  intestate  shall 
have,  in  equal  parts  among  them,  their  deceased  parent's  share;  and  there  shall  in  no  case  be  a 
distribution  between  kindred  of  the  whole  and  half  blood,  saving  in  all  cases  to  the  widow  of 
intestate,  her  third  part  of  the  real  estate,  for  life,  and  one-third  part  of  the  personal  estate ;  and 
this  law  relative  to  descents  and  dower,  shall  remain  in  fall  force  until  altered  by  the  Legis- 
lature of  the  district.  And  until  the  Governor  and  Judges  shall  adopt  laws  as  hereinafter 
mentioned,  estates  in  said  Territory  may  be  devised  or  bequeathed  by  wills  in  writing,  signed 
and  sealed  by  him  or  her  in  whom  the  estate  may  be  (being  of  full  age),  and  attested  by  three 
witnesses ;  and  real  estate  may  be  conveyed  by  lease  and  release,  or  bargain  and  sale,  signed  and 
sealed,  and  delivered  by  the  person  (being  in  full  age)  in  whom  the  estate  may  be,  and  attested 

88  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

by  two  witnesses,  provided  such  wills  be  duly  proved,  and  such  conveyances  be  acknowledged,  or 
the  execution  thereof  duly  proved  and  be  recorded  within  one  year  after  proper  magistrates, 
courts  and  registers  shall  be  appointed  for  that  purpose.  And  personal  property  may  be  trans- 
ferred by  delivery,  saving,  however,  to  the  French  and  Canadian  inhabitants  and  other  settlers  of 
the  Kaskaskias,  St.  Vincent's  and  the  neighboring  villages,  who  have  heretofore  professed  them- 
selves citizens  of  Virginia,  their  laws  and  customs  now  in  force  among  them,  relative  to  the 
descent  and  conveyance  of  property. 

Be  it  ordained  by  the  authority  aforesaid,  That  there  shall  be  appointed  from  time  to  time,  by 
Congress,  a  Governor  whose  commission  shall  continue  in  force  for  a  term  of  three  years,  unless 
sooner  revoked  by  Congress.  He  shall  reside  in  the  district  and  have  a  freehold  estate  therein, 
of  a  thousand  acres  of  land  while  in  the  exercise  of  his  office. 

There  shall  be  appointed  from  time  to  time  by  Congress,  a  Secretary  whose  commission  shall 
continue  in  force  for  two  years,  unless  sooner  revoked.  He  shall  reside  in  the  district,  and  shall 
have  a  freehold  estate  therein  in  500  acres  of  land,  while  in  the  exercise  of  his  office.  It  shall  be 
his  duty  to  keep  and  preserve  the  acts  and  laws  passed  by  the  Legislature,  and  the  public  records 
of  the  district,  and  the  proceedings  of  the  Governor  in  his  executive  department,  and  transmit 
authentic  copies  of  such  acts  and  proceedings  every  six  months,  t«  the  Secretary  of  Congress. 
There  shall  also  be  appointed  a  court  to  consist  of  three  Judges,  any  two  of  whom  to  form  a 
court,  who  shall  have  a  common  law  jurisdiction  and  shall  reside  in  the  district  and  have  each 
therein  a  freehold  estate  in  500  acres  of  land,  while  in  the  exercise  of  their  office,  and  their 
commissions  shall  continue  in  force  during  good  behavior. 

The  Governor  and  Judges,  or  a  majority  of  them,  shall  adopt  and  publish  in  the  district 
such  laws  of  the  original  States,  criminal  and  civil,  as  may  be  necessary  and  best  suited  to  the 
circumstances  of  the  district,  and  report  them  to  Congress  from  time  to  time,  which  laws  shall  be 
in  force  in  the  district  until  the  organization  of  the  General  Assembly  therein,  unless  disapproved 
by  Congress.  But  afterward,  the  Legislature  shall  have  authority  to  alter  them,  as  they  shall 
think  fit. 

The  Governor,  for  the  time  being,  shall  be  commander-in-chief  of  the  militia,  appoint  and 
commission  all  officers  in  the  same,  below  the  rank  of  general  officers.  All  general  officers  shall 
be  appointed  and  commissioned  by  Congress. 

Previous  to  the  organization  of  the  General  Assembly,  the  Governor  shall  appoint  such  mag- 
istrates and  other  civil  officers  in  each  county  or  township,  as  he  shall  find  necessary  for  the 
preservation  of  the  peace  and  good  order  in  the  same.  After  the  General  Assembly  shall  be 
organized,  the  powers  and  duties  of  magistrates  and  other  civil  officers  shall  be  regulated  and 
defined  by  the  said  Assembly,  but  all  magistrates  and  other  civil  officers  not  herein  otherwise 
directed,  shall,  during  the  continuance  of  this  temporary  government,  be  appointed  by  the 

For  the  prevention  of  crimes  and  injuries,  the  laws  to  be  adopted  or  made  shall  have  force 
in  all  parts  of  the  district,  and  for  the  execution  of  process,  criminal  or  civil,  the  Governor  shall 
make  proper  divisions  thereof,  and  he  shall  proceed  from  time  to  time  as  circumstances  may 
require,  to  lay  out  the  parts  of  the  district  in  which  the  Indian  titles  shall  have  been  extin- 
guished, into  counties  and  townships,  subject,  however,  to  such  alterations  as  may  thereafter  be 
made  by  the  Legislature.  So  soon  as  there  shall  be  5,000  free  male  inhabitants  of  full  age  in  the 
district,  upon  giving  proof  thereof  to  the  Governor,  they  shall  receive  authority  with  time  and 
place,  to  elect  representatives  from  their  counties  or  townships,  to  represent  them  in  the  General 
Assembly.  Provided,  That  for  every  500  free  male  inhabitants,  there  shall  be  one  representative, 
and  so  on  progressively  with  the  number  of  free  male  inhabitants,  shall  the  right  of  representa- 
tion increase,  until  the  number  of  representatives  shall  amount  to  twenty-five.  After  which,  the 
number  shall  be  regulated  by  the  Legislature.  Provided,  That  no  person  be  eligible  or  qualified 
to  act  as  a  representative  unless  he  shall  have  been  a  citizen  of  one  of  the  United  States  three 
years,  and  be  a  resident  in  the  district,  or  unless  he  shall  have  resided  in  the  district  three 
years,  and  in  either  case,  shall  likewise  hold  in  his  own  right  in  fee  simple  200  acres  of  land 
within  the  same. 

HISTORY   OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  89 

Provided,  Also,  that  a  freehold  in  50  acres  of  land  in  the  district,  having  been  a  citizen  of 
one  of  the  States,  and  being  a  resident  in  the  district,  or  the  like  freehold  and  two  years'  resi- 
dence in  the  district,  shall  be  necessary  to  qualify  a  man  as  an  elector  of  a  representative. 

The  representatives  thus  elected,  shall  serve  for  the  term  of  two  years.  And  in  case  of  the 
death  of  a  representative  or  removal  from  office,  the  Governor  shall  issue  a  writ  to  the  county  or 
township  for  which  he  was  a  member,  to  elect  another  in  his  stead,  to  serve  for  the  residue  of  the 

The  General  Assembly  or  Legislature  shall  consist  of  the  Governor,  Legislative  Council,  and 
a  House  of  Representatives.  The  Legislative  Council  shall  consist  of  five  members,  to  continue 
in  office  five  years,  unless  sooner  removed  by  Congress ;  any  three  of  whom  to  be  a  quorum. 
And  the  members  of  the  Council  shall  be  nominated  and  appointed  in  the  following  manner,  to  wit : 

As  soon  as  representatives  shall  be  elected,  the  Governor  shall  appoint  a  time  and  place  for 
them  to  meet  together,  and  when  met,  they  shall  nominate  ten  persons,  residents  in  the  district, 
and  each  person  in  a  freehold  in  500  acres  of  land,  and  return  their  names  to  Congress,  five  of 
whom  Congress  shall  appoint  and  commission  as  aforesaid.  And  whenever  a  vacancy  shall  hap- 
pen in  the  Council  by  death  or  removal  from  office,  the  House  of  Representatives  shall  nominate 
two  persons,  qualified  as  aforesaid,  for  each  vacancy,  and  return  their  names  to  Congress,  one  of 
■whom  Congress  shall  appoint  and  commission  for  the  residue  of  the  term.  And  every  five  years, 
four  months  at  least  before  the  expiration  of  the  time  of  service  of  the  members  of  the  Council, 
the  said  House  shall  nominate  ten  persons  qualified  as  aforesaid,  and  return  their  names  to 
Congress,  five  of  whom  Congress  shall  appoint  and  commission  to  serve  as  members  of  the 
Council  five  years,  unless  sooner  removed.  And  the  Governor,  Legislative  Council  and  House 
of  Representatives  shall  have  authority  to  make  laws  in  all  cases,  for  the  good  government 
of  the  district,  not  repugnant  to  the  principles  and  articles  in  this  Ordinance,  established  and 

And  all  bills  having  passed  by  a  majority  in  the  House,  and  by  a  majority  in  the  Council, 
shall  be  referred  to  the  Governor  for  his  assent.  But  no  bill  or  legislative  act  whatever,  shall  be 
of  any  force  without  his  assent.  The  Governor  shall  have  power  to  convene,  prorogue  and  dis- 
solve the  General  Assembly,  when  in  his  opinion  it  shall  be  expedient. 

The  Governor,  Judges,  Legislative  Council,  Secretary,  and  such  other  officers  as  Congress 
shall  appoint  in  the  district,  shall  take  an  oath  or  affirmation  of  fidelity  and  of  office.  The  Gov- 
ernor before  the  President  of  Congress,  and  all  other  officers  before  the  Governor. 

As  soon  as  a  Legislature  shall  be  formed  in  the  district,  the  Council  and  House  assembled 
in  one  room,  shall  have  authority  by  joint  ballot  to  elect  a  delegate  to  Congress,  who  shall 
have  a  seat  in  Congress,  with  a  right  of  debating,  but  not  of  voting,  during  this  temporary  gov- 

And  for  extending  the  fundamental  principles  of  civil  and  religious  liberty,  which  forms 
the  basis  whereon  these  republics,  their  laws  and  constitutions,  are  created  ;  to  fix  and  establish 
those  principles  as  the  basis  of  all  laws,  constitutions  and  governments,  which  forever  hereafter 
shall  be  formed  in  said  Territory.  To  provide  for  the  establishment  of  States,  and  permanent 
governments  therein,  and  for  their  admission  to  a  share  in  the  Federal  Council  on  an  equal  footing 
■with  the  original  States,  at  as  early  periods  as  may  be  consistent  with  the  general  interest. 

It  is  hereby  ordained  and  declared  by  the  authority  aforesaid,  That  the  following  articles  shall 
be  considered  as  articles  of  compact  between  the  original  States  and  the  people,  and  States  in 
said  Territory,  and  forever  remain  unaltered  unless  by  common  consent,  to  wit: 

Article  II.  The  inhabitants  of  said  Territory  shall  always  be  entitled  to  the  benefits  of  the 
"writ  of  habeas  corpus,  and  of  the  trial  by  jury ;  of  a  proportionate  representation  of  the  people 
in  the  Legislature,  and  of  judicial  procedure  according  to  the  course  of  common  law.  All  per- 
sons shall  be  bailable,  except  for  capital  offenses,  where  the  proof  shall  be  evident  or  the  pre- 
sumption great.  All  fines  shall  be  moderate,  and  no  cruel  or  unreasonable  punishment  shall  be 
inflicted.  No  man  shall  be  deprived  of  his  liberty  or  property,  but  by  the  judgment  of  his  peers 
or  the  law  of  the  land.  And  should  the  public  exigencies  make  it  necessary  for  the  common 
preservation,  to  take  any  person's  property,  or  to  demand  his  particular  services,  full  compensation 

90  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

shall  be  made  for  the  same.  And  in  the  just  preservation  of  rights  and  property,  it  is  under- 
stood and  declared  that  no  law  aught  ever  to  be  made  or  have  force  in  the  said  Territory, 
that  shall  in  any  manner  whatever  interfere  with  or  effect  private  contracts  or  engagements  bona 
fide  and  without  fraud,  previously  formed. 

Art.  III.  Religion,  morality  and  knowledge  being  necessary  to  good  government  and  the 
happiness  of  mankind,  schools  and  the  means  of  education  shall  forever  be  encouraged.  The 
utmost  good  faith  shall  always  be  observed  toward  the  Indians ;  their  lands  and  property  shall 
never  be  taken  from  them  without  their  consent;  and  in  their  property,  rights  and  liberty  they 
shall  never  be  invaded  or  disturbed,  unless  in  just  and  lawful  wars  authorized  by  Congress.  But 
laws  founded  in  justice  and  humanity,  shall  from  time  to  time  be  made  for  preventing  wrongs 
being  done  to  them,  and  for  preserving  peace  and  friendship  with  them. 

Art.  IV.  The  said  Territory  and  the  States  which  may  be  formed  therein,  shall  ever  remain 
a  part  of  the  confederacy  of  the  United  States  of  America,  subject  to  the  articles  of  confedera- 
tion, and  to  such  alterations  therein  as  shall  be  constitutionally  made,  and  to  all  the  acts  and 
ordinances  of  the  United  States  in  Congress  assembled  conformable  thereto.  The  inhabitants  and 
settlers  in  said  Territory  shall  be  subject  to  pay  a  part  of  the  federal  debts  contracted  or  to  be 
contracted,  and  a  proportional  part  of  the  expenses  of  the  Government,  to  be  apportioned  on 
them  by  Congress,  according  to  the  same  common  rule  and  measure  by  which  apportionments 
thereof  shall  be  made  on  the  other  States,  and  the  taxes  for  paying  their  proportion  shall  be  laid 
and  levied  by  the  authority  and  directions  of  the  Legislature  of  the  district  or  districts  or  new 
States,  within  the  time  agreed  upon  by  the  United  States  in  Congress  assembled.  The  Legisla- 
tures of  those  districts  or  new  States,  shall  never  interfere  with  the  primary  disposal  of  the  soil 
by  the  United  States  in  Congress  assembled,  nor  with  any  regulations  Congress  may  find  neces- 
sary for  securing  the  title  in  such  soil  to  the  bona-fide  purchasers.  No  tax  shall  be  imposed  on 
lands  the  property  of  the  United  States,  and  in  no  case,  shall  non-residents  be  taxed  higher  than 
residents.  The  navigable  waters  leading  into  the  Mississippi  and  St  Lawrence,  and  the  carry- 
ing places  between  the  same,  shall  be  common  highways,  and  forever  free  as  well  to  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  said  Territory  as  to  the  citizens  of  the  United  States  and  those  of  any  other  States 
that  may  be  admitted  into  the  confederacy,  without  any  tax,  impost  or  duty  therefor. 

Art.  V,  There  shall  be  formed  in  said  Territory  not  less  than  three,  nor  more  than  five, 
States,  and  the  boundaries  of  the  States,  as  soon  as  Virginia  shall  alter  her  act  of  cession  and 
consent  to  the  same,  shall  become  fixed  and  established  as  follows,  to  wit :  The  western  State  in 
the  said  Territory  shall  be  bounded  by  the  Mississippi,  the  Ohio,  the  Wabash  Rivers ;  a  direct 
line  drawn  from  the  Wabash  and  Post  St.  Vincent,  due  north  to  the  Territorial  line  between  the 
United  States  and  Canada ;  and  by  the  said  Territorial  line  to  the  Lake  of  the  Woods  and  Missis- 
sippi. The  middle  State  shall  be  bounded  by  the  said  direct  line,  the  Wabash  from  Post  St.  Vin- 
cent to  the  Ohio,  by  the  Ohio,  by  a  direct  line  drawn  due  north  from  the  mouth  of  the  Great 
Miami  to  the  said  Territorial  line.  The  eastern  State  shall  be  bounded  by  the  last-mentioned 
direct  line,  the  Ohio,  Pennsylvania  and  said  territorial  line.  Provided,  however,  and  it  is  further 
understood  and  declared,  that  the  boundaries  of  those  three  States  shall  be  subject  so  far  to  be 
altered,  that,  if  Congress  shall  hereafter  find  it  expedient,  they  shall  have  authority  to  form  one 
or  two  States  in  that  part  of  the  said  Territory  which  lies  north  of  an  east  and  west  line  drawn 
through  the  southerly  bend  or  extreme  of  Lake  Michigan.  And  whenever  any  of  the  said  States 
shall  have  60,000  free  inhabitants  therein,  such  State  shall  be  admitted  by  its  delegates  into  the 
Congress  of  the  United  States  on  an  equal  footing  with  the  original  States  in  all  respects  what- 
ever, and  shall  be  at  liberty  to  form  a  permanent  constitution  and  State  government.  Provided, 
The  constitution  and  government  so  to  be  formed,  shall  be  represented,  and  in  conformity  to  the 
principles  contained  in  these  articles ;  and  so  far  as  it  can  be  consistent  with  the  general  interest 
of  the  confederacy,  such  admission  shall  be  allowed  at  an  earlier  period,  and  when  there  may  be 
a  less  number  of  free  inhabitants  than  60,000. 

Art.  VI.  There  shall  be  neither  slavery  nor  involuntary  servitude  in  the  said  Territory, 
otherwise  than  in  the  punishment  of  crimes  whereof  the  party  shall  have  been  duly  convicted. 
Provided  always.  That  any  person  escaping  into  the  same  from  whom  labor  or  service  is  lawfully 


claimed  in  one  of  the  original  States,  each  fugitive  may  be  lawfully  claimed  and  conveyed  to  the 
person  claiming  his  or  her  labor  or  services  as  aforesaid. 

Be  it  ordained  by  the  authority  aforesaid.  That  the  resolutions  of  the  23d  of  April,  1784, 
relative  to  the  subject  of  this  ordinance,  be  and  the  same  are  hereby  repealed  and  declared  null 
and  void. 

COMMENT  BY  S.  P.  CHASE  1833. 

It  would  be  difficult  to  find  a  more  comprehensive  review  of  the  founda- 
tions of  our  system  of  laws  than  is  given  in  the  "  Preliminary  Sketch  of  the 
History  of  Ohio,"  by  this  distinguished  representative  of  the  bench  and  the 
bar  of  America.  The  work  is  now  out  of  print,  and  is  not  easily  obtained; 
besides,  its  great  author  has  passed  away;  so  these  extracts  are  made  more 
with  a  view  of  preserving  old  historical  literature,  than  of  introducing  new ; 
furthermore,  the  masses  of  the  people  have  never  had  convenient  access  to  the 
volumes,  which,  for  the  most  part,  have  been  in  the  hands  of  professional  men 
only.  The  publication  of  the  work  first  brought  its  compiler  before  the  public, 
and  marked  the  beginning  of  that  career  which,  during  its  course,  shaped  the 
financial  system  of  our  country,  and  ended  upon  the  Supreme  Bench  of  the 

"By  the  ordinance  of  1785,  Congress  had  executed  in  part  the  great  national 
trust  confided  to  it,  by  providing  for  the  disposal  of  the  public  lands  for  the 
common  good,  and  by  prescribing  the  manner  and  terms  of  sale.  By  that  of 
1787,  provision  was  made  for  successive  forms  of  Territorial  government, 
adapted  to  successive  steps  of  advancement  in  the  settlement  of  the  Western 
country.  It  comprehended  an  intelligible  system  of  law  on  the  descent  and 
conveyance  of  real  property,  and  the  transfer  of  personal  goods.  It  also  con- 
tained five  articles  of  compact  between  the  original  States,  and  the  people  and 
States  of  the  Territory,  establishing  certain  great  fundamental  principles  of 
governmental  duty  and  private  right,  as  the  basis  of  all  future  constitutions  and 
legislation,  unalterable  and  indestructible,  except  by  that  final  and  common 
ruin,  which,  as  it  has  overtaken  all  former  systems  of  human  polity,  may  yet 
overwhelm  our  American  union.  Never,  probably,  in  the  history  of  the  world, 
did  a  measure  of  legislation  so  accurately  fulfill,  and  yet  so  mightily  exceed 
the  anticipations  of  the  legislators.  The  ordinance  has  been  well  described,  as 
having  been  a  pillar  of  cloud  by  day  and  of  fire  by  night,  in  the  settlement  and 
government  of  the  Northwestern  States.  When  the  settlers  went  into  the 
wilderness,  they  found  the  law  already  there.  It  was  impressed  upon  the  soil 
itself,  while  it  yet  bore  up  nothing  but  the  forest.  The  purchaser  of  land 
became,  by  that  act,  a  party  to  the  compact,  and  bound  by  its  perpetual  cove- 
nants, so  far  as  its  conditions  did  not  conflict  with  the  terms  of  the  cessions  of 

the  States. 


This  remarkable  instrument  was  the  last  gift  of  the  Congress  of  the  old 
confederation  to  the  country,  and  it  was  a  fit  consummation  of  their  glorious 


labors.  At  the  time  of  its  promulgation,  the  Federal  Constitution  was  under 
discussion  in  the  convention ;  and  in  a  few  months,  upon  the  organization  of 
the  new  national  government,  that  Congress  was  dissolved,  never  again  to  re-as- 
semble. Some,  and  indeed  most  of  the  principles  established  by  the  articles  of 
compact  are  to  be  found  in  the  plan  of  1784,  and  in  the  various  English  and 
American  bills  of  rights.  Others,  however,  and  these  not  the  least  important, 
are  original.  Of  this  number  are  the  clauses  in  relation  to  contracts,  to  slavery 
and  to  Indians.  On  the  whole,  these  articles  contain  what  they  profess  to  con- 
tain, the  true  theory  of  American  liberty.  The  great  principles  promulgated 
by  it  are  wholly  and  purely  American.  They  are  indeed  the  genuine  princi- 
ples of  freedom,  unadulterated  by  that  compromise  with  circumstances,  the 
effects  of  which  are  visible  in  the  constitution  and  history  of  the  Union. 

The  first  form  of  civil  government,  provided  by  the  ordinance,  was  now 
formally  established  within  the  Territory.  Under  this  form,  the  people  had  no 
concern  in  the  business  of  government.  The  Governor  and  Judges  derived 
their  appointments  at  first  from  Congress,  and  after  the  adoption  of  the  Fed- 
eral Constitution,  from  the  President-  The  commission  of  the  former  officer 
was  for  the  term  of  three  years,  unless  sooner  revoked ;  those  of  the  latter 
were  during  good  behavior.  It  was  required  that  the  Governor  should  reside 
within  the  Territory,  and  possess  a  freehold  estate  there,  in  one  thousand  acres 
of  land.  He  had  authority  to  appoint  all  officers  of  militia,  below  the  rank  of 
Generals,  and  all  magistrates  and  civil  officers,  except  the  Judges  and  the  Sec- 
retary of  the  Territory ;  to  establish  convenient  divisions  of  the  whole  district 
for  the  execution  of  progress,  to  lay  out  those  parts  to  which  the  Indian 
titles  might  be  extinguished  into  counties  and  townships.  The  Judges,  or  any 
two  of  them,  constituted  a  court  with  common  law  jurisdiction.  It  was  neces- 
sary that  each  Judge  should  possess  a  freehold  estate  in  the  territory  of  five 
hundred  acres.  The  whole  legislative  power  which,  however,  extended  only  to 
the  adoption  of  such  laws  of  the  original  States  as  might  be  suited  to  the  cir- 
cumstances of  the  country,  was  vested  in  the  Governor  and  Judges.  The  laws 
adopted  were  to  continue  in  force,  unless  disapproved  by  Congress,  until  re- 
pealed by  the  Legislature,  which  was  afterward  to  be  organized.  It  was  the 
duty  of  the  Secretary  to  preserve  all  acts  and  laws,  public  records  and  executive 
proceedings,  and  to  transmit  authentic  copies  to  the  Secretary  of  Congress 
every  six  months. 

Such  was  the  first  government  devised  for  the  Northwestern  Territory.  It 
is  obvious  that  its  character,  as  beneficent  or  oppressive,  depended  entirely  upon 
the  temper  and  disposition  of  those  who  administrated  it.  All  power,  legisla- 
tive, judicial  and  executive,  was  concentrated  in  the  Governor  and  Judges,  and 
in  its  exercise  they  were  responsible  only  to  the  distant  Federal  head.  The 
expenses  of  the  Government  were  defrayed  in  part  by  the  United  States,  but 
were  principally  drawn  from  the  pockets  of  the  people  in  the  shape  of  fees. 


This  temporary  system,  however  unfriendly  as  it  seems  to  liberty,  was, 
perhaps,  so  established  upon  sufficient  reasons.  The  Federal  Constitution  had 
not  then  been  adopted,  and  there  were  strong  apprehensions  that  the  people  of 
the  Territory  might  not  be  disposed  to  organize  States  and  apply  for  admission 
into  the  Union.  It  was,  therefore,  a  matter  of  policy  so  to  frame  the  Territorial 
system  as  to  create  some  strong  motives  to  draw  them  into  the  Union,  as  States, 
in  due  time. 

The  first  acts  of  Territorial  legislation  were  passed  at  Marietta,  then  the 
only  American  settlement  northwest  of  the  Ohio.  The  Governor  and  Judges 
did  not  strictly  confine  themselves  within  the  limits  of  their  legislative  author- 
ity, as  prescribed  by  the  ordinance.  When  they  could  not  find  laws  of  the 
original  States  suited  to  the  condition  of  the  country,  they  supplied  the  want 
by  enactments  of  their  own.  The  earliest  laws,  from  1788  to  1795,  were  all 
thus  enacted.  The  laws  of  1788  provided  for  the  organization  of  the  militia ; 
for  the  establishment  of  inferior  courts ;  for  the  punishment  of  crimes,  and  for 
the  limitations  of  actions ;  prescribed  the  duties  of  ministerial  officers  ;  regu- 
lated marriages,  and  appointed  oaths  of  office.  That  the  Governor  and  Judges 
in  the  enactment  of  these  laws,  exceeded  their  authority,  without  the  slightest 
disposition  to  abuse  it,  may  be  inferred  from  the  fact  that  except  two,  which 
bad  been  previously  repealed,  they  were  all  confirmed  by  the  first  Territorial 


At  this  period  there  was  no  seat  of  government,  properly  called.  The 
Governor  resided  at  Cincinnati,  but  laws  were  passed  whenever  they  seemed  to 
be  needed,  and  promulgated  at  any  place  where  the  Territorial  legislators  hap- 
pened to  be  assembled.  Before  the  year  of  1795,  no  laws  were,  strictly  speak- 
ing, adopted.  Most  of  them  were  framed  by  the  Governor  and  Judges  to 
answer  particular  public  ends  ;  while  in  the  enactment  of  others,  including  all 
the  laws  of  1792,  the  Secretary  of  the  Territory  discharged,  under  the  author- 
ity of  an  act  of  Congress,  the  functions  of  the  Governor.  The  earliest  laws, 
as  has  been  already  stated,  were  published  at  Marietta.  Of  the  remainder,  a 
few  were  published  at  Vincennes,  and  the  rest  at  Cincinnati. 

In  the  year  1789,  the  first  Congress  passed  an  act  recognizing  the  binding 
force  of  the  ordinance  of  1787,  and  adapting  its  provisions  to  the  Federal  Con- 
stitution. This  act  provided  that  the  communications  directed  in  the  ordinance 
to  be  made  to  Congress  or  its  officers,  by  the  Governor,  should  thenceforth  be 
made  to  the  President,  and  that  the  authority  to  appoint  with  the  consent  of 
the  Senate,  and  commission  officers,  before  that  time  appointed  and  commis- 
sioned by  Congress,  should  likewise  be  vested  in  that  officer.  It  also  gave  the 
Territorial  Secretary  the  power  already  mentioned,  of  acting  in  certain  cases, 
in  the  place  of  the  Governor.  In  1792,  Congress  passed  another  act  giving  to 
the  Governor  and  Judges  authority  to  repeal,  at  their  discretion,  the  laws  by 


them  made  ;  and  enabling  a  single  Judge  of  the  general  court,  in  the  absence 
of  his  brethren,  to  hold  the  terms. 

At  this  time  the  Judges  appointed  by  the  National  Executive  constituted  the 
Supreme  Court  of  the  Territory.  They  were  commissioned  during  good 
behavior;  and  their  judicial  jurisdiction  extended  over  the  whole  region  north- 
west of  the  Ohio.  The  court,  thus  constituted,  was  fixed  at  no  certain  place, 
and  its  process,  civil  and  criminal,  was  returnable  wheresoever  it  might  be  in 
the  Territory.  Inferior  to  this  court  were  the  County  Courts  of  Common  Pleas, 
and  the  General  Quarter  Sessions  of  the  Peace.  The  former  consisted  of  any 
number  of  Judges,  not  less  than  three  nor  more  than  seven,  and  had  a  general 
common-law  jurisdiction,  concurrent,  in  the  respective  counties,  with  that  of 
the  Supreme  Court ;  the  latter  consisted  of  a  number  of  Justices  for  each 
county,  to  be  determined  by  the  Governor,  who  were  required  to  hold  three 
terms  in  every  year,  and  had  a  limited  criminal  jurisdiction.  Single  Judges  of 
the  Common  Pleas,  and  single  Justices  of  the  Quarter  Sessions  were  also 
clothed  with  certain  civil  and  criminal  powers  to  be  exercised  out  of  court. 
Besides  these  courts,  each  county  had  a  Judge  of  Probate,  clothed  with  the 
ordinary  jurisdiction  of  a  Probate  Court. 

Such  was  the  original  constitution  of  courts  and  distribution  of  judicial 
power  in  the  Northwestern  Territory.  The  expenses  of  the  system  were 
defrayed  in  part  by  the  National  Government,  and  in  part  by  assessments  upon 
the  counties,  but  principally  by  fees,  which  were  payable  to  every  officer  con- 
cerned in  the  administration  of  justice,  from  the  Judges  of  the  General  Court 

In  1795  the  Governor  and  Judges  undertook  to  revise  the  Territorial  laws, 
and  to  establish  a  complete  system  of  statutory  jurisprudence,  by  adoptions 
from  the  laws  of  the  original  States,  in  strict  conformity  to  the  provisions  of 
the  ordinance.  For  this  purpose  they  assembled  at  Cincinnati  in  June,  and 
conti^nued  in  session  until  the  latter  part  of  August.  The  judiciary  system 
underwent  some  changes.  The  General  Court  was  fixed  at  Cincinnati  and  Mari- 
etta, and  a  Circuit  Court  was  established  with  power  to  try  in  the  several  coun- 
ties, issues  in  fact  depending  before  the  superior  tribunal,  where  alone  causes 
could  be  finally  decided.  Orphans'  Courts,  too,  were  established,  with  jurisdic- 
tion analogous  to  but  more  extensive  than  that  of  a  Judge  of  Probate.  Laws  were 
also  adopted  to  regulate  judgments  and  executions,  for  limitation  of  actions, 
for  the  distribution  of  intestate  estates,  and  for  many  other  general  purposes. 
Finally,  as  if  with  a  view  to  create  some  great  reservoir,  from  which,  whatever 
principles  and  powers  had  been  omitted  in  the  particular  acts,  might  be  drawn 
according  to  the  exigency  of  circumstances,  the  Governor  and  Judges  adopted 
a  law,  providing  that  the  common  law  of  England  and  all  general  statutes  in 
aid  of  the  common  law,  prior  to  the  fourth  year  of  James  I,  should  be  in  full 
force  within  the  Territory.  The  law  thus  adopted  was  an  act  of  the  Virginia 
Legislature,  passed  before  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  when  Virginia  was 


yet  a  British  colony,  and  at  the  time  of  its  adoption  had  been  repealed  so  far  as 
it  related  to  the  English  statutes. 

The  other  laws  of  1795  were  principally  derived  from  the  statute  book  of 
Pennsylvania.  The  system  thus  adopted  was  not  without  many  imperfections 
and  blemishes,  but  it  may  be  doubted  whether  any  colony,  at  so  early  a  period 
after  its  first  establishment,  ever  had  one  so  good. 

And  how  gratifying  is  the  retrospect,  how  cheering  the  prospect  which  even 
this  sketch,  brief  and  partial  as  it  is,  presents  I  On  a  surface  covered  less 
than  half  a  century  ago  by  the  trees  of  the  primeval  forest,  a  State  has  grown 
up  from  Colonial  infancy  to  freedom,  independence  and  strength.  But  thirty 
years  have  elapsed  since  that  State,  with  hardly  sixty  thousand  inhabitants,  was 
admitted  into  the  American  Union.  Of  the  twenty-four  States  which  form 
that  Union,  she  is  now  the  fourth  in  respect  to  population.  In  other  respects 
her  rank  is  even  higher.  Already  her  resources  have  been  adequate,  not  only 
to  the  expense  of  government  and  instruction,  but  to  the  construction  of  long 
lines  of  canals.  Her  enterprise  has  realized  the  startling  prediction  of  the 
poet,  who,  in  1787,  when  Ohio  was  yet  a  wilderness,  foretold  the  future  connec- 
tion of  the  Hudson  with  the  Ohio. 

And  these  results  are  attributable  mainly  to  her  institutions.  The  spirit  of 
the  ordinance  of  1787  pervades  them  all.  Who  can  estimate  the  benefits 
which  have  flowed  from  the  interdiction  by  that  instrument  of  slavery  and  of 
legislative  interference  with  private  contracts?  One  consequence  is,  that  the 
soil  of  Ohio  bears  up  none  but  freemen  ;  another,  that  a  stern  and  honorable 
regard  to  private  rights  and  public  morals  characterizes  her  legislation.  There 
is  hardly  a  page  in  the  statute  book  of  which  her  sons  need  be  ashamed.  The 
great  doctrine  of  equal  rights  is 'everywhere  recognized  in  her  constitution  and 
her  laws.  Almost  every  father  of  a  family  in  this  State  has  a  freehold  interest 
in  the  soil,  but  this  interest  is  not  necessary  to  entitle  him  to  a  voice  in  the 
concerns  of  government.  Every  man'may  vote  ;  every  man  is  eligible  to  any 
office.  And  this  unlimited  extension  of  the  elective  franchise,  so  far  from  pro- 
ducing any  evil,  has  ever  constituted  a  safe  and  sufficient  check  upon  injurious 
legislation.  Other  causes  of  her  prosperity  may  be  found  in  her  fertile  soil,  in 
her  felicitous  position,  and  especially  in  her  connection  with  the  union  of  the 
States.  All  these  springs  of  growth  and  advancement  are  permanent,  and 
upon  a  most  gratifying  prospect  of  the  future.  They  promise  an  advance  in 
population,  wealth,  intelligence  and  moral  worth  as  permanent  as  the  existence 
of  the  State  itself.  They  promise  to  the  future  citizens  of  Ohio  the  blessings 
of  good  government,  wise  legislation  and  universal  instruction.  More  than  all, 
they  are  pledges  that  in  all  future,  as  in  all  past  circumstances,  Ohio  will  cleave 
fast  to  the  national  constitution  and  the  .national  Union,  and  that  her  growing 
energies  will  on  no  occasion,  be  more  willingly  or  powerfully  put  forth,  than  in 
the  support  and  maintenance  of  both  in  unimpaired  vigor  and  strength." 

96  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 


The  passage  of  this  ordinance,  since  known  as  the  "  Ordinance  of  1787/' 
was  immediately  followed  by  an  application  to  the  Government,  by  John  Cleves 
Symmes,  of  New  Jersey,  in  behalf  of  the  country,  between  the  Miamis,  and  a 
contract  was  concluded  the  following  year.  The  Ohio  Company  were  exceed- 
ingly energetic  in  inaugurating  settlements.  Gen.  Putman,  with  a  party  of 
forty-seven  men,  set  out  on  an  exploring  expedition,  accompanied  by  six  boat 
builders.  On  the  1st  of  January,  1788,  twenty-six  surveyors  followed,  from 
Hartford,  Conn.  They  arrived  in  Ohio  on  the  7th  of  April,  1788,  and  their 
active  energy  founded  the  permanent  beginning  of  this  great  Western  State* 
When  we  review  the  dangerous  experiments  that  have  been  made,  in  this  land 
west  of  the  Alleghanies,  the  horrors  which  had  overwhelmed  every  attempt,  we 
can  faintly  realize  the  stalwart  courage  that  sent  these  men  on  their  way,  and 
sustained  them  in  their  pioneer  hardships.  With  characteristic  vigor,  they 
began  their  little  town.  Enthusiastic  and  happy,  they  did  not  rest  from  their 
toilsome  march  over  the  old  Indian  roads,  but  kept  busily  at  work  to  estab- 
lish an  oasis  in  this  wide  expanse  of  wilderness,  before  they  should  take  nec- 
essary ease  to  recuperate  their  strength. 

The  wise  men  met  on  the  2d  of  May,  and  the  little  town  was  named 
Marietta.  Situated  as  it  was,  in  the  midst  of  danger,  they  had  used  precaution 
to  build  and  equip  a  fortified  square,  which  was  designated  Campus  Martins  ; 
Square  No.  19  was  Capitolium,  and  Square  No.  61  was  Cecelia,  and  the  main 
street  was  Sacra  Via. 

Marietta  was  especially  fortunate  in  her  actual  "first  families."  Ten  of  the 
forty-eight  men  had  received  a  thorough  college  education  ;  the  remaining  were 
individuals  of  sterling  merit,  honorable,  and  several  had  already  attained  reputations 
for  superior  excellence  of  abilities.  Patriotic  and  brave,  the  settlement  certainly 
possessed  a  foundation  that  promised  well  for  the  future.  The  following  4th  of 
July  was  an  auspicious  event,  and  the  Hon.  James  M.  Varnum  was  the  eloquent 
orator  of  the  occason. 

The  opening  of  the  court,  on  the  2d  of  September,  was  a  solemn  ceremonial, 
the  High  Sheriff  leading  with  drawn  sword,  followed  by  citizens,  with  an  escort 
of  officers  from  Fort  Harmar,  the  members  of  the  bar,  the  Governor  and  Clergy- 
men, the  Judges  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas — Gen.  Rufus  Putman  and 
Benjamin  Tupper — all  these  constituted  an  imposing  spectacle,  as  they  pro- 
gressed over  a  path  which  had  been  cut  through  the  forest  to  Campus  Martins 
Hall,  the  edifice  of  law  and  order. 

The  Judges  took  their  seats,  a  prayer  was  offered  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Cutler, 
and  immediately  the  Sheriff,  Col.  Ebenezer  Sprout,  proclaimed  the  response, 
and  the  court  of  impartial  justice  was  convened. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  97 

This  ceremonial  was,  perhaps,  made  all  the  more  impressive  by  the  presence 
of  several  powerful  Indian  chiefs,  who  had  journeyed  to  Marietta  for  the  pur- 
pose of  making  a  treaty. 

The  settlement  now  increased  rapidly,  new  cabins  were  erected  constantly. 
On  the  17th  of  December,  a  society  event  occurred,  in  the  form  of  a  grand  ball, 
fifteen  ladies  being  present. 

John  Cleves  Symmes  had  contracted  for  2,000,000  acres  of  land,  and  suc- 
ceeded in  obtaining  his  grant,  but  circumstances  prevented  him  from  meeting 
his  part  of  the  obligations,  and  the  specification  was  reduced  to  1,000,000. 
After  vain  attempt  to  make  his  payments,  a  settlement  was  finally  effected  for 
248,540  acres,  and  Symmes  was  prepared  to  dispose  of  clear  titles  to  new-com- 
ers. In  1788,  a  town  was  established  within  the  boundaries  of  his  grant,  at  the 
mouth  of  the  little  Miami,  known  as  Columbia,  and  in  the  early  part  of  1787 
another  was  formed  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Licking  River,  by  name  Losanti- 
ville,  analyzed  by  a  frontier  scholar — ville,  the  town  ;  anti,  opposite  to ;  os,  the 
mouth  of;  L,  Licking. 

Judge  Symmes  had  projected  building  his  main  town  at  North  Bend.  This 
plan  was  frustrated  by  reason  of  Ensign  Luce — who  had  been  commissioned  by 
Gen.  Harmar  to  erect  a  fort — deciding  that  North  Bend  was  not  suitable  for  the 
purpose.  He  selected  Losantiville  for  the  purpose,  and  Fort  Washington  was 
the  result.  In  1790,  Gov.  St.  Clair  was  called  to  inspect  the  settlement,  and 
proceeded  to  organize  Hamilton  County,  at  the  same  time  calling  the  town 

It  will  be  remembered  that  Connecticut  ceded  most  of  her  western  lands  to 
General  Government,  retaining,  however,  a  minor  portion.  As  the  settlements 
began  to  increase  on  the  "Virginia  Reserve"  and  between  the  Scioto  and  Miami 
Rivers,  all  those  holding  claims  were  not  disposed  to  part  with  them,  while 
others  were  anxious  to  secure  grants  for  the  purpose  of  speculation,  rather  than 
the  advancement  of  civilization.  The  Scioto  Company  was  a  questionable  ad- 
herent of  the  Ohio  Company,  and  began  operations,  which  resulted  well,  what- 
ever their  purpose  may  have  been. 

Gen.  Putnam  cleared  the  land  and  directed  the  building  of  100  dwellings  and 
six  block-houses.  During  1791,  the  colony  arrived,  consisting  of  500  persons. 
Only  ten  of  these  were  tillers  of  the  soil.  Viscount  Malartie  ventured  into  the 
wilderness,  but  instead  of  settling,  joined  Gen.  St.  Clair's  army,  and  was  ulti- 
mately his  aid-de-camp.  Indian  conquests  were  not  to  his  taste,  and  he  soon 
returned  to  France.  This  new  colony  was  essentially  French,  and  its  location 
was  Gallia  County.     The  name  "  Gallipolis  "  was  selected. 

These  settlers,  being  unaccustomed  to  severe  toil,  and  disinclined  to  learn 
its  hard  lesson,  soon  became  demoralized,  through  deprivation  and  absolute 
want.  Congress  came  to  their  aid  with  a  land  grant  of  24,000  acres,  but  few 
of  them  cared  to  enter  claims,  and  soon  all  traces  of  the  old  town  were  lost,  and 
its  inhabitants  scattered. 

98  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

Gen.  St.  Clair  having  become  unpopular,  through  repeated  failures  in  Indian 
campaigns,  and  Gen.  Anthony  Wayne  having  wintered  at  Fort  Washington, 
the  spring  of  1793  was  opened  by  a  march  of  the  army,  well  disciplined  and 
led  by  "Mad  Anthony,"  on  a  campaign  that  must  crush  the  rapidly  increasing 
depredations  of  the  Indians,  notwithstanding  which  these  new  settlements  had 
been  made.  All  winter,  Gen.  Wayne  had  dispatched  scouts,  spies  and  hardy 
frontiersmen  on  errands  of  discovery,  and  his  plans  were,  therefore,  practically 
matured.  His  army  cut  its  way  through  the  forests,  gathering  horses,  provis- 
ions, etc.,  as  they  marched,  and  finally  came  nearly  up  to  the  enemy  before  dis- 
covery. They  again  returned  to  Fort  Washington,  as  the  Commander-in-Chief, 
under  the  order  of  the  Executive,  had  proclaimed  inaction  until  the  Northern 
or  British  Commissioners  and  Indians  should  convene  and  discuss  the  situation 
and  prospects.  Gen.  Wayne,  meantime,  drilled  his  men  at  "  Hobson's  Choice," 
a  place  near  Fort  Washington. 

The  Commissioners  came  from  Detroit,  and  assembled  at  Capt.  Matthew 
Elliot's  house,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Detroit  River. 

A  meeting  was  called  at  Sandusky,  and  twenty  Indian  representatives  were 
present,  to  argue  the  grounds  of  a  treaty.  Simon  Girty  acted  as  interpreter, 
and  has  been  vehemently  accused  of  unfaithfulness  in  this  trust,  since  he  did 
not  advocate  the  adjustment  of  matters  on  any  grounds.  The  Indians  reiterated 
their  rights  and  wrongs,  and  offered  to  receive  the  half  of  the  purchase  money, 
provided  the  actual  settlers  would  accept  it  as  the  price  of  the  land,  move  away, 
and  leave  the  original  owners  the  proud  possessors  of  their  lands.  The  Govern- 
ment would  then  expend  less  money  than  they  would  have  done  in  a  full  Indian 
purchase,  or  a  long  and  cruel  war.  This  being  out  of  the  question  and  rejected, 
a  decided  specification  was  made  that  the  Ohio  boundary  was  to  be  obliterated, 
and  a  new  one  adopted,  that  encompassed  a  mere  fraction  of  territory.  This 
was  also  rejected.  The  Indians  indignantly  bade  the  Americans  to  go  back  to 
their  father,  and  they  would  return  to  their  tribes. 

The  council  was  terminated  in  confusion.  It  is  highly  probable  that  some 
settlement  might  have  been  made,  had  it  not  been  for  English  influence  which 
instigated  the  savages,  in  the  hope  of  ultimately  making  conquests  for  them- 
selves. The  commander  at  Detroit  evinced  great  uneasiness  whenever  there 
was  a  shadow  of  an  opportunity  for  a  peaceful  understanding. 

On  Christmas  Day,  1793,  a  detachment  of  the  army  encamped  on  the 
identical  ground  made  memorable  by  St.  Clair's  horrible  defeat.  A  reward  was 
offered  for  every  human  skull  that  was  found,  and  600  were  gathered.  The 
bones  of  the  victims  were  removed  from  the  spot  where  they  built  Fort  Recovery. 
This  point  was  left  in  charge  of  Alexander  Gibson. 

Early  in  the  year  1794,  Lord  Dorchester  addressed  the  Commissioners  in 
behalf  of  the  English.  Even  at  this  time.  Gen.  Wayne,  to  avoid  the  terrors  of 
a  great  war,  again  made  overtures  of  peace,  dispatching  Freeman,  Trueman  and 
Hardin,  all  initiated  in  savage  tactics,  on  errands  of  mercy — and  the  three  men 

HISTORY   OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  99 

were  inhumanly  murdered.  The  English  went  so  far  as  to  order  Gov.  Simcoe 
to  erect  a  fort,  in  April,  1794,  on  the  Rapids  of  the  Maumee,  thus  rousing  the 
Indians  by  a  bold  proof  that  they  had  espoused  their  cause.  In  May,  the 
Spanish,  who  were  ever  jealous  of  colonial  encroachments,  were  willing  to  aid 
in  a  general  raid  against  the  Americans. 

In  June,  a  scouting  party  from  Fort  Recovery,  fell  into  an  Indian  ambush 
and  suffered  severely,  their  foes  following  them  to  the  very  entrance.  The  siege 
continued  for  two  days.  It  was  plainly  evident  that  white  men  augmented  the 
Indian  force ;  ounce  balls  and  buck-shot  surely  came  from  their  rifles.  Again, 
the  Indians  immediately  began  a  search  beneath  the  logs  where  pieces  of  artillery 
were  hidden  during  the  great  battle  of  St.  Clair,  but  fortunately.  Fort  Recovery 
had  the  use  of  them  and  they  accomplished  much. 

On  July  26,  Scott  joined  Wayne  at  Greenville,  with  1,600  mounted 
Kentuckians,  and  on  the  28th,  the  legion  took  up  its  line  of  deadly  march. 
Halting  at  Girty's  Town,  they  built  Fort  Mary's,  later  on  Fort  Adams.  Throw- 
ing the  enemy  off  their  guard  by  feints  and  counter-marching,  the  troops  surprised 
the  Indians,  and  without  the  slightest  resistance  took  possession  of  their  villages 
at  the  confluence  of  the  Auglaize  and  Maumee.  They  found  provision  in 
abundance,  and  tarried  a  week  building  Fort  Defiance. 

Again  Gen.  Wayne  would  have  made  terms  of  peace,  on  the  principle  of  the 
Government  to  arrest  bloodshed,  but  the  Indians  were  rendered  cruelly  intent 
on  war  by  an  addition  of  a  body  of  British  militia  from  Detroit,  and  by  regulars 
stationed  at  a  fort  they  had  built  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river,  below  the  rapids, 
called  Fort  Miami.  The  "Fallen  Timber"  ground  was  selected  as  the  field 
for  a  battle  by  the  savages,  in  the  expectation  that  the  trees  cast  down  by  a 
tornado  and  there  remaining,  would  seriously  impede  American  progress. 

August  15th,  Wayne  marched  down  the  river,  and  at  Roche  de  Boeuf,  erected 
a  fortification  for  their  stores  and  luggage,  naming  it  "  Fort  Deposit."  On  the 
20th,  the  American  army  began  the  attack.  Maj.  Price  and  Maj.  Gen.  Scott 
.were  heroic  in  their  assistance,  and  after  a  sharp,  deadly  conflict,  the  enemy 
was  routed,  fleeing  in  confusion,  and  leaving  their  dead  and  wounded  strewn 
thickly  over  the  field.  The  savages  were  pressed  to  the  front  always,  and  when 
the  carnage  was  painful,  the  British  troops  not  engaged  looked  on  coolly  from  the 
fort  and  offered  no  assistance,  aiding  their  own,  however,  when  possible.  Gen. 
Wayne  being  an  ardent  soldier,  was  apt  to  forget  his  position,  and  impetuously 
place  himself  constantly  in  danger.  Lieut.  Harrison  is  reported  to  have 
requested  the  General  not  to  forget  to  give  him  field  orders,  in  his  own  partici- 
pation in  the  battle,  and  to  have  received  the  reply  that  the  standing  order  was 
always  to  charge  hayonets. 

Notwithstanding  the  treaty  of  1783,  and  the  fact  that  the  British  were  tres- 
passing, they  encroached  upon  the  Ohio  soil,  and  essayed  to  vindicate  their 
action  by  discarding  American  claims  and  recognizing  the  Indian  rights,  whereby 
they  might  seek  their  own  colonization  and  make  treaties. 

100  HISTORY  OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

Maj.  Campbell  was  in  command  at  Fort  Miami,  and  when  he  saw  the  sava> 
ges  being  cut  down  almost  mercilessly,  he  not  only  refrained  from  offering  aid, 
but  when,  in  their  desperate  retreat,  they  attempted  to  enter  the  fort  for  pro- 
tection, he  ordered  the  doors  closed  in  their  faces. 

On  the  following  day,  Campbell  sent  a  message  to  Wayne,  demanding  a 
reason  for  hostile  action,  adding  that  Great  Britain  was  not  now  at  war  with  the 
United  States.     He  received  a  characteristic  reply. 

During  the  Revolution,  Detroit  was  an  important  British  point,  and  the 
Maumee  was  its  outlet.  Therefore,  the  English  clung  tenaciously  to  this  pos- 
session, giving,  as  it  did,  the  advantage  of  the  great  fur  trade.  The  English 
Government  evidently  regretted  ceding  so  much  of  her  territory  in  the  West, 
and  were  searching  for  an  excuse  to  quarrel  and  attempt  to  regain  at  least  a  part 
of  what  they  had  lost.  Their  policy  was  to  sustain  the  bitter  hatred  between 
the  Indians  and  the  Americans. 

The  settlement  of  the  Maumee  Valley  had  been  rapid,  but  the  very  name 
was  an  agony  of  remembrance  of  frightful  massacres  and  atrocities.  Col. 
McKee,  the  British  Indian  agent,  and  his  assistant,  Capt.  Elliott,  were  from 
Pennsylvania,  but  being  Tories,  they  had  assimilated  with  the  Indians.  They 
joined  the  Shawnee  tribe  and  married  Indian  wives,  and  made  their  fortunes 
thereby,  through  British  appointments  to  secure  the  savage  interests.  The 
Indians  were  directly  served  by  McKee  and  Elliott,  with  ammunition  and  sup- 
plies, during  the  Wayne  conflict. 

Several  skirmishes  ensued,  but  severe  weather  approaching,  the  troops 
moved  for  quarters,  and  on  the  14th  day  of  September,  they  attacked  the  Miami 
villages,  captured  them  with  provisions  and  stores,  and  erected  a  fort,  leaving 
it  in  charge  of  Lieut.  Col.  Hamtramck.  With  cheers  and  rifle-shooting,  this  post 
was  named  Fort  Wayne.  The  main  army  marched  into  Greenville  and  went  into 
winter  quarters. 

Wayne  had  achieved  a  brilliant  victory,  but  his  success  did  not  overcome  his 
practical  reasoning,  and  he  was  unwilling  to  subject  his  men  to  a  severe  winter's 
campaign  unless  necessity  was  peremptory. 

Gov.  Simcoe,  Col.  McKee  and  a  few  of  the  most  savage  Indian  chiefs 
attempted  to  rally  the  Indians  for  a  new  attack.  Gov.  Simcoe,  of  Detroit,  was 
aware  that  the  mounted  volunteers  under  Wayne  had  been  allowed  to  return 
home,  and  that  the  term  of  service  of  a  portion  of  the  "  Legion  "  was  about  to 

The  British  and  Indians  held  a  conference,  but  the  latter  were  weary  with 
fighting  for  the  glory  of  the  Great  Father  at  Detroit,  and  did  not  enter  into  the 
plan.  The  winter  proved  most  poverty  stricken  to  them,  the  English  failing  to 
supply  them,  and  their  crops  and  sustenance  having  been  destroyed  by  Wayne. 
They  were  then  fully  prepared  to  listen  to  the  faintest  signal  from  Wayne  to 
conciliate  affairs,  and  the  Wyandots  and  Delawares  were  the  first  to  confer  with 
him  on  the  subject.     Their  position  was  exposed  and  they  had  suffered  severely. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  101 

They  soon  influenced  other  tribes  to  consider  the  question.  As  a  mass,  they 
were  convinced  of  their  inability  to  overcome  the  Americans,  and  had  become 
impatient  and  disgusted  with  the  duplicity  of  their  British  friends,  who  had  not 
hesitated  to  sacrifice  them  in  every  instance,  and  who  deserted  them  in  their 
hour  of  distress.  United,  they  sued  for  peace.  Terms  were  made,  and  about 
the  1st  of  August,  the  famous  Greenville  treaty  was  ratified  and  established, 
and  the  old  Indian  war  in  Ohio  terminated. 

The  Wyandots,  Delawares,  Shawnees,  Chippewas,  Ottawas,  Pottawatomies, 
Miamis,  Eel  Rivers,  Weas,  Kickapoos,  Piankeshaws  and  Kaskaskias  were  thus 
conciliated.  The  old  Indian  boundary  line,  settled  upon  at  the  Fort  Mcintosh 
treaty,  was  retained,  and  the  southwestern  line  was  prolonged  from  old  Fort 
Recovery,  southwest  of  the  Ohio  River. 

"  The  general  boundary  lines  between  the  lands  of  the  United  States  and 
the  lands  of  the  said  Indian  tribes  shall  begin  at  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga 
River,  and  thence  run  up  the  same  to  the  portage  between  that  and  the  Tus- 
carawas Branch  of  the  Muskingum ;  thence  down  that  branch  to  the  crossing- 
place  above  Fort  Laurens ;  thence  westerly  to  a  fork  of  that  branch  of  the 
Great  Miami  River  (running  into  the  Ohio),  at  or  near  which  fork  stood  Lar- 
amie's store — Mary's  River,  which  is  a  branch  of  the  Miami  that  runs  into  Lake 
Erie  ;  thence  a  westerly  course  to  Fort  Recovery,  which  stands  on  a  branch  of 
the  Wabash  ;  thence  southwesterly  on  a  direct  line  to  the  Ohio,  so  as  to  inter- 
sect that  river  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Kentucky  or  Cuttawa  River." 

This  boundary  line  has,  ever  since  this  memorable  treaty,  been  a  prominent 
landmark,  and  may  now  be  traced  as  the  southern  boundary  line  of  Stark,  Ash- 
land, Richland  and  Marion  Counties,  and  the  northern  line,  in  part,  of  Tuscar- 
awas and  Knox.  Old  Fort  Recovery  was  located  in  Mercer,  near  the  Indiana 
line.     Laramie's  store  was  in  Shelby. 

Within  the  Indian  Reservation,  the  United  States  held  sixteen  distinct  sec- 
tions of  land,  for  the  purpose  of  military  posts,  so  arranged  that  the  Govern- 
ment had  full  right  of  way  north  and  west. 

The  "Joy  treaty  "  between  England  and  the  United  States  was  ratified  early 
in  1796,  and  the  British  were  obliged  to  vacate  Detroit  and  Fort  Miami,  and  recall 
the  fact  that  they  had  no  claim  or  right  to  either  points.  Gen.  Wayne  received 
them,  and  accompanied  by  Gov.  St.  Clair,  proceeded  to  Detroit.  Here  the  lat- 
ter laid  out  a  county,  calling  it  Wayne,  and  designated  Detroit  as  its  seat  of 
justice.  This  was  the  fifth  county  in  the  Northwest  Territory,  north  of  the 
Ohio  River.  Washington  County,  with  Marietta  as  a  seat  of  justice,  was  first 
established ;  next  Hamilton,  with  Cincinnati  as  a  county  seat.  Wayne  County 
was  organized  in  1796,  and  included  about  twenty-six  of  the  present  counties, 
in  the  northwest  part  of  the  State,  covering  about  a  quarter  of  its  area,  besides 
parts  of  Indiana  and  Michigan. 

In  other  parts  of  the  State,  the  population  was  rapidly  increasing.  In  May, 
1795,  the  Legislature  authorized  a  committee  to  institute  measures  for  the 

102  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

disposal  of  their  Western  lands.  The  Virginia  and  Connecticut  Reservations 
required  some  action  on  the  part  of  Government,  inasmuch  as  ceding  a  portion 
and  re-selling  had  in  a  measure  disturbed  free  titles.  Fifty-six  persons  negoti- 
ated and  purchased  lands,  receiving  quit-claim  titles  and  entire  rights.  They 
re-sold  to  John  Morgan  and  John  Caldwell  and  Jonathan  Bruce,  in  trust.  Thus 
3,000,000  acres  were  prepared  for  settlement.  Upon  the  quit-claim  deeds  of 
these  representatives,  the  full  title  of  lands  included  within  the  old  Western 
Reserve  rests. 

Judge  Symmes  began  his  active  operations  in  1796,  and  by  the  close  of 
1797  all  lands  east  of  the  Cuyahoga  were  laid  out  in  townships,  five  miles  square. 
The  agent  of  the  Connecticut  Land  Company  was  Gen.  Moses  Cleveland,  and  in 
his  honor  the  leading  city  in  the  Reserve  was  named.  Some  townships  were 
retained  for  private  sale,  and  others  were  disposed  of  by  lottery,  in  1798. 

Wayne's  treaty  led  to  the  formation  of  Dayton,  and  the  peopling  of  that 
section.  A  difficulty  arose  regarding  the  original  Symmes  grant  and  its  modifi- 
cation. Symmes  had  sold  land  titles,  in  good  faith,  beyond  his  vested  power, 
and  Congress  was  now  called  upon  to  adjust  these  claims  and  titles.  Seventeen 
days  after  the  Wayne  or  Greenville  treaty,  St.  Clair,  Wilkinson,  Dayton  and 
Ludlow  contracted  with  Symmes  for  seven  and  eight  ranges,  between  the  Mad 
and  Little  Miami  Rivers.     November  4,  1795,  Mr.   Ludlow  laid  out  Dayton. 

During  the  years  1790  and  1795,  the  Governor  and  Supreme  Judges  of  the 
Northwest  Territory  had  published  sixty-four  statutes.  Thirty-four  of  these 
were  ratified  at  Cincinnati,  for  the  purpose  of  forming  a  complete  statutory.  It 
was  termed  the  "  Maxwell  Code." 

Mr.  Nathaniel  Massie  founded  a  town  on  the  Scioto,  which  was  called 
Chillicothe.  The  Iroquois  treaty  had  previously  invited  settlement,  and  embryo 
towns  had  begun  as  early  as  1769,  under  the  protection  of  the  Connecticut 
Company.  A  land  company  was  organized  in  Hartford,  Conn.,  in  1795,  sending 
out  forty-three  surveyors  to  divide  the  townships  of  that  part  of  the  Western 
Reserve,  east  of  the  Cuyahoga,  five  miles  square.  The  first  resident  of  the  town 
of  Cleveland  was  Mr.  Job  Stiles  and  family,  and  Mrs,  Stiles  was  the  mother  of 
the  first  white  child  born  on  the  Reserve.  Some  other  parts  of  the  territory 
progressed  more  rapidly  in  population. 

Along  the  Muskingum,  Scioto  and  Miami,  towns  began  to  spring  up,  which 
might  perhaps  better  be  termed  farming  settlements. 

Cincinnati  was  increasing,  and  in  1796,  had  reached  100  cabins,  15  frame 
houses  and  600  persons,  with  prospects  for  a  firm  future. 

The  Virginia  Military  Land  District  was  between  the  Little  Miami  and 
Scioto,  and  was  rapidly  increasing  in  population. 

Mr.  Massie  was  unceasinsr  in  his  efibrts  to  advance  the  West,  and  laid  out 
Manchester,  offering  inducements  that  could  not  fail  to  attract  settlers. 

Ebenezer  Zane  procured  a  grant  in  consideration  of  opening  a  bridle  path 
from  the  Ohio  River  at  Wheeling,  over  the  country  via  Chillicothe,  to  Limestone, 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  103 

in  Kentucky.      The   year  following,  the  United  States  mail  was  taken  over 
this  route. 

The  comparatively  tranquil  condition  of  the  country  and  the  inducements  it 
had  to  offer  encouraged  a  rapid  settlement  of  the  Territory.  A  prominent 
feature  of  the  early  growth  of  Ohio  was  the  general  prevalence  of  reliable, 
stanch  principle.      The  people  were  of  the  good  colonial  stock. 

In  1800,  Chillicothe  was  denominated  the  seat  of  the  Territorial  govern- 
ment, and  the  first  stone  edifice  in  the  State  was  begun  in  this  town,  soon  after 
this  appointment.  About  this  time,  a  serious  difficulty  suddenly  occurred  to 
those  individuals  who  had  taken  lands  on  the  Western  Reserve  of  Connecticut. 
That  Eastern  power  had,  it  is  true,  ceded  a  part  of  her  claim  to  the  General 
Government,  and  had  stipulated  for  the  sale  of  certain  other  tracts.  At  the 
same  time,  the  State  had  not  signed  away  her  jurisdiction  over  some  sections  of 
her  claim,  and  those  unfortunate  people  in  and  about  Dayton  found  themselves 
without  any  government  upon  which  they  might  depend  in  a  case  of  emergency. 
The  matter  was,  accordingly,  presented  to  the  Territorial  government,  which 
interceded  with  the  Eastern  State,  and,  sanctioned  by  the  Assembly  at  Congress, 
Connecticut  relinquished  her  jurisdiction  in  1800. 

Cleveland  was  an  important  point,  and  was  growing  in  the  mean  time.  How- 
ever, it  had  suffered  exceedingly  from  the  ravages  of  fever  and  ague.  For  a 
period  of  two  months,  there  was  not  an  individual,  but  a  boy  thirteen  years 
of  age,  able  to  procure  food  for  the  others.  Flour  was  out  of  all  rational  con- 
sideration, and  the  meal  upon  which  they  lived  was  pounded  by  hand.  In 
1799,  Williams  and  Myatt  erected  a  grist-mill  at  the  falls,  near  Newbury. 

A  startling  agitation  occurred  in  1801,  which  in  these  days  would  cause  but  a 
ripple  in  the  political  sea,  but  happening  during  a  time  when  legislative  dignity 
and  state  authority  were  regarded  with  reverential  awe,  it  created  the  most 
intense  feeling.      Great  indignation  was  openly  expressed. 

The  Governor  and  several  legislators  felt  that  they  had  been  insulted  in 
the  performance  of  their  respective  duties,  at  Chillicothe,  while  the  Assembly 
was  in  session  in  1801.  No  measures  being  taken  by  the  authorities  at  the 
capital  to  protect  the  Executive,  a  law  was  passed  removing  the  seat  of  govern- 
ment to  Cincinnati. 

This  circumstance  led  to  a  general  consideration  of  the  advantages  of  a 
State  government,  and  a  popular  desire  was  expressed  for  a  change  in  this 
respect.  Gov.  St.  Clair  had  fallen  into  disfavor  through  his  failure  as  a  military 
leader  and  his  failures  in  the  Indian  campaigns,  and  from  his  assuming  powers 
which  were  not  vested  in  him,  especially  the  subdivision  of  counties.  He  was 
also  identified  with  the  Federal  party,  which  was  not  popular  in  Ohio.  The 
opposition  was  strong  in  the  Assembly,  but  was  in  the  minority  in  the  House  of 
Representatives.  The  boundary  question  was  agitated  at  the  same  time.  The 
intention  was  to  thus  effect  the  limits  of  Ohio  that  a  State  government  would 
necessarily  have  to  be  postponed.     Against  this  measure,  Tiffin,  Worthington, 

104  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

Langham,  Darlington,  Massie,  Dunlavy  and  Morrow  strenuously  objected.  After 
considerable  discussion,  Thomas  Worthington  obtained  leave  of  absence  from 
the  session,  and  journeyed  to  Washington  in  behalf  of  a  State  government.  It 
was  obvious  that  the  Territory,  under  the  ordinance,  was  not  entitled  to  a 
change.  Massie  suggested  the  feasibility  of  appointing  a  committee  to  address 
Conoress  on  the  subject.     This  the  House  refused  to  pass. 

An  effort  was  then  made  to  take  a  census,  but  any  action  on  this  subject 
was  postponed  until  the  next  session. 

During  all  this  ineffectual  struggle,  Worthington  was  doing  his  best  in  Wash- 
ington, and  succeeded  so  well  that  on  March  4,  a  report  was  made  to  the  House 
in  favor  of  the  State  government.  This  report  was  made  on  a  basis  that  the 
census,  in  1800,  summed  up  over  45,000  for  Ohio. 

April  30,  Congress  passed  a  law  carrying  into  effect  the  views  expressed  on 
this  subject.  A  convention  met  on  November  1.  Its  members  were  generally 
Jeffersonian  in  their  views.  Gov.  St.  Clair  proposed  to  address  them  as  their 
chief  executive  magistrate.  Several  members  resolutely  opposed  this  action, 
insisting  upon  a  vote,  which,  through  courtesy  and  not  a  sense  of  right,  resulted 
in  permitting  him  to  address  them.  He  advised  the  postponement  of  the  State 
government  until  the  original  eastern  portion  of  the  State  was  suflBciently  pop- 
ulated to  demand  this  right.  Only  one,  out  of  thirty-three,  voted  to  sustain 
the  Governor  in  these  views. 

The  convention  agreed  to  the  views  of  Congress.  November  29,  the  agree- 
ment was  ratified  and  signed,  as  was  the  constitution  of  the  State  of  Ohio. 
The  General  Assembly  was  ordered  to  convene  the  first  Tuesday  of  March,  1803. 

This  was  carried  into  effect.  A  constitution  was  framed  for  the  new  State, 
adhering  to  the  Ordinance  of  1787.  The  rights  and  duties  of  citizens  were 
plainly  set  forth,  and  general  business  was  transacted.  The  new  State  consti- 
tution was  signed  by  : 

Edward  Tiffin,  President  and  Representative  from  Ross  County. 

Adams  County — Joseph  Darlington,  Israel  Donalson,  Thomas  Vinker. 

Belmont  County — James  Caldwell  and  Elijah  Woods. 

Clermont  County — Philip  Gatch  and  James  Sargent. 

Fairfield  County — Henry  Abrams  and  Emanuel  Carpenter. 

Hamilton  County — John  W.  Brown,  Charles  Willing  Byrd,  Francis  Dun- 
lavy, William  Goforth,  John  Gitchel,  Jeremiah  Morrow,  John  Paul,  John  Riley, 
John  Smith  and  John  Wilson. 

Jefferson  County — Rudolph  Blair,  George  Humphry,  John  Milligan,  Nathan 
Updegraff  and  Bezaleel  Wells. 

Ross  County — Michael  Baldwin,  James  Grubb,  Nathaniel  Massie  and  F. 

Washington  County — Ephraim  Cutler,  Benjamin  Ives  Gilman,  John  Mc- 
Intyre  and  Rufus  Putnam. 

Thomas  Scott,  Secretary. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  105 

The  first  Legislature  of  the  State,  under  the  new  constitution,  created  eight 
new  counties,  viz.,  Gallia,  Scioto,  Franklin,  Columbiana,  Butler,  Warren, 
Greene  and  Montgomery. 

The  first  State  officers  were  :  Michael  Baldwin,  Speaker  of  the  House  ;  Na- 
thaniel Massie,  President  of  the  Senate ;  William  Creighton,  Secretary  of 
State  ;  Col.  Thomas  Gibson,  Auditor  ;  William  McFarland,  Treasurer  ;  Return 
J.  Meigs,  Jr.,  Samuel  Huntington  and  William  Sprigg,  Judges  of  the  Supreme 
Court ;  Francis  Dunlavy,  Willis  Silliman  and  Calvin  Pease,  Judges  of  the  Dist- 
rict Court. 

The  General  Assembly  held  a  second  session  in  December,  at  which  time 
the  militia  law  was  revised,  also  giving  aliens  equal  proprietary  rights  with  native 
citizens.  The  revenue  system  was  modified  and  improved.  Acts  authorizing 
the  incorporation  of  townships  were  passed,  and  for  the  establishment  of  coun- 
ties. Furthermore,  Jacob  White,  Jeremiah  Morrow  and  William  Ludlow  were 
authorized  to  locate  a  township  for  collegiate  purposes,  according  to  previous 
specified  terms  of  Congress.  The  Symmes  grant  and  the  college  specification 
collided  materially,  but  the  irregularity  of  the  former  was  not  to  create  any 
inconvenience  for  the  latter.  Mr.  Symmes  had  in  good  faith  marked  ofi"  this 
township,  but  circumstances  preventing  the  perfection  of  his  plans,  that  lapsed 
with  the  others,  and  the  original  township  was  now  entered  by  settlers. 

Accordingly,  thirty-six  sections,  west  of  the  Great  Miami,  were  selected, 
and  are  now  held  by  the  Miami  University. 

Gov.  St.  Clair,  notwithstanding  his  unpopularity,  was  re-appointed. 

Ohio  was  under  a  system  of  government  which  guaranteed  the  best  improve- 
ments ;  her  Legislature  being  composed  of  her  best  statesmen,  and  the  laws 
passed  having  the  general  interest  of  the  people  embodied  in  them. 

A  bill  was  passed,  appropriating  the  net  proceeds  of  the  land  lying  within 
said  State,  sold  by  Congress  after  the  20th  day  of  June,  1802,  after  deducting 
all  expenses  incident  to  the  same,  to  be  applied  to  the  laying-out  of  roads, 
leading  from  the  navigable  waters  emptying  into  the  Atlantic  to  the  Ohio,  to 
the  said  State,  and  through  the  same  ;  such  roads  to  be  laid  out  under  the 
authority  of  Congress,  with  the  consent  of  the  several  States  through  which  the 
road  shall  pass.  In  conformity  with  these  provisions,  steps  were  taken,  in  1805, 
which  resulted  in  the  making  of  the  Cumberland  or  National  road. 

Burr,  at  this  time,  began  an  organization  for  the  ostensible  purpose  of 
making  a  settlement  on  the  Wachita,  but  his  party  being  armed  and  his  plans 
not  being  frankly  disclosed,  an  investigation  proved  that  his  real  design  was  a 
mutinous  revolt  against  Governmental  powers,  and  to  gratify  his  ambition  by 
founding  his  own  kingdom  in  Mexico,  and  defeating  the  Spanish.  If  success 
crowned  his  efforts,  his  ultimate  victory  was  to  rupture  the  Union  by  forcing  the 
Western  States  to  withdraw  from  their  allegiance.  By  gaining  an  influence 
over  the  noble  but  misguided  Blennerhasset,  he  established  his  headquarters  on 
his  island  in  the  Ohio.     The  history  of  Burr's  expedition  is  already  well  known. 

106  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

The  final  capture  by  Gov.  Tiffin,  of  ten  boats  loaded  with  stores,  on  the  Mus- 
kingum, and  four  near  Marietta,  decided  the  fate  of  this  scheme,  and  Burr  was 
finally  arrested  and  put  on  trial  May  22,  1807. 

The  advancement  of  the  settlement  of  the  State  was  in  no  manner  impeded, 
and  towns  sprang  up,  farms  were  laid  out,  and  all  other  improvements  inaugu- 
rated which  tended  to  a  permanent  prosperity. 

In  1808,  Tecumseh  left  Greenville  to  join  the  Prophet  on  the  banks  of  the 
Tippecanoe,  a  tributary  of  the  Upper  Wabash,  on  a  tract  of  land  granted  herein 
by  the  Pottawatomies. 

The  Indians  were  virtually  by  treaty  allowed  but  a  small  proportion  of  land 
within  the  boundaries  of  the  State,  and  were  maintaining  peaceful  attitudes 
toward  the  whites,  with  exceptional  border  depredations,  which  were  settled  by 
mutual  understanding. 

Although  the  United  States  had  gained  independence,  and  was  treating  with 
England  as  with  other  foreign  powers,  the  British  persisted  in  violating  the 
national  rights  of  the  United  States,  impressing  American  seamen  into  the 
British  service,  seizing  American  vessels  engaged  with  France  in  trade,  and 
otherwise  violating  the  rights  of  an  independent  nation,  at  peace  with  the  Brit- 
ish power. 

The  mission  upon  which  Henry  was  sent  by  the  British,  to  create  disturb- 
ance between  the  States,  and  thus  broken,  to  weaken  the  strength  of  the  Gen- 
eral Government,  added  fuel  to  the  fire,  and  united  indignation  cried  for  war. 

British  agents  again  bargained  with  the  Indians  of  the  Wabash  and  Maumee 
Valleys,  desiring  them  to  inaugurate  another  war  upon  the  western  sections  and 
to  make  a  desperate  attack  upon  the  settlements  south  of  the  lakes.  The  Brit- 
ish agent  at  Maiden  negotiated  in  rifles,  powder,  ball,  merchandise,  lead,  blank- 
ets and  shirts.  The  Indians  were  inspired  again  with  the  hope  that  the  whites 
would  be  driven  back,  and  that  all  the  country  north  of  the  Ohio  would  again 
revert  to  them. 

The  Canadians  in  league  with  the  English,  gave  the  savages  unlimited 
quantities  of  whisky,  which  naturally  aroused  their  fierce  natures  to  acts  of 
violence  and  blood.  It  is  highly  probable  that  the  use  of  liquor  was  the  main 
cause  of  the  deterioration  of  the  best  traits  of  the  Indian  character,  after  the 
Revolution.  Again,  many  unscrupulous  men  upon  the  frontier  did  not  hesi- 
tate to  commit  the  most  merciless  crimes  against  the  Indians,  such  was  the 
prejudice  against  them,  and  the  courts  invariably  failed  to  indict  them  for  these 
atrocities.  This  error  on  the  part  of  the  Americans  served  to  influence  the 
savages  against  them. 

At  this  time,  the  seats  of  justice  were  distant  over  a  hundred  miles  each 
from  the  other,  uninhabited  tracts  frequently  extending  between  them  which  were 
absolute  wildernesses.     The  routes  were  in  many  cases  difficult  and  circuitous. 

As  early  as  1808,  there  was  a  mail  communication  for  the  people  on  the 
Lower  Maumee,  many  days  elapsing  between  the  arrivals  and  departures  of 

HISTORY   OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  107 

the  same,  however.  Horace  Gunn  was  the  carrier.  Benoni  Adams  brought 
the  news  from  Cleveland  to  the  same  point,  his  trip  requiring  a  fortnight.  It 
must  be  remembered  that  this  journey  was  mostly  made  on  foot.  The  Black 
Swamp  could  not  be  traversed  in  any  other  manner. 

THE    WAR    OF    1812. 

The  war  of  1812  can  be  called  a  continuation  of  the  Revolution,  with  all 
justice.  Although  rumors  had  reached  Ohio,  that  active  preparations  were 
being  made  for  general  action,  no  official  tidings  had  been  sent  to  Hull,  com- 
mandea'-in-chief  of  the  Western  forces. 

The  Secretary  of  War,  instead  of  sending  a  special  messenger  directly  to 
Hull,  communicated  with  the  post  adjacent,  depending  upon  a  continuation  of 
the  news  from  that  point.  At  the  same  time,  advices  were  sent  the  British 
post  at  Maiden  and  Detroit.  Hull  sent  out  a  packet  with  official  papers,  stores, 
etc.,  the  day  previous  to  that  on  which  the  official  intelligence  arrived  that  an 
open  rupture  existed  between  the  two  powers,  and  this  was  of  course  captured. 

The  Western  forces  marched  to  Detroit  and  crossed  over  to  Sandwich,  pre- 
paratory to  attacking  Maiden,  a  post  most  favorable  for  the  transportation  of 
stores,  troops,  etc.  which  was  therefore  considered  valuable. 

Peter  Minard  first  gave  the  news  to  the  settlers  of  the  Maumee.  He  had 
heard  from  a  Delaware  chief,  who  assured  him  a  general  massacre  was  to  take 
place  in  the  valley.  Maj.  Spaffijrd  paid  no  heed  to  this  "idle  fear,"  until  a 
few  days  thereafter  a  messenger  came  to  his  quarters,  reporting  a  band  of  fifty 
Pottawatomies  on  the  march  to  join  the  hostile  tribes  near  Maiden.  They  had 
plundered  and  burned  Monclova,  and  had  nearly  reached  the  rapids. 

The  Major,  with  his  family  and  settlers,  immediately  launched  a  barge  on 
the  river  and  were  able  to  reach  old  Fort  Miami  just  as  the  savages  reached 
Maumee  City.  They  could  plainly  witness  the  flames  that  devoured  their  old 
homes.  They  kept  on  their  way  in  their  miserable  craft,  until  they  reached 
Milan,  where  they  learned  that  the  entire  country  was  in  danger. 

Although  the  Indians  were  defeated  in  the  battle  of  Tippecanoe  in  the  fall 
of  1811,  they  plotted  vigorously  with  the  English  for  the  invasion  of  Ohio.- 

Gen.  William  Hull  marched  from  the  southwestern  part  of  the  State 
directly  north,  crossing  the  counties  of  Champaign,  Logan,  Hardin,  Hancock 
and  Wood,  establishing  military  posts  along  the  route  and  cutting  a  way 
through  the  wilderness  of  the  unsettled  portions.  He  crossed  the  Maumee  on 
the  1st  of  July,  and  marched  to  Detroit. 

Hull  was  evidently  actuated  in  his  succeeding  disgraceful  failures  by  two 
fears — lack  of  confidence  in  the  ability  of  his  troops,  and  the  belief  that  they 
might  desert  him  in  action.  He  proclaimed  freedom,  and  a  necessity  of  sub- 
mitting to  the  Canadians  under  existing  circumstances.  He  held  out  induce- 
ments to  the  British  regulars  to  desert  their  cause  and  essayed  to  pacify  the 
savages,  but  he  accomplished  nothing  beyond  jeopardizing  the  American  cause 

108  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

and  disgracing  his  army.  His  men  became  restless.  Col.  Miller  and  Col. 
Cass  were  delighted  when  detailed  on  scouting  expeditions,  and  did  not  hesi- 
tate to  attack  advancing  squads  of  the  enemy.  At  last,  an  attack  was  made  on 
the  Niagara  frontier,  and  Hull  speedily  abandoned  his  project  and  collected  his 
forces  at  Detroit. 

Meantime,  Col.  Proctor  had  reached  Maiden,  and  quickly  perceiving  the 
advantao-e  of  a  post  at  that  point,  whereby  he  could  cut  off  supplies  and  starve 
Hull  into  subjection,  he  massed  his  forces  about  this  section,  captured  Van 
Horn  and  his  two  hundred  men,  and  withstood  the  attack  of  Miller,  although 
he  gained  nothing  by  so  doing.  Again  Hull  displayed  his  weakness  by  recall- 
ing his  forces  from  further  molestations. 

Gen.  Brock,  however,  reached  Maiden  on  the  13th  of  August,  1812,  and 
began  war  preparations. 

Gen.  Dearborn  placed  a  force  on  the  Niagara  frontier,  but  an  armistice  was 
made  with  the  British.  Hull  dispatched  a  third  party  under  McArthur,  to 
open  communications  to  the  Raisin  River. 

Gen.  Brock  appeared  at  Sandwich  and  began  to  erect  batteries,  which  Hull 
would  not  allow  to  be  molested.  The  result  was,  that  on  the  26th  of  August 
Detroit  was  surrendered  to  the  enemy,  and  not  a  blow  had  been  struck  in  its 

By  this  dastardly  act,  1,400  brave  men  who  had  not  been  permitted  to 
make  a  single  effort  to  sustain  the  American  cause,  were  surrendered  to  300 
English  regulars,  400  Canadians  and  their  Indian  allies.  Gen.  Hull  was,  in 
consequence  of  this  series  of  "mistakes,"  accused  of  treason  and  cowardice, 
and  convicted  of  the  latter.  By  the  middle  of  August,  the  British  had  gained 
the  control  over  most  of  the  Northwestern  Territory. 

The  appointment  of  William  Henry  Harrison  to  the  position  of  com- 
mander in  chief  of  the  Western  forces,  was  most  opportune.  He  speedily 
raised  a  vigorous  army,  and  advanced  by  three  routes  to  the  foot  of  the  rapids. 

Gen.  Harrison  commanded  the  right  wing,  and  marched  by  the  way  of  Upper 
Sandusky,  where  he  located  his  depot  of  supplies.  Gen.  Tupper  commanded 
the  center.  Fort  McArthur,  in  Hardin  County,  being  his  base,  while  Gen.  Win- 
chester marched  from  Fort  Defiance  down  the  Maumee  to  the  foot  of  the  rapids. 

A  large  force  of  British  and  Indians  moved  up  the  left  bank  of  the  Mau- 
mee toward  Fort  Wayne,  and  Gen.  Harrison,  to  intercept  them,  marched  to 
the  confluence  of  the  Auglaize  with  the  Maumee. 

Harrison  was  aware  that  the  enemy  would  be  also  hemmed  in  by  Win- 
chester. The  weather  was  rainy,  and  the  prospects  were  that  a  most  unfortun- 
ate season  was  to  follow  the  expected  engagements.  Harrison  heard  that 
Winchester  had  reached  Fort  Defiance,  and  that  the  Indians  and  British  were 
retreating  down  the  Maumee.  He  followed,  and  marched  to  Winchester's 
camp,  where  he  arrived  in  season  to  quell  a  mutiny  under  command  of  Col. 
Allen,  of  the  Kentucky  troops. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  109 

In  January,  1813,  Winchester  had  reached  the  rapids,  where  he  received 
tidino-s  that  Frenchtown  was  menaced  and  exposed.  Without  orders,  he  sent  a 
party  to  the  rescue,  which  defeated  the  enemy.  The  weather  was  intensely 
cold,  and  the  company  lay  within  eighteen  miles  of  Maiden,  where  the  enemy 
was  collected  in  full  force,  consequently  re-enforcements  must  be  dispatched 
immediately  or  the  town  again  left  to  its  fate. 

Winchester  then  marched  with  a  force  of  259  men,  and  upon  arriving  at 
nightfall,  insisted  upon  remaining  on  open  ground,  although  warned  repeatedly 
that  this  would  be  a  most  dangerous  experiment. 

In  the  morning,  he  was  surprised  by  the  enemy,  massed  directly  before 
him,  with  a  battery  within  three  hundred  yards  of  his  camp,  and  a  shower  of 
bombs,  balls  and  grape-shot  falling  among  his  exposed  troops,  and  the  yells  of 
Indians  reminding  him  of  his  fatal  error.  Lewis,  who  led  the  party  out  in  the 
beginning  and  had  apprehended  the  danger,  bravely  defended  himself  behind 
garden  pickets,  Winchester  was  defeated  on  the  22d  of  January,  1813,  and 
the  Indians  were  permitted  to  massacre  the  prisoners  and  the  settlers. 

Harrison  fell  back  to  the  foot  of  the  rapids.  On  the  1st  of  February,  he 
began  the  construction  of  Fort  Meigs.  On  the  27th  of  April,  Proctor  and 
Tecumseh  attacked  this  fort,  and  laid  siege  with  the  full  expectation  of  success. 
The  stipulation  was  that  Gen.  Harrison  was  to  be  delivered  to  Tecumseh. 
While  the  balls  and  bombs  were  making  havoc  with  the  fort,  the  Indians  were 
climbing  trees  and  pouring  a  galling  fire  down  upon  the  troops.  Gen.  Proctor 
invited  Harrison  to  surrender,  which  was  politely  declined,  with  the  assurance 
that  the  British  General  would  have  the  opportunity  to  distinguish  himself  as  a 
■soldier  before  such  a  proceeding  was  enacted. 

Gen.  Clay  was  descending  the  Maumee  with  1,200  Kentuckians  in  flat 
boats.  Orders  went  from  Harrison  that  800  men  should  land  on  the  left  bank, 
take  and  spike  the  British  cannon,  and  then  to  enter  the  fort,  from  which 
soldiers  were  to  issue  to  assist  the  re-enforcements. 

Capt.  Hamilton  was  to  pilot  Gen.  Clay  to  the  fort,  cutting  their  way 
through.  All  succeeded,  Col.  Dudley  taking  the  batteries  and  spiking  the 
cannon.  But  his  men,  too  much  elated  by  their  success,  against  orders,  and 
against  the  repeated  expostulations  of  Col.  Dudley,  insisted  on  pursuing  the 
Indians.  Col.  Dudley  would  not  desert  them.  This  act  proved  their  ruin. 
By  a  decoy,  they  were  led  into  a  defile  which  proved  an  ambush,  and  the  men 
found  themselves  surrounded  by  savages,  without  means  of  escape. 

A  most  frightful  massacre  began,  and  every  man  would  have  fallen  had  not 
Tecumseh  sternly  forbidden  the  cowardly  carnage.  One  of  his  principal  chiefs 
ignored  this  order,  and  the  next  instant  the  great  warrior  buried  his  hatchet  in 
his  head.     The  brave  Col.  Dudley  was,  however,  tomahawked  and  scalped. 

There  were  no  immediate  signs  that  the  fort  would  be  surrendered,  and  the 
siege  was  raised  on  the  9th  of  May.  It  was  renewed  on  the  20th  of  July,  and 
abandoned  a  few  days  later.    The  enemy  decided  this  stronghold  was  invulnerable. 

110  HISTORY  OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

On  the  1st  of  August,  the  enemy  proceeded  to  Fort  Stevenson,  at  Lower 
Sandusky,  garrisoned  by  150  men  under  Maj.  Croghan.  The  fort  had  the 
use  of  but  one  piece  of  cannon.  The  enemy  with  Tecumseh's  Indians  num- 
bered 3,300  strong,  with  six  pieces  of  cannon. 

Gen.  Proctor  again  tendered  the  offer  to  surrender,  adding  that  a  refusal 
would  only  bring  about  a  useless  resistance,  and  a  massacre  by  the  Indians. 
The  reply  was,  that  before  the  fort  went  over  to  the  British,  not  an  American 
would  be  left  to  be  massacred,  as  they  should  hold  out  to  the  last  man.  Proc- 
tor opened  fire.  The  first  movement  was  an  assault  upon  the  northwest  angle 
of  the  fort,  as  if  to  make  a  breach  and  thus  carry  the  works.  The  command- 
ant strengthened  that  point  by  bags  of  sand,  and  during  the  night  stealthily 
placing  his  one  cannon  in  a  concealed  position,  he  filled  it  with  slugs. 

The  following  day,  the  fire  again  swept  the  northwest  corner,  and,  evening 
approaching,  a  column  of  350  men  swept  up  within  twenty  yards  of  the  walls. 
They  were  met  by  the  musketry,  which  had  little  effect,  and  the  ditch  was  soon 
filled  with  men..  The  next  instant  the  hidden  cannon,  so  placed  as  to  sweep 
the  ditch,  suddenly  began  action,  and  the  surprised  assailants  quickly  recoiled, 
and  the  fort  was  saved,  with  the  loss  of  only  one  man. 

The  next  morning,  the  enemy  had  disappeared,  evidently  in  haste,  as  guns, 
clothing  and  stores  were  left  behind.  They  had  lost  over  one  hundred  and 
fifty  men  by  this  useless  attempt.  Croghan  had  previously  received  orders  to 
evacuate  the  fort  from  Gen.  Harrison,  and  his  determination  to  hold  the  position 
merited  Harrison's  reprimand  and  remand  of  commission.  Such  was  the  sev- 
erity of  military  law.  However,  the  rank  of  Colonel  was  immediately  conferred 
upon  him  by  the  President,  for  his  gallantry.  The  ladies  of  Chillicothe  pre- 
sented him  with  an  elegant  testimonial  in  the  shape  of  a  sword. 

It  was  decided  to  make  a  naval  warfare  effectual  in  the  recovery  of  the 
Northwestern  Territory,  and  accordingly  vessel-building  began  under  Commo- 
dore Perry's  supervision. 

The  British  looked  upon  this  proceeding  with  derision,  fully  intending  tO' 
use  these  boats  for  their  own  purpose.    They  publicly  proclaimed  their  intention. 

By  the  1st  of  August,  1813,  Commodore  Perry  set  sail  a  flotilla,  the  Law- 
rence and  the  Niagara,  of  twenty  guns  each,  with  smaller  vessels  following. 
Some  difficulty  was  encountered  in  launching  the  larger  vessels,  on  account  of 
the  shallowness  of  the  water. 

Perry's  first  destination  was  Put-in-Bay,  thirty  miles  from  Maiden,  where 
the  British  fleet  lay  under  the  guns  of  the  fort.  On  the  10th  of  September, 
the  British  fleet — exceeding  the  American  by  ten  guns — under  Commodore 
Barclay,  appeared  off  Put-in-Bay,  distant  about  ten  miles.  Perry  immediately 
set  sail.     The  wind  shifting,  the  Americans  had  the  advantage. 

Perry  hoisted  the  Union  Jack.  A  general  preparation  was  made  for  the 
conflict.  An  ominous  silence  settled  over  all  as  the  fleets  approached.  A 
bugle  sounded  on  the  enemy's  ship  Detroit,  and  a  furious  fire  was  opened  upon 

♦HISTORY   OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  Ill 

the  Lawrence.  The  frightful  and  desperate  battle  that  ensued  is  so  familiar 
that  it  is  not  necessary  for  us  to  repeat  its  details.  It  forever  remains  in  his- 
tory as  a  prominent,  desperate  struggle  that  turned  the  tide  most  decisively  in 
favor  of  the  Americans.  Hand  to  hand,  for  three  hours,  this  furious  struggle 
surged,  resulting  in  a  pronounced  victory  for  the  Americans. 

Commodore  Perry  immediately  requested  parole  for  his  severely  wounded 
antagonist,  Commodore  Barclay.  Capt.  Elliott  was  at  this  engagement  highly 
commended  by  Perry  for  his  bravery. 

Gen.  Harrison  now  made  preparations  to  follow  Proctor,  and  reached  Mai- 
den on  the  27th  of  September. 

Proctor  had  retreated  to  Sandwich,  and  thence  Harrison  followed  him, 
overtaking  the  enemy  on  the  9th  of  October,  on  the  bank  of  the  Thames.  An 
engagement  ensued,  which  was  not  particularly  marked  in  its  events,  but  which 
practically  terminated  the  war  in  the  Northwest. 

Tecumseh  fell  during  this  battle,  and  his  death  disheartened  the  savages  to 
such  an  extent  that  they  were  willing  to  make  terms  of  peace.  Accordingly 
a  treaty  was  concluded  on  the  22d  of  July,  1814,  with  the  Wyandots,  Dela- 
wares,  Shawnees,  Senecas  and  Miamis,  the  tribes  engaged  in  hostilities. 

Again  Ohio  was  able  to  turn  her  attention  to  the  improvements  within  her 
own  boundaries.  Weary  and  disabled  though  she  was,  her  ambition  and 
energy  were  unimpaired.  The  struggle  had  been  severe,  but  a  grand  reward 
had  been  won,  and  peace  and  independence  belonged  to  these  sturdy,  earnest, 

In  1815,  a  town  was  founded  near  Fort  Meigs,  and,  in  1816,  Gen.  John 
E.  Hunt  and  Judge  Robert  A.  Forsythe  located  at  Maumee. 


Up  to  the  year  1817,  Ohio  had  no  banking  system,  and  on  the  28th  of 
January  of  that  year,  the  United  States  Bank  opened  a  branch  at  Cincinnati, 
and  yet  another  during  the  following  October  at  Chillicothe.  These  branches 
found  a  large  amount  of  business  to  transact,  and  while  being  of  assistance  in 
various  ways  to  the  State,  also  received  a  fine  revenue  themselves.  The  State 
therefore  resolved  upon  a  tax  levy,  and,  in  1819,  the  branches  were  to  pay 
$50,000  each,  and  the  State  Auditor  was  authorized  to  issue  his  warrant  for 
the  collection  of  the  same. 

The  bank  branches  demurred,  but  the  State  was  decided,  and  the  banks 
accordingly  filed  a  bill  in  chancery,  in  the  United  States  Circuit  Court,  setting 
forth  reasons  whereby  their  prayer  that  Ralph  Osborn,  State  Auditor,  should 
be  restrained  from  making  such  collection,  should  be  seriously  considered. 

Osborn  being  counseled  not  to  appear  on  the  day  designated  in  the  writ,  an 
injunction  was  obtained,  with  the  security  given  in  the  shape  of  bonds  from  the 
bank,  to  the  amount  of  $100,000.  On  the  14th  of  September,  the  bank  sent  a 
commissioner  to  Columbus,  who  served  upon  the  Auditor  a  copy  of  the  petition 

112  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

for  the  injunction,  and  a  subpoena  to  make  an  appearance  before  the  court 
on  the  first  Monday  in  the  following  January.  Osborn  submitted  both  the 
petition  and  the  injunction  to  the  Secretary  of  State,  with  his  warrant  for  col- 
lecting the  tax.     Legally,  the  matter  was  somewhat  complicated. 

The  Auditor  desired  the  Secretary  of  State  to  take  legal  advice,  and  if  the 
papers  did  not  actually  amount  to  an  injunction,  to  give  orders  for  the  execu- 
tion of  the  warrant. 

The  decision  was  that  the  papers  did  not  equal  a  valid  injunction.  The  State 
writ  for  collection  was  therefore  given  over  to  John  L,  Harper,  with  directions 
to  enter  the  banking-house  and  demand  the  payment  of  the  tax.  In  case  of  a 
refusal,  the  vault  was  to  be  entered  and  a  levy  made  upon  the  amount  required. 
No  violence  was  to  be  used,  and  if  force  was  used  to  deter  the  act,  the 
same  was  to  be  reported  to  a  proper  magistrate  and  an  afiidavit  made  to  that 

On  September  17,  Mr.  Harper  went  about  his  errand,  taking  with  him  T. 
Orr  and  J.  MacCollister.  After  securing  access  to  the  vault,  a  demand  was 
made  for  the  payment  of  the  tax.  This  was  promptly  refused,  and  a  notice 
given  of  the  granting  of  the  injunction.  This  was  disregarded,  and  the  officer 
seized  $98,000  in  gold,  silver  and  notes.  This  was  placed  in  charge  of  the 
State  Treasurer,  Mr.  H.  M.  Curry. 

The  officers  were  arrested  and  imprisoned  by  the  United  States  Circuit 
Court,  and  the  money  returned  to  the  bank.  The  case  was  reviewed  by 
the  Supreme  Court,  and  the  measures  of  the  Circuit  Court  were  sustained.  The 
State,  therefore,  submitted.  In  the  mean  time,  the  Legislature  had  prepared 
and  passed  a  resolution,  as  follows: 

Resolved,  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Ohio,  That  in  respect  to  the  powers  of  the 
Governments  of  the  several  States  that  compose  the  American  Union,  and  the  powers  of  the  Fed- 
eral Government,  this  General  Assembly  do  recognize  and  approve  the  doctrines  asserted  by  the 
Legislatures  of  Kentucky  and  Virginia  in  their  resolutions  of  November  and  December,  1798, 
and  January,  1800,  and  do  consider  their  principles  have  been  recognized  and  adopted  by  a 
majority  of  the  American  people. 

Resolved  further,  That  this  General  Assembly  do  assert  and  will  maintain  by  all  legal  and 
constitutional  means,  the  rights  of  States  to  tax  the  business  and  property  of  any  private  corpo- 
ration of  trade,  incorporated  by  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  and  located  to  transact  its 
corporate  business  within  any  State. 

Resolved  further.  That  the  bank  of  the  United  States  is  a  private  corporation  of  trade,  the 
capital  and  business  of  which  may  be  legally  taxed  in  any  State  where  they  may  be  found. 

Resolved  further.  That  the  General  Assembly  do  protest  against  the  doctrines  that  the  politi- 
cal rights  of  the  separate  States  that  compose  the  American  Union  and  their  powers  as  sovereign 
States,  may  be  settled  and  determined  in  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States,  so  as  to  con- 
clude and  bind  them  in  cases  contrived  between  individuals,  and  where  they  are,  no  one  of  them, 
parties  direct. 

The  bank  was  thus  debarred  from  the  aid  of  State  laws  in  the  collection  of 
its  dues  and  in  the  protection  of  its  rights.  An  attempt  was  made  to  effect  a 
change  in  the  Federal  constitution,  which  would  take  the  case  out  of  the 
United  States  Courts.     This,  however,  proved  ineffectual. 


The  banking  system  in  Ohio  has,  by  reason  of  State  surveillance,  not  been 
subjected  to  those  whirlwind  speculations  and  questionable  failures  which  have 
marked  many  Western  States,  in  the  establishment  of  a  firm  basis  upon  which 
a  banking  law  could  be  sustained,  with  mutual  benefit  to  the  institution  and  the 


In  the  first  part  of  1817,  the  Legislature  considered  a  resolution  relating 
to  a  canal  between  Lake  Erie  and  the  Ohio  River.  No  action  was  taken  and 
the  subject  was  not  again  agitated  until  1819.  Gov.  Brown  appointed  three 
commissioners  in  1820,  for  the  purpose  of  employing  an  efficient  engineer  and 
such  assistants  as  he  deemed  necessary,  for  the  purpose  of  surveying  a  practical 
route  for  this  canal.  The  commissioners  were  restricted  in  their  actions  until 
Congress  should  accept  a  proposition  in  behalf  of  the  State,  for  a  donation  and 
sale  of  the  public  lands  lying  upon  and  near  the  route  of  the  proposed  canal. 
A  delay  was  thus  occasioned  for  two  years. 

In  1822,  the  matter  was  referred  to  a  committee  of  the  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives. This  committee  approved  and  recommended  the  employment  of  the 
engineer.  They  furthermore  added  illustrations  to  prove  the  feasibility  of  the 

James  Geddes,  a  skillful  engineer  of  New  York,  was  in  due  time  appointed 
to  the  position  and  instructed  to  make  the  necessary  examinations  and  sur- 

The  surveys  were  made,  and  estimates  given  of  the  expenses,  which  docu- 
ments were  laid  before  the  Legislature  at  several  sessions. 

In  1825,  an  act  was  passed  providing  for  the  internal  improvement  of  the 
State  by  navigable  canals.  Directly  thereafter,  the  State  set  vigorously  about 
the  work  of  constructing  two  canals,  one  leading  from  the  Ohio  to  Lake  Erie, 
by  way  of  the  valleys  of  the  Scioto  and  Muskingum,  the  other  from  Cincinnati 
to  Dayton. 

The  first  canal-boat  from  Cincinnati  to  Dayton,  reached  her  destination  in 
1829,  on  the  25th  of  January.  This  outlet  of  communication  was  extended 
to  Lake  Erie,  and  was  completed  in  1845.  The  largest  artificial  lake  now 
known  is  on  the  elevation  between  the  Ohio  and  the  lake,  in  Mercer  County, 
and  supplies  the  St.  Mary's  feeder  of  the  Miami  Canal,  about  three  miles  dis- 
tant, eastwardly.  This  reservoir  is  about  nine  miles  long,  and  from  two  to 
four  broad. 

Two  walls  of  earth,  from  ten  to  twenty  feet  high,  were  formed,  on  the  east 
and  west,  which  united  with  the  elevations  north  and  south,  surrounded  this 
basin.  When  the  water  was  admitted,  whole  farms  were  submerged,  and  the 
"neighbors"  complained  lest  this  overflow  should  tempt  miasma.  So  great 
was  the  excitement,  that  over  one  hundred  and  fifty  residents  of  the  county 
united,  and  with  shovels  and  spades,  made  a  breach  in  the  embankment. 
Many  holding  prominent  positions  in  the  county  were  engaged  in  this  work. 

114  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

and  all  laid  themselves  liable  to  the  State  laws,  which  made  the  despoiling  of 
public  works  a  penitentiary  offense. 

The  matter  was  taken  up  by  the  courts,  but  a  grand  jury  could  not  be 
found  in  Mercer  County  to  find  a  bill  of  indictment. 

The  oflBcers  who  had  charge  of  the  work,  ignored  the  law  requiring  the  cut- 
ing  and  saving  of  the  timber  on  lands  appropriated,  for  canal  reservoirs.  ■  The 
trees  were  ruthlessly  girdled,  and  thousands  of  acres  of  valuable  timber  that 
might  have  been  highly  desirable  in  the  building  of  bridges,  etc.,  were 
destroyed.  However,  an  adjustment  was  finally  effected,  and  the  work  was 
prosecuted  with  the  entire  approbation  of  the  people,  who  were  convinced  that 
convenient  transportation  was  to  be  desired. 


After  the  Indians  relinquished  all  claims  against  the  lands  of  those  States 
west  of  the  Alleghanies,  as  they  had  been  obtained  by  conquest,  the  United 
States,  as  a  government,  owned  the  soil.  When  Ohio  was  admitted  into  the 
Union,  a  stipulation  was  made  that  the  fee  simple  to  all  the  lands  within  its 
boundaries,  with  the  exception  of  those  previously  sold  or  granted,  should  vest 
in  the  General  Government.  At  the  present  writing,  but  few  tracts  remain 
that  can  be  called  "  public  lands."  In  this,  as  in  other  States,  tracts  are  des- 
ignated by  their  pioneer  signification  or  the  purpose  to  which  they  were  origi- 
nally devoted.     In  Ohio,  these  tracts  are  known  as  : 


Congress  Lands. 


Symmes'  Purchase. 


Maumee  Road. 


United  States  Military. 


Refugee  Tract. 


School  Lands. 


Virginia  Military. 


French  Grant. 


College  Lands. 


Western  Reserve. 


Dohrman's  Grant. 


Ministerial  Lands. 


Fire  Lands. 


Zane's  Grant. 


Moravian  Lands. 


Ohio  Company's  Purchase. 


Canal  Lands. 


Salt  Sections. 


Donation  Tract. 


Turnpike  Lands. 

The  lands  sold  by  the  direct  officers  of  the  Government,  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Congress,  according  to  the  laws,  are  known  as  Congress  lands.  They 
are  properly  surveyed,  and  laid  out  in  townships  six  miles  square,  under  the 
direction  of  the  Government,  and  the  expense  incurred  settled  by  Congress. 
These  townships  are  subdivided  into  sections,  containing  640  acres.  One  sec- 
tion is  reserved,  in  every  township,  for  educational  purposes,  to  be  utilized  in 
any  manner  approved  by  the  State  as  being  the  best  to  aid  the  cause  for  which 
they  are  assigned. 

The  Western  Reserve  will  be  remembered  as  the  tract  originally  belonging  to 
Connecticut.  It  lies  in  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  State.  A  half-million  acres 
were  donated  by  the  old  Eastern  State,  when  her  claim  was  in  force,  to  sufferers 
from  fire  during  the  Revolutionary  war,  which  created  the  name,  "  fire  lands." 
Many  settled  here  whose  homes  were  destroyed  by  the  British  during  the  war. 

It  will  be  remembered,  that  on  account  of  discoveries  by  subjects  of  empires, 
in  the  New  World,  the  "  Old  World  "  kings  laid  claim  to  different  portions 

^  The? 

y  loliieii  in 


HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  117 

of  the  young  continent.  At  that  period,  European  knowledge  of  American 
geographical  positions  and  limits  was  exceedingly  meager,  which  occasioned 
several  wars  and  more  discussions.  These  Old-World  sovereigns  also  assumed 
the  authority  to  sell  or  present  tracts  of  land  to  their  subjects,  in  those  terri- 
tories they  deemed  their  own. 

King  Charles  II  of  England  granted  to  his  loyal  subjects  the  colony  of 
Connecticut,  in  1662,  placing  with  them  a  charter  of  right  to  all  lands  within 
certain  prescribed  boundaries.  But  these  "  boundaries  "  frequently  conflicted 
with  those  of  others,  and  sometimes  extended  to  the  Pacific  Ocean,  or  "  South 
Sea,"  as  it  was  then  termed.  Connecticut,  by  her  original  charter  rights,  held 
all  lands  between  the  forty -first  and  forty-second  parallels  of  north  latitude,  and 
from  Providence  Plantation  on  the  east,  to  Pacific  Ocean  on  the  west,  except- 
ing the  New  York  and  Pennsylvania  colonies.  As  late  as  the  establishment  of 
the  United  States  as  an  independent  government,  those  colliding  claims  fre- 
quently engendered  confusion  and  warm  discussion  between  the  nation  and 
Connecticut,  regarding  the  original  colony  claim.  This  was  compromised  by 
the  national  claims  being  relinquished  in  regard  to  the  territorial  claim  in  Ohio, 
and  Connecticut  holding  the  3,800,000  acres  described  as  the  "  Western  Reser- 
vation."    The  Government  held  the  right  of  jurisdiction. 

In  1796,  Congress  set  aside  a  certain  division  of  land,  to  satisfy  the  claims 
of  officers  and  soldiers  of  the  Revolutionary  war.  It  includes  the  2,500,000 
acres  between  the  Greenville  treaty  line  and  the  Congress  and  refugee  lands, 
and  "VII  ranges  of  townships,"  on  the  east,  and  the  Scioto  River,  west.  This 
constitutes  the  "  Military  Tract."  The  "  Virginia  Military  Tract  "  lies  between 
the  Scioto  and  Little  Miami  Rivers,  and  extends  south  to  the  Ohio. 

James  I,  in  his  authorized  charter  to  the  Virginia  colony,  in  the  year 
1609,  made  rather  visionary  boundary  lines,  sweeping  over  the  continent,  west 
of  the  Ohio  River,  "  of  the  north  and  south  breadth  of  Virginia."  Virginia 
reconciled  the  matter  by  relinquishing  all  her  claims  northwest  of  the  Ohio 
River,  with  the  exception  of  a  tract  for  the  purpose  of  donating  the  same  to  her 
troops  of  the  Revolution — their  claims  demanding  such  a  return  in  some  section. 
Unfortunately,  this  tract  was  not  regularly  surveyed,  and  conflicting  "  lines  " 
have  given  rise  to  litigation  ever  since  that  stipulation  was  made. 

The  Ohio  Company's  Purchase  has  already  been  described — as  has  the 
Symmes  Purchase. 

The  Refugee  Tract  covers  an  area  of  100,000  acres,  extending  eastwardly 
from  the  Scioto  River  forty-eight  miles,  in  a  strip  of  country  four  and  one-half 
miles  broad,  north  to  south.  Columbus,  the  capital  of  the  State,  is  situated  in 
the  western  portion.  This  land  was  donated  by  Congress  to  those  individuals 
who  left  the  British  dominions  and  rule,  during  the  Revolution,  and  espoused 
the  American  cause. 

The  French  Tract  borders  on  the  Ohio  River,  in  the  southeastern  quarter 
of  Scioto  County.     It  includes  24,000  acres,  and  was  ceded  to  those  French. 

118  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

families  that  lost  their  claims  at  Gallipolis,  through  invalid  titles  ;  1,200  acres 
were  added,  after  the  above  grant  of  1795. 

Dohrman's  Grant  includes  a  section,  six  miles  square,  in  the  southeastern 
portion  of  Tuscarawas  County.  It  was  granted  to  Arnold  Henry  Dohrman,  a 
Portuguese  merchant,  as  a  token  of  appreciation  of  the  aid  and  shelter  he  ren- 
dered American  cruisers  and  vessels  of  war,  during  the  Revolution. 

The  Moravian  Lands  were  originally  grants  by  the  old  Continental  Con- 
gress, in  1787,  and  confirmed  by  the  act  of  the  Government  Congress,  in  1796, 
to  the  Moravian  Brethren,  of  Bethlehem,  Penn.,  in  sacred  trust,  and  for  the 
use  of  those  Indians  who  embraced  Christianity  and  civilization,  desiring  to  live 
and  settle  thereon.  These  three  tracts  include  4,000  acres  each,  and  are  situ- 
ated in  Tuscarawas  County.  In  1823,  the  Indians  relinquished  their  rights  to 
the  12,000  acres  in  this  county,  for  24,000  acres,  in  a  territory  designated  by 
the  United  States,  together  with  an  annuity  of  $400. 

Zane's  Tracts  included  a  portion  of  land  on  the  Muskingum,  whereon  Zanes- 
ville  was  built ;  another  at  the  crossing  of  the  Hocking,  on  which  Lancaster  is 
located  ;  and  yet  another  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Scioto  River,  opposite  Chilli- 
cothe.  These  grants  were  made  to  Ebenezer  Zane,  by  Congress,  in  1796,  as  a 
reward  for  opening  a  road  from  Wheeling,  Va.,  to  Maysville,  Ky.  In  1802, 
Mr.  Zane  received  three  additional  tracts,  one  square  mile  each,  m  considera- 
tion of  being  captured  and  held  a  prisoner,  during  the  Revolutionary  war, 
when  a  boy,  by  the  Indians.  He  lived  with  these  people  most  of  his  life,  secur- 
ing many  benefits  for  the  Americans.  These  tracts  are  located  in  Champaign 

The  Maumee  Road  Lands  extend  the  length  of  the  road,  from  the  Maumee 
River,  at  Perrysburg,  to  the  western  limits  of  the  Western  Reserve,  a  distance 
of  forty-six  miles — in  a  strip  two  miles  wide.  This  includes  about  60,000 
acres.  These  lands  were  ceded  by  the  Indians,  at  the  treaty  of  Brownstown,  in 
1808.  The  original  intention  of  Congress  was  to  mark  a  highway  through  this 
strip,  but  no  definite  action  was  taken  until  1823,  whe  a  the  land  was  ceded  to 
the  State  of  Ohio,  under  an  obligation  that  the  State  make  and  sustain  the  pro- 
jected road,  within  four  years  after  the  transfer. 

The  Turnpike  Lands  extended  over  31,360  acres  along  the  western  side  of 
the  Columbus  &  Sandusky  Turnpike,  in  the  eastern  parts  of  Seneca,  Craw- 
ford and  Marion  Counties.  They  were  designed  for  the  transportation  of  mail 
stages,  troops  and  other  United  States  property,  free  from  toll.  The  grant  was 
made  in  1827. 

"  The  Ohio  Canal  Lands  "  comprise  about  1,000,000  acres,  set  aside  for  the 
purpose  of  canal  construction. 

When  Ohio  was  admitted  to  the  LTnion,  a  guarantee  was  given  that  the  State 
should  not  tax  Government  lands  until  they  should  have  been  sold  for  five  years. 
That  the  thirty-sixth  part  of  all  territory  within  the  State  limits  should  be  de- 
voted to  educational  purposes,  for  the  general   benefit  of  the   population.     In 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  119 

order  to  secure  tracts  which  would  prove  available,  and  thus  insure  returns, 
they  were  selected  in  small  lots.  No.  16  was  designated  as  the  sectional  portion, 
in  each  township  of  Congress  lands,  the  Ohio  Company's  and  Symmes  Pur- 
chases, the  United  States  Military  Lands,  the  Connecticut  Reserve,  and  a  num- 
ber of  quarter  townships.  These  school  lands  were  selected  by  the  Secretary 
of  the  Treasury. 

The  college  townships  are  thirty-six  miles  square.  A  section,  thirty-six 
miles  square,  in  the  center  of  Jackson  County,  in  the  vicinity  and  containing 
the  Scioto  Salt  Licks,  was  also  reserved  by  Congress,  together  with  a  quarter- 
mile  township  in  Delaware  County.  This  swept  over  27,040  acres.  In  1824, 
Congress  authorized  the  State  to  sell  these  lands.  The  proceeds  were  to  be 
devoted  to  literary  requirements,  such  as  might  be  specified  by  Congress. 


We  have  heretofore  briefly  alluded  to  the  canal  system  of  Ohio,  which  in 
the  beginning  caused  considerable  anxiety  to  settlers  directly  in  the  course  of 
its  survey.  The  Legislature  passed  the  "  Internal  Improvement  by  Navigable 
Canals  "  act,  in  1825,  and  the  work  was  immediately  inaugurated  and  hastened. 
The  "  Ohio  Canal  "  extends  from  the  lake  to  the  Ohio,  and  the  "  Miami  "  con- 
nects Cincinnati  with  Dayton.  The  latter  was  completed  to  Toledo  in  1844,  a 
length  of  493  miles.  Its  total  cost,  including  reservoir  cutting  and  feeders,  was 
$7,500,000.     The  Ohio  Canal  was  finished  in  1833. 

During  the  construction  of  these  canals,  the  curiosities  which  have  attracted 
antiquarians  and  scientists,  in  the  State  of  Ohio,  were  found  in  various  places. 
Relics  were  discovered  that  must  have  belonged  to  a  giant  race.  Nearly  3,000 
graves  were  found,  of  the  "  mound  type."  * 

A  third  canal  was  begun  in  1836,  reaching  from  Walhonding,  in  Coshocton 
County,  to  Roscoe,  its  length  being  twenty-five  miles,  involving  an  expense  of 
$610,000.  This  was  completed  in  1842.  The  Hocking  Canal,  between  Car- 
roll, in  Fairfield  County,  and  Athens,  in  Athens  County,  a  distance  of  fifty- 
six  miles,  was  also  cut,  about  the  same  time,  at  a  cost  of  nearly  $1,000,000. 

The  Muskingum  improvements  were  also  being  carried  forward.  Locks  and 
dams  were  requisite  for  the  perfection  of  navigation  in  this  water-course,  from 
Dresden  to  Marietta,  a  distance  of  ninety-one  miles.  This  added  an  expense 
of  $1,630,000  to  the  call  for  improvement  appropriations.  To  the  Miami  Canal 
was  added  a  feeder,  known  as  the  Warren  County  Canal — extending  from 
Franklin  to  Lebanon,  which  was  not  completed,  although  over  $250,000  were 
expended  in  its  construction  as  far  as  it  went. 

Railway  transportation  was  a  subject  which  engrossed  the  attention  of  those  in- 
terested in  State  perpetuity  and  general  prosperity.  About  the  year  1831,  the  Leg- 
islature received  applications  for  railway  charters.  The  first  one  granted  was  the 
"  Cincinnati,  Sandusky  &  Cleveland  Railroad,"  on  June  5, 1832.  The  "  Sandusky, 
Mansfield  &  Newark  Railroad  "  obtained  a  charter  in  1836,  March  11,  followed, 

120  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

three  days  thereafter,  by  the  "  Cleveland,  Columbus  &  Cincinnati  Railroad." 
The  "  Little  Miami"  was  begun  in  1837.  Notwithstanding  these  chartered 
rights,  but  129  miles  were  completed  in  1847,  and  in  operation.  In  1878, 
the  mileage  had  increased  to  6,264.  The  valuation  of  the  operating  roads 
was  estimated  the  same  year,  at  $76,113,500.  Their  taxation  summed  up 

No  State  in  the  Union  has  been  more  zealous  in  her  educational  interests  than 
Ohio.  Public  lands  were  generously  granted  by  Congress,  and  the  State  added 
her  affirmation.  However,  no  practical  and  effectual  system  was  adopted  until 

An  act  was  then  passed  to  tax  all  real  property  one-half  mill  per  dollar  for 
the  establishment  of  schools  in  each  township,  and  the  support  of  the  same. 
An  act  of  1829,  increased  the  tax  to  three-fourths  of  a  mill.  Trustees  of 
townships  were  instructed  to  make  divisions  and  locate  convenient  school  dis- 
tricts. Householders  were  to  elect  three  school  directors,  a  clerk  and  treasurer 
annually.  Privileges  and  restrictions  were  enjoined  in  all  cases.  The  house- 
holders were  allowed  their  discretion,  governed  accordingly,  in  imposing  taxes 
for  the  erection  of  school  buildings.  The  Courts  of  the  Common  Pleas 
appointed  a  committee  to  examine  the  qualifications  of  those  individuals  mak- 
ing application  for  the  position  of  teachers.  The  school  extended  equal  privi- 
leges to  all  white  children.  Those  of  colored  parentage  were  excluded,  and  no 
tax  was  levied  for  school  purposes  upon  colored  parents.  An  amendment  has 
admitted  the  children  of  colored  parents.  The  system  has  continued  the  same, 
with  a  few  amendments.  A  State  Commissioner  of  Common  Schools  is  elected 
every  third  year,  who  has  general  charge  of  the  interests  of  public  schools.  A 
State  Board  of  Examiners,  composed  of  three  persons,  appointed  by  the  State 
Commissioner,  for  two  years'  term,  is  authorized  to  issue  life  certificates  of  high 
qualifications,  to  such  teachers  as  it  may  find  to  possess  the  requisite  scholarship, 
character,  experience  and  ability.  These  certificates,  signed  by  the  Commis- 
sioner, are  valid  throughout  the  State.  A  County  Board  of  Examiners,  of 
three  members,  is  formed  in  each  county.  Boards  of  education,  for  cities,  are 
made  up  of  one  or  two  members  from  each  ward.  City  Boards  of  Examiners 
are  also  appointed.  Section  4  of  the  law  of  1873,  was  amended  in  1877,  which 
made  the  territory  annexed  to  an  incorporated  village,'  at  the  option  of  the 
voters  of  the  village  and  tributary  section,  whether  it  be  included  with  the  vil- 
lage as  one  school  district,  or  left  as  two  school  districts.  Section  56  of  the  law  was 
amended,  in  its  bearing  upon  cities  of  30,000  to  75,000  inhabitants,  by  limiting 
to  five  mills  on  the  dollar  of  taxable  property,  the  levies  in  such  cities  for  con- 
tinuing schools,  for  purchasing  sites  for  schoolhouses,  for  leasing,  purchasing, 
erecting  and  furnishing  school  houses,  and  for  all  school  expenses.  The  public 
funds  are  subject  to  the  discretion  of  voters,  and  boards  are  authorized,  under 
instructions,  to  make  the  best  use  of  such  funds.  Taxation  is  subject  to  the 
discretion  of  the  State,  certain  limits  being  prescribed. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  121 

In  1878,  the  number  of  youth  of  the  school  age  numbered  1,041,963. 
On  the  rolls,  740,194  names  were  recorded.  In  the  year  1878,  23,391  teach- 
ers were  employed,  receiving  $4,956,514.46  for  their  services. 

Ohio  not  only  sustains  her  public  schools  on  a  broad,  liberal  basis,  but  she 
encourages  educational  pursuits  in  superior  universities  and  colleges  throughout 
the  State.  These  institutions  are  not  aided  by  State  funds,  but  are  sustained  by 
society  influence,  added  to  their  self-supporting  resources.  Ohio  also  possesses 
a  large  number  of  normal  schools,  academies,  seminaries  and  business  colleges. 
These  are  not  entitled  to  the  privileges  of  the  school  fund.  Scientific,  profes- 
sional, theological,  legal  and  medical  instructions  are  in  no  manner  limited  in 
their  facilities.  Industrial  and  reformatory  schools  are  especially  thorough. 
Institutions  for  the  instruction  of  the  deaf  and  dumb,  and  blind,  and  feeble- 
minded, are  under  the  best  discipline. 

We  may  add,  many  female  seminaries  have  been  established  which  are  entirely 
sustained  by  other  than  State  aid.  Ohio  has,  from  its  inception,  been  solid  and 
vigorous  in  whatever  tended  toward  improvement  and  enlightenment. 

We  have  also  referred  to  the  banking  system  of  this  State,  as  being  first 
established  on  a  basis  through  a  contest  between  the  State  and  the  General 
Government.  Authorities  differ  regarding  the  exact  date  and  location  of  the 
very  first  house  established  in  the  State  for  the  purpose  of  transacting  banking 
business.  It  is  highly  probable  that  Marietta  is  more  directly  associated  with 
that  event  than  any  other  town.  There  are  at  present  over  one  hundred  and 
sixty-seven  national  banks,  with  an  aggregate  capital  of  $27,794,468.  It  also 
has  eighteen  banks  of  deposit,  incorporated  under  the  State  banking  laws  of 
1845,  representing  an  aggregate  capital  of  $539,904.  Twenty-three  savings 
banks,  incorporated  under  the  State  act  of  1875,  with  an  aggregate  capital  of 
$1,277,500.  Of  private  banks  it  has  192,  with  an  aggregate  capital  of 
$5,663,898.  The  State  represents  in  her  banking  capital  over  $36,275,770. 
The  First  National  of  Cincinnati  has  a  capital  stock  of  over  $1,000,000. 
The  others  fall  below  that  sum,  their  capital  diminishing  from  10,000  shares  of 
$100  each.  The  valuation  for  taxation  is  $850,000 — Merchant's  National  of 
Cincinnati — to  the  valuation  of  a  tax  of  $5,000  on  the  First  National  of 


We  must  not  omit  the  subject  of  the  State  boundaries.  Ohio  was  especially 
the  field  for  most  animated  discussions,  relative  not  only  to  State  limits  but 
county  lines  and  township  rights.  In  1817,  a  severe  controversy  arose,  which 
was  settled  only  after  violent  demonstrations  and  Government  interference. 

In  primitive  times,  the  geographical  position,  extent  and  surface  diversities 
were  but  meagerly  comprehended.  In  truth,  it  may  be  asserted  they  could  not 
have  been  more  at  variance  with  actual  facts  had  they  been  laid  out  ^'  hap- 
hazard." The  ordinance  of  1787  represented  Lake  Michigan  far  north  of  its 
real  position,  and  even  as  late  as  1812,  its  size  and  location  had  not  been 

122  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

definitely  ascertained.  During  that  year,  Amos  Spafford  addressed  a  clear,  com- 
prehensive letter  to  the  Governor  of  Ohio,  on  this  subject,  relative  to  the 
boundary  lines  of  Ohio.  Several  lines  of  survey  were  laid  out  as  the  first 
course,  but  either  Michigan  or  Ohio  expressed  disapproval  in  every  case.  This 
culminated  in  1835,  when  the  party  beginning  a  "permanent"  survey  began 
at  the  northwest  corner  of  the  State,  and  was  attacked  by  a  force  of  Michigan 
settlers  who  sent  them  away  badly  routed  and  beaten.  No  effort  was  made  to 
return  to  the  work  until  the  State  and  various  parties  had  weighed  the  subject, 
and  finally  the  interposition  of  the  Government  became  necessary. 

A  settlement  resulted  in  Ohio  being  bounded  on  the  north  by  Lake  Erie 
and  the  State  of  Michigan,  on  the  east  by  Pennsylvania  and  West  Virginia,  on 
the  south  by  the  Ohio  River,  and  on  the  west  by  Indiana. 

It  is  situated  between  the  38°  25'  and  42°  north  latitude,  and  84°  50' 
west  longitude  from  Greenwich,  or  3°  30'  and  7°  50'  west  from  Washington. 
From  north  to  south,  it  extends  over  210  miles,  and  from  east  to  west  220 
miles — comprising  39,964  square  miles. 

The  State  is  generally  higher  than  the  Ohio  River.  In  the  southern 
counties,  the  surface  is  greatly  diversified  by  the  inequalities  produced  by  the 
excavating  power  of  the  Ohio  River  and  its  tributaries.  The  greater  portion 
of  the  State  was  originally  covered  with  timber,  although  in  the  central  and 
northwestern  sections  some  prairies  were  found.  The  crest  or  watershed 
between  the  waters  of  Lake  Erie  and  those  of  the  Ohio  is  less  elevated  than 
in  New  York  or  Pennsylvania.  Sailing  upon  the  Ohio  the  country  appears 
to  be  mountainous,  bluffs  rising  to  the  height  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  to  six 
hundred  feet  above  the  valleys.  Ascending  the  tributaries  of  the  Ohio,  these 
precipitous  hills  gradually  lessen  until  they  are  resolved  into  gentle  undulations, 
and  toward  the  sources  of  the  river  the  land  is  low  and  marshy. 

Although  Ohio  has  no  inland  lakes  of  importance,  she  possesses  a  favorable 
river  system,  which,  aided  by  her  canals,  gives  her  prestige  of  a  convenient 
water  transportation.  The  lake  on  her  northern  boundary,  and  the  Ohio 
River  on  her  southern  limit,  afibrd  most  convenient  outlets  by  water  to  impor- 
tant points.  Her  means  of  communication  and  transportation  are  superior  in 
every  respect,  and  are  constantly  being  increased. 


Adams  County  was  named  in  honor  of  John  Adams,  second  President  of 
the  United  States.  Gov.  St.  Clair  proclaimed  it  a  county  on  July  10,  1797. 
The  Virginia  Military  Tract  included  this  section,  and  the  first  settlement  made 
within  its  boundaries  was  in  this  county  in  1790-91,  between  the  Scioto  and  Little 
Miami,  at  Manchester,  by  Gen.  Nathaniel  Massie.  In  this  town  was  held  the 
first  court  of  the  county. 

West  Union,  the  present  county  seat,  was  laid  out  by  the  Hon.  Thomas 
Kirker.     It  occupies  the  summit  of  a  high  ridge.     The  surface  of  this  county  is 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  123 

hilly  and  broken,  and  the  eastern  part  is  not  fertile.  It  produces  corn,  wheat,  oats 
and  pork.  Beds  of  iron  are  found  in  the  eastern  part.  Its  hills  are  composed  of 
aluminous  shale.  The  barren  hills  afford  a  range  for  cattle  and  hogs.  A  sort 
of  vagrant  class  derive  a  support  by  collecting  stones,  hoop-poles  and  tanners' 
barks  from  these  hills. 

Ashland  County  is  one  of  the  finest  agricultural  sections.  It  was  formed 
February  26,  1846.  Wheat  comprises  its  principal  crop,  although  large  quan- 
tities of  oats,  corn,  potatoes,  grass  and  fruit  are  raised.  Ashland  is  its  county 
seat,  and  was  laid  out  by  William  Montgomery  in  1816.  It  was  called  Union- 
town  for  several  years.  Daniel  Carter  raised  the  first  cabin  within  the  county 
limits  in  1811. 

Auglaize  County  was  formed  in  February,  1848,  from  Allen  and  Mercer 
Counties.     Wapakoneta  is  its  county  seat. 

Allen  County  was  formed  from  the  Indian  Territory  April  1,  1820.  Lima 
is  its  county  seat. 

Ashtabula  County  was  formed  June  7,  1807,  and  was  organized  January 
22,  1811.  The  surface  is  level  near  the  lake,  while  the  remainder  is  undulat- 
ing. The  soil  is  mostly  clay.  Very  little  wheat  is  raised,  but  considerable 
corn  and  oats.  Butter  and  cheese  are  the  main  marketable  productions.  This 
was  the  first  county  settled  on  the  Western  Reserve,  and  also  the  earliest  in 
Northern  Ohio.  On  the  4th  of  July,  1796,  the  first  surveying  party  arrived 
at  the  mouth  of  Conneaut  Creek.  Judge  James  Kingsbury  was  the  first  who 
■wintered  there  with  his  family.  He  was  the  first  man  to  use  a  sickle  in  the 
first  wheat-field  in  the  Western  Reserve.  Their  child  was  the  first  born  on  the 
Western  Reserve,  and  was  starved  to  death.  The  first  regular  settlement  was 
at  Harpersfield,  in  1798. 

Jefferson  is  the  county  seat.  Ashtabula  is  pleasantly  situated  on  the  river, 
with  a  fine  harbor  two  and  a  half  miles  from  the  village. 

The  first  church  on  the  Western  Reserve  was  founded  at  Austinburg  in 

Athens  County  was  formed  from  Washington  March  1,  1805.  It  produces 
wheat,  corn,  oats  and  tobacco.  The  surface  is  hilly  and  broken,  with  rich  bot- 
tom lands  between.  Coal,  iron  ore  and  salt  add  materially  to  its  commercial 
value.  It  has  the  advantage  of  the  canal,  as  well  as  other  transportation. 
Athens,  its  county  seat,  is  situated  on  the  Hocking  River.  The  Ohio  Uni- 
versity, the  first  college  founded  in  the  State,  is  located  'here.  We  have 
mentioned  the  ancient  mounds  found  in  this  county,  heretofore.  Yellow  pine  is 
abundant  in  the  lower  part  of  the  Hocking  Valley. 

Brown  County  was  formed  March  1,  1818,  from  Adams  and  Clermont.  It 
produces  wheat,  corn,  rye,  oats  and  pork.  The  southern  part  is  prolific  in 
grain,  while  the  northern  is  adapted  to  grazing  purposes.  The  surface  is  undu- 
lating, with  the  exception  of  the  Ohio  River  hills.  Over  this  county  Tecumseb 
once  held  sway 

124  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

Georgetown  is  the  county  seat,  and  was  laid  out  in  1819.     Ripley  is  the  larg- 
est business  town  in  the  county. 

Belmont  County  was  announced  by  Gov.  St.  Clair  September  1,  1801.  It 
produces  large  crops  of  wheat,  oats,  corn  and  tobacco,  an  annual  crop  of  over 
2,000,000  pounds  of  the  latter  being  the  average.  It  also  trades  largely  in 
wool  and  coal.  It  is  a  picturesque  tract  of  country,  and  was  one  of  the 
pioneers  in  the  early  settled  portions. 

In  1790,  Fort  Dillie  was  erected  on  the  west  side  of  the  Ohio.  Baker's 
Fort  was  a  mile  below  the  mouth  of  the  Captina.  Many  desperate  Indian  bat- 
tles were  fought  within  the  limits  of  this  county,  and  the  famous  Indian  scout, 
Lewis  Wetzel,  roamed  over  the  region. 

St.  Clairsville  is  the  county  seat,  situated  on  the  elevation  of  land,  in  a  fer- 
tile district.  Capt.  Kirkwood  and  Elizabeth  Zane,  of  historic  fame,  were  early 
pioneers  here. 

Butler  County  was  formed  in  1803,  from  Hamilton.  It  is  within  the  blue 
limestone  formation,  and  one  of  the  most  fertile  sections  of  Ohio.  It  produces 
more  corn  than  any  other  county  in  the  State,  besides  fine  crops  of  wheat, 
oats  and  large  quantities  of  pork.  Hamilton,  the  county  seat,  is  situated  on  the 
Great  Miami.  Its  hydraulic  works  furnish  superior  water-power.  Rossville, 
on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Miami,  is  a  large  mercantile  town. 

St.  Clair  passed  through  this  county  on  his  Indian  campaigns  in  1791, 
building  Fort  Hamilton  on  the  Miami. 

Champaign  County  was  formed  March  1,  1805,  from  Greene  and  Franklin. 
It  is  drained  by  Mad  River  and  its  tributaries,  which  furnishes  extensive  mill 
privileges.  Nearly  a  half  is  undulating,  a  quarter  rolling,  a  fifth  hilly,  and 
5  per  cent  wet  prairie.  The  soil  is  fertile,  and  produces  wheat,  corn,  oats, 
barley,  hay,  while  beef  and  wool  add  to  the  general  wealth.  Urbana,  the 
county  seat,  was  laid  out  in  1805,  by  Col.  William  Ward.  He  was  chief  owner 
of  the  land  and  donated  many  lots  to  the  county,  under  condition  that  their 
proceeds  be  devoted  to  public  improvements.  Joseph  Vance  and  George 
Fithian  were  the  first  settlers.  The  Methodists  built  the  first  church  in  1807. 
The  main  army  of  Hull  concentrated  at  this  point  before  setting  out  for  Detroit. 
Many  Indian  councils  were  called  here,  and  Tecumseh  was  located  for  a  time 
near  Deer  Creek. 

Carroll  County  was  formed  from  Columbiana  in  1832-33.  It  produces 
wheat,  oats  and  corn,  and  valuable  coal  and  iron.  The  surface  is  hilly.  Car- 
rollton  is  its  county  seat.     At  Harlem  is  a  celebrated  chalybeate  spri-ng. 

Clark  County  was  formed  March  1,  1817,  from  Champaign,  Madison  and 
Greene.  Its  second  settlement  was  at  Kreb's  Station,  in  1796.  It  is  highly  culti- 
vated, well  watered  and  very  fertile.  The  Mad  River,  Buck  and  Beaver  Creeks 
furnish  abundant  water-power.      It  produces  principally  wheat,  corn  and  oats. 

Tecumseh,  the  old  Indian  warrior,  was  born  at  the  ancient  Indian  vil- 
lage of  Piqua,  on  the  Mad  River,  on  the  site  of  New  Boston.     Piqua  was 

HISTORY   OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  125 

destroyed  by  Gen.  George  Rogers  Clarke.  Skeletons,  beads,  gun  barrels, 
tomahawks,  kettles,  etc.,  have  been  found  in  the  vicinity. 

Springfield,  the  county  seat,  is  situated  on  the  National  road.  It  has  con- 
venient transportation  facilities,  is  handsomely  laid  out,  and  is  noted  for  its 
cultured  citizens.     It  is  near  Mad  River,  and  Buck   Creek  runs  through  it. 

Clinton  County  was  formed  in  1810.  It  produces  chiefly  wheat,  oats, 
wool  and  pork.  Its  surface  is  undulating,  in  some  parts  hilly,  and  the  soil  fer- 
tile. Its  streams  furnish  desirable  water-power.  The  county  was  settled  in 
1798—99.  Wilmington  is  the  county  seat,  and  was  laid  out  in  1810.  The  first 
log  house  was  built  by  William  Hobsin. 

Clermont  County  was  the  eighth  formed  in  the  Northwest  Territory,  by 
proclamation  of  Gov.  St.  Clair,  December  9,  1800.  The  soil  is  exceedingly 
rich,  and  the  surface  is  broken  and,  near  the  Ohio,  hilly.  Wheat,  corn,  oats, 
hay,  potatoes,  tobacco,  barley,  buckwheat  and  rye  form  the  main  crops,  while 
beef,  pork,  flour,  hay  and  whisky  constitute  its  main  exports.  Its  streams 
furnish  good  water-power.  Batavia,  its  county  seat,  is  situated  on  the  Little 
Miami  River,  and  was  laid  out  in  1820,  by  George  Ely. 

Columbiana  County  was  formed  March  25,  1803,  from  Jeff"erson  and  Wash- 
ington. Its  soil  is  very  fertile,  producing  wheat,  corn,  oats  and  potatoes.  It 
is  wealthy  in  mineral  deposits,  coal,  iron  ore,  lime  and  freestone  being  abun- 
dant. Its  water-lime  stone  is  of  superior  quality.  Salt  water  is  found  on  Yel- 
low and  Beaver  Creeks.  This  is  also  the  great  wool-producing  county  of 
the  State.  It  was  settled  in  1797.  New  Lisbon,  its  county  seat,  is  well 

The  first  paper-mill  in  Ohio  was  erected  in  this  county,  on  Little  Beaver 
Creek,  by  John  Coulter  and  John  Bever. 

Coshocton  County  was  organized  April  1,  1811.  Its  principal  products  are 
wheat,  corn,  oats  and  wool.  Hills  and  valleys  alternate  along  the  Muskingum 
River.  Abrupt  changes  are  strongly  marked — a  rich  alluvum  being  overhung 
by  a  red  bush  hill,  while  directly  beside  it  may  be  seen  the  poplar  and  sugar 
tree.  Coal  and  iron  ore  add  to  its  general  importance,  while  salt  wells  have 
proven  remunerative. 

Coshocton,  the  county  seat,  is  built  on  four  wide,  natural  terraces,  at  the 
junction  of  the  Tuscarawas  with  the  Walhonding. 

Cuyahoga  County  was  formed  June  7,  1807,  from  Geauga.  Near  the  lake, 
the  soil  is  sandy,  while  a  clayey  loam  may  be  found  elsewhere.  The  valleys 
near  the  streams  produce  Avheat,  barley  and  hay.  Fruit  is  successfully  grown, 
and  cheese,  butter,  beef  and  wool  are  largely  exported.  Bog  iron  is  found  in 
the  western  part,  and  fine  grindstone  quarries  are  in  operation.  The  sandstone 
from  these  quarries  is  now  an  important  article  of  commerce.  As  early  as 
1775,  there  was  a  French  settlement  within  the  boundaries  of  Cuyahoga.  In 
1786,  a  Moravian  missionary  came  to  the  present  site  of  Cleveland,  and  set- 
tled in  an   abandoned  village   of  the    Ottawas.      Circumstances  prevented  a 

126  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

permanent  settlement,  and  the  British  tacitly  took  possession,,  even  remaining 
upon  the  lake  shores  after  the  Revolution. 

The  first  permanent  settlement  was  made  at  Cleveland  in  1796.  Mr.  Job 
V.  Stiles  and  family  and  Edward  Paine  passed  the  first  winter  there,  their  log 
cabin  standing  where  the  Commercial  Bank  is  now  located.  Rodolphus 
Edwards  and  Nathaniel  Doane  settled  here.  The  town  was,  in  1813,  a  depot 
of  supplies  and  a  rendezvous  for  troops  engaged  in  the  war. 

Cleveland,  the  county  seat,  is  situated  at  the  northern  termination  of  the 
Ohio  Canal,  on  the  lake  shore.  In  1814,  it  was  incorporated  as  a  village,  and 
in  1836,  as  a  city.  Its  elevation  is  about  a  hundred  feet  above  the  lake.  It 
is  a  lovely  city,  and  has  one  of  the  best  harbors  on  Lake  Erie. 

Ohio  City  is  another  important  town,  nearly  opposite  Cleveland,  on  the 
Cuyahoga.     It  was  incorporated  in  1836. 

Crawford  County  was  formed  April  1,  1820,  from  the  old  Indian  territory. 
The  entire  county  is  adapted  to  grazing.  The  soil  is  generally  composed  of 
rich  vegetable  loam,  and  in  some  parts  the  subsoil  is  clay  mixed  with  lime. 
Rich  beds  of  shell  marl  have  been  discovered.  It  produces  wheat,  corn,  oats, 
clover,  timothy  seed,  wool  and  cattle.  Fine  limestone  quarries  are  worked  with 

Bucyrus  is  the  county  seat,  and  was  laid  out  February  11,  1822,  by  Samuel 
Norton  and  James  Kilbourn,  original  owners  of  the  land.  The  first  settler  in 
the  town  proper  was  Samuel  Norton.  A  gas  well  has  been  dug  in  Bucyrus, 
on  the  land  of  R.  W.  Musgrove,  which  burns  in  a  brilliant  light  Avhen  con- 
ducted to  the  surface  by  means  of  pipes.  Crawford's  Sulphur  Springs  are 
located  nine  miles  from  Bucyrus.  The  water  is  impregnated  with  sulphuretted 
hydrogen.  It  deposits  a  reddish-purple  sediment.  In  its  nature  the  water  is  a 
cathartic,  and  is  diuretic  and  diaphoretic  in  its  effects.  A  few  rods  away  is  a 
burning  spring.  The  Annapolis  Sulphur  Spring  is  clear  and  has  gained  consid- 
erable fame  by  its  curative  qualities.  Opposite  Bucyrus  is  a  chalybeate  spring 
of  tonic  qualities. 

There  are  some  beds  of  peat  in  the  county,  the  most  extensive  one  being  a 
wet  prairie  called  Cranberry  Marsh,  containing  nearly  2,000  acres. 

Darke  County  was  organized  in  March,  1817,  from  Miami  County.  It  is 
abundantly  timbered  with  poplar,  walnut,  blue  ash,  hickory,  beech  and  sugar 
maple.  It  yields  superior  wheat,  and  is  well  adapted  to  grazing.  In  this 
county  occurred  the  lamentable  defeat  of  St.  Clair,  and  the  treaty  of  Greenville. 

Greenville  is  the  county  seat,  and  was  laid  out  August  10,  1808,  by  Robert 
Gray  and  John  Dover.  In  December,  1793,  Wayne  built  Fort  Greenville  on 
this  spot,  which  covered  about  the  same  extent  as  the  present  town. 

Delaware  County  was  formed  February  10,  1808,  from  Franklin.  It  pro- 
duces mainly  wheat,  corn,  oats,  pork  and  wool. 

Delaware  is  the  county  seat,  and  was  laid  out  in  the  spring  of  1808,  by 
Moses  Byxbe.     The  Delaware  Spring  in  the  village  is  of  the  white  sulphur  or 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  127 

<3old  hydro-sulphurous  nature,  valuable  for  medicinal  qualities  in  cases  of  bilious 
derangements,  dyspepsia,  scrofulous  affections,  etc. 

Defiance  County  was  inaugurated  March  4,  1845,  from  Williams,  Henry 
and  Paulding.  The  Maumee,  Tiffin  and  Auglaize  flow  through  it.  The  Black 
Swamp  covers  much  of  its  area. 

Defiance,  the  county  seat,  is  situated  on  the  Maumee.  It  was  laid  out  in 
1822,  by  B.  Level  and  H.  Phillips.  A  large  Indian  settlement  occupied  its 
gite  in  very  early  times.  Wayne  arrived  here  August  8,  1794,  captured  the 
place,  finding  about  one  thousand  acres  of  corn,  peach  and  apple  orchards,  and 
vegetables  of  all  varieties.     Here  he  built  Fort  Defiance. 

Erie  County  was  formed  in  1838,  from  Huron  and  Sandusky.  The  soil  is 
alluvial,  and  yields  large  crops  of  wheat,  corn,  oats  and  potatoes.  It  possesses 
inexhaustable  quarries  of  limestone  and  freestone.  Immense  quantities  of  bog 
iron  are  also  found.  The  Erie  tribe  is  said  to  have  once  occupied  the  land,  and 
-were  extirpated  by  the  Iroquois.  As  early  as  1754,  the  French  had  built  set- 
tlements. In  1764,  the  county  was  besieged.  Pontiac  came  here  with  warlike 
•demonstrations,  but  made  peace  with  the  whites.  Erie  was  included  in  the 
"fire  lands"  of  the  Western  Reserve. 

Sandusky  City  is  the  county  seat,  and  was  laid  out  in  1817,  then  termed 
Portland.  At  that  time  it  contained  two  log  huts.  The  town  is  finely  situated, 
and  is  based  upon  an  inexhaustible  quarry  of  the  finest  limestone.  In  the 
"patriot  war"  with  the  Canadians,  this  city  was  the  rendezvous  for  the 

Franklin  County  was  formed  April  30,  1803,  from  Ross.  It  contains 
much  low  wet  land,  and  is  better  adapted  to  grazing  than  agricultural  purposes. 
It  was  in  early  times  occupied  by  the  Wyandot  Indians.  Its  first  white  set- 
tlement was  made  in  1797,  by  Robert  Armstrong  and  others.  Franklinton 
was  laid  out  in  1797,  by  Lucas  Sullivan.  Worthington  was  settled  by  the 
Scioto  Company  in  1801.  Col.  Kilbourn,  who  was  interested  in  the  work, 
constructed  the  first  map  of  Ohio  during  his  explorations,  by  uniting  sectional 

Columbus,  the  capital  of  the  State  of  Ohio,  is  also  the  county  seat  of 
Franklin  County.  After  the  organization  of  a  State  government,  the  capital 
was  "portable"  until  1816.  In  1810,  the  sessions  were  held  at  Chillicothe, 
in  1811  and  1812  at  Zanesville,  removing  again  to  Chillicothe,  and,  in  1816, 
Iseing  located  at  Columbus.  The  town  was  laid  out  during  the  spring  of  1812. 
A  penitentiary  was  erected  in  1813,  and  the  State  House  was  built  in  1814. 
It  was  incorporated  as  "the  borough  of  Columbus,"  February  10,  1816.  The 
city  charter  was  granted  March  3,  1834. 

It  is  beautifully  located  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Scioto.  The  Columbus 
Institute  is  a  classical  institution.  A  female  and  a  theological  seminary  also 
add  to  its  educational  advantages.  The  Ohio  Lunatic  Asylum  is  also  located 
here — also  the  Ohio  Institution  for  the  Education  of  the  Blind.     East  of  the 

128  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

State   House   is   the   Ohio   Institution   for  the   Education   of  the   Deaf  and 

Fairfield  County  was  formed  by  proclamation  of  Gov.  St.  Clair,  December 
9,  1800. 

The  soil  is  varied,  being  in  some  parts  exceedingly  rich,  and  in  others  very 
sterile.  It  produces  principally  wheat,  corn,  rye,  oats,  buckwheat,  barley, 
potatoes  and  tobacco. 

Lancaster  is  the  county  seat,  laid  out  by  Ebenezer  Zane  in  1800.  In  1797, 
he  opened  the  road  known  as  "Zane's  Trace,"  from  Wheeling  to  Limestone — 
now  Maysville.  It  passed  through  Lancaster,  at  a  fording  about  three  hundred 
yards  below  the  present  turnpike  bridge.  Near  the  turn  stands  an  imposing 
eminance  called  "  Standing  Stone."    Parties  of  pleasure  frequently  visit  this  spot. 

Fayette  County  was  formed  from  Ross  and  Highland  in  1810.  Wheat, 
corn,  cattle,  hogs,  sheep  and  wool  comprise  its  main  productions.  "  The  bar- 
rens" are  situated  in  the  northeastern  part.  This  tract  is  covered  by  a  growth 
of  grass. 

Washington  is  its  county  seat,  laid  out  in  1810. 

Col.  Stewart  was  active  in  the  interests  of  this  section,  and  his  memory  is 
sacredly  revered.     Jesse  Milliken  was  prominent  in  public  affairs. 

Fulton  County,  bordering  on  Michigan,  was  organized  in  1850.  It  is 
drained  by  Bean  Creek  and  other  small  affluents  of  the  Maumee  River.  The 
surface  is  nearly  level,  and  a  large  part  of  it  is  covered  with  forests  of  ash, 
beech,  elm,  hickory,  white  oak,  black  walnut,  etc.,  furnishing  excellent  timber. 
The  soil  is  fertile.  Wheat,  corn,  oats  and  hay  are  the  staple  products.  Wau- 
seon  is  the  county  seat. 

Guernsey  County  was  organized  in  March,  1810.  Wool  is  a  staple  prod- 
uct, together  with  beef,  horses  and  swine.     It  produces  wheat,  corn  and  oats. 

Cambridge  is  the  county  seat  and  was  laid  out  in  June,  1806.  Mr. 
Graham  was  the  first  settler  on  the  site  of  the  town,  and  his  was  the  only 
dwelling  between  Lancaster  and  Wheeling. 

The  first  cannel  coal  found  in  the  county  was  discovered  near  Mill's  Creek. 

Greene  County  was  formed  May  1,  1803,  from  Hamilton  and  Ross.  It 
produces  wheat,  corn,  rye,  grass-seed,  oats,  barley,  sheep  and  swine.  The 
streams  furnish  good  water-power.  There  are  five  limestone  quarries,  and  a 
marble  quarry  of  variegated  colors.  The  Shawnee  town  was  on  the  Little 
Miami,  and  was  visited  by  Capt.  Thomas  Bullit  in  1773.  When  Daniel  Boone 
was  captured  in  1778,  he  was  brought  to  this  town,  and  escaped  the  following 
year.    Gen.  Clarke  invaded  this  county  and  the  Indians  reduced  the  town  to  ashes. 

Xenia,  the  county  seat,  was  laid  off  in  the  forest  in  1803,  by  Joseph  C. 
Vance.  The  first  cabin  was  erected  in  April,  1804,  by  John  Marshall.  The 
Rev.  James  Fowler  built  the  first  hewed-log  cabin.  David  A.  Sanders  built 
the  first  frame  house.  Nine  miles  north  of  the  town,  on  the  Little  Miami 
River,  are  the  Yellow  Springs,  which  are  impregnated  with  sulphur. 

HISTORY   OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  129 

Greauga  County  was  formed  in  1805  from  Trumbull.  It  exports  sheep, 
€attle,  butter  and  cheese.  It  is  situated  at  the  head  of  Chargrine,  Cuyahoga  and 
a  part  of  Grand  Rivers,  on  high  ground,  and  is  subjected  to  snowstorms  more 
frequently  than  any  other  part  of  the  Reserve.  Its  first  settlement  was  made 
in  1798,  at  Burton.  Chardon  is  fourteen  miles  from  Lake  Erie,  and  is  600 
feet  above  it.     It  was  laid  out  as  the  county  seat  in  1808. 

Gallia  County  was  formed  April  30,  1803,  from  Washington.  Its  princi- 
pal crops  are  wheat,  corn,  oats  and  beans.  The  surface  is  generally  broken. 
Its  first  settlement  was  made  in  1791,  by  a  French  colony,  at  Gallipolis.  This 
colony  was  sent  out  under  the  auspices  of  the  Scioto  Company.  This  town  is 
now  the  county  seat. 

Hamilton  County  was  the  second  established  in  the  Northwestern  Territory 
by  proclamation  of  Gov.  St.  Clair,  January  2,  1790.  Its  surface  is  gen- 
erally rolling.  It  produces  the  ordinary  farm  products,  and  a  great  variety 
of  fruits  and  vegetables  for  the  Cincinnati  market.  Vineyards  thrive  well 
within  its  limits,  and  the  manufacture  of  wine  is  carried  on  to  a  considerable 

This  county  was  the  second  settled  in  Ohio,  and  the  first  within  the  Symmes 
purchase.  Settlers  arrived  at  the  spot  now  occupied  by  Cincinnati,  and  three 
or  four  log  cabins  were  erected.  Gen.  Arthur  St.  Clair  arrived  here  in  Janu- 
ary, 1790.  The  army  of  Wayne  encamped  here  later,  at  Fort  Washington. 
Mr.  Maxwell  established  in  1793  the  Sentinel  of  the  Northwestern  Territory^ 
the  first  newspaper  printed  north  of  the  Ohio  River.  In  1796,  Edward  Free- 
man became  its  proprietor,  and  changed  the  name  to  Freeman  s  Journal. 
January  11,  1794,  two  keel-boats  sailed  from  Cincinnati  to  Pittsburgh,  making 
regular  trips  every  four  weeks.  In  1801,  the  first  sea  vessel  built  at  Mari- 
etta came  down  the  Ohio. 

Cincinnati,  the  county  seat,  was  incorporated  January  2,  1802.  It  was  char- 
tered as  a  city  in  1819.  The  city  is  beautifully  laid  out  and  delightfully  situ- 
ated. Its  public  buildings  are  elegant  and  substantial,  including  the  court 
house  and  many  literary  and  charitable  institutions. 

The  Cincinnati  College  was  founded  in  1819.  It  stands  in  the  center  of 
the  city.  .  It  is  built  in  Grecian-Doric  style,  with  pilaster  fronts  and  facade  of 
Dayton  marble.     Woodward  College  is  also  popular. 

The  Catholics  have  founded  the  St.  Xavier's  College.  Lane  Seminary,  a 
theological  institution,  is  at  Walnut  Hills,  two  miles  from  the  center  of  the  city. 
It  has  over  10,000  volumes  in  its  libraries.  No  charge  is  made  for  tuition. 
Rooms  are  provided  and  furnished  at  $5  per  year,  and  board  ranges  from  62| 
cents  to  90  cents  a  week.  The  Cincinnati  Law;  School  is  connected  with  Cin- 
cinnati Collecre.  The  Mechanics'  Institute  was  chartered  in  1828,  and  is  in  all 
respects  well  supplied  with  apparatus.  A  college  for  teachers  was  established  in 
1831,  its  object  being  to  perfect  those  contemplating  entering  that  profession  in 
their  studies  and  system. 

130  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

The  Cincinnati  Orphan  Asylum  is  an  elegant  building,  and  has  a  library 
and  well-organized  school  attached.  The  Catholics  of  the  city  have  one  male 
and  female  orphan  asylum.  The  Commercial  Hospital  and  Lunatic  Asylum  of 
Ohio  was  incorporated  in  1821. 

Cincinnati  is  a  large  manufacturing  city,  and  possesses  fine  water-power 
facilities.  It  communicates  with  the  world  by  means  of  its  canal,  river,  turnpikes, 
and  railways.  North  Bend  is  another  prominent  town  in  this  county,  having 
been  the  residence  of  Gen.  William  H.  Harrison,  and  the  site  of  his  burial 
place.  The  town  was  of  considerable  importance  in  the  early  settlement  of  the 
State.  About  thirty  yards  from  Harrison's  tomb  is  the  grave  of  Judge 

Hancock  County  was  formed  April  1,  1820.  It  produces  wheat,  oats,  corn, 
pork  and  maple  sugar.  The  surface  is  level  and  its  soil  is  fertile.  Blanchard's 
Fork  waters  the  central  and  southern  part  of  the  county.  Findlay,  the  county 
seat,  was  laid  out  by  ex-Gov.  Joseph  Vance  and  Elnathan  Corry,  in  1821.  It 
was  relaid  in  1829.  William  Vance  settled  there  in  the  fall  of  1821.  At  the 
south  end  of  the  town,  are  two  gas  wells.  In  the  eastern  part,  is  a  mineral 
spring,  and  west  of  the  bridge,  is  a  chalybeate  spring. 

Hardin  County  was  formed  April  1,  1820,  from  the  old  Indian  Territory. 
It  produces,  principally,  wheat,  corn  and  swine.  A  portion  of  the  surface  is 
level,  and  the  remainder  undulating.  Fort  McArthur  was  built  on  the  Scioto 
River,  but  proved  a  weak  stockade.  Kenton  is  the  county  seat,  situated  on  the 
Scioto  River. 

Harrison  County  was  formed  from  Jefferson  and  Tuscarawas  January  1, 
1814.  The  surface  is  hilly,  abounding  in  coal  and  limestone.  Its  soil  is  clayey. 
It  is  one  of  the  important  wool-growing  counties  in  Ohio.  It  produces  large 
quantities  of  wheat,  corn,  oats  and  hay,  besides  a  considerable  number  of  horses, 
cattle  and  swine. 

In  April,  1799,  Alexander  Henderson  and  family  settled  in  this  county,  and 
at  the  same  time,  Daniel  Peterson  and  his  family  resided  at  the  forks  of  Short 
Creek.  The  early  settlers  were  much  annoyed  by  Indians  and  wild  beasts. 
Cadiz  is  the  county  seat,  and  was  laid  out  in  1803  and  1804,  by  Messrs.  Briggs 
and  Beatty. 

Henry  County  was  formed  from  the  old  Indian  Territory,  April  1,  1820. 
Indian  corn,  oats,  potatoes,  and  maple  sugar  constitute  the  main  products. 
The  county  is  well  supplied  with  running  streams,  and  the  soil  is  unusually  rich. 

The  greater  portion  of  this  county  is  covered  by  the  "  Black  Swamp." 
Throughout  this  swamp  are  ridges  of  limestone,  covered  with  black  walnut,  red 
elm,  butternut  and  maple.  The  soil  is  superior  for  grain.  Fruit  thrives  and 
all  varieties  of  vegetables  are  produced  in  large  quantities.  Simon  Girty,  noto- 
rious for  his  wicked  career,  resided  in  this  county.  Girty  led  the  attack  on 
Fort  Henry,  in  September,  1777.  He  demanded  the  surrender  of  the  fort,, 
and  menaced  its  inmates   with  an   Indian  massacre,  in  case  of  refusal.     The 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  131 

action  began,  but  the  fort  gained  the  victory.  He  led  a  ferocious  band  of  Indi- 
ans, and  committed  the  most  fiendish  atrocities. 

Napoleon,  the  county  seat,  is  situated  on  the  Maumee  River. 

Highland  County  was  formed  in  May,  1805,  from  Ross,  Adams  and  Cler- 
mont. It  is  a  wealthy,  productive  county.  Its  wheat  commands  a  high  mar- 
ket price.  The  crops  consist  of  wheat,  corn,  oats,  maple  sugar,  wool,  swine 
and  cattle.  Its  first  settlement  began  in  1801,  at  New  Market,  by  Oliver  Ross, 
Robert  Keeston,  George  W.  Barrere,  Bernard  Weyer  and  others.  Simon  Ken- 
ton made  a  trace  through  this  county  in  early  times.  Hillsboro  is  the 
county  seat,  and  was  laid  out  in  1807,  by  David  Hays,  on  the  land  of  Benja- 
min Ellicott.  It  is  situated  on  the  dividing  ridge,  between  the  Miami  and  Sci- 
oto.    The  Hillsboro  Academy  was  founded  in  1827. 

Hocking  County  was  formed  March  1,  1818,  from  Ross,  Athens  and  Fair- 
field. Its  principal  products  are  corn,  wheat,  tobacco  and  maple  sugar.  Its 
surface  is  broken  and  hilly,  but  is  level  and  fertile  beside  the  streams. 

The  Wyandots  once  occupied  this  tract,  and  built  a  large  town  herein.  In 
1798,  a  few  white  families  ventured  to  settle.  Logan  is  its  county  seat,  and  is 
situated  on  the  Hocking  River. 

Holmes  County  was  formed  from  Coshocton,  Tuscarawas  and  Wayne,  Janu- 
ary 20,  1824.  It  produces  wheat,  corn,  oats,  potatoes,  maple  sugar,  swine, 
sheep  and  cattle.  The  southwestern  portion  is  broken.  Thomas  Butler  was 
the  first  settler,  in  1810.  Millersburg  is  the  county  seat,  and  was  laid  out  in 

Huron  County  was  organized  in  1815.  It  produces  hay,  wheat,  corn,  oats, 
barley,  buckwheat,  flaxseed,  potatoes,  butter,  cheese,  wool  and  swine.  Nor- 
walk  is  the  county  seat. 

Jackson  County  was  organized  March,  1816.  The  country  is  rich  in  min- 
erals and  abounds  in  coal  and  iron  ore.  The  exports  are  cattle,  wool,  swine, 
horses,  lumber,  millstones,  tobacco  and  iron.  Jackson,  the  county  seat,  was 
laid  out  in  1817.  The  old  Scioto  salt-works  were  among  the  first  worked  in 
Ohio  by  the  whites.  Prior  to  this  period,  the  Indians  came  some  distance  to 
this  section  to  make  salt.  When  Daniel  Boone  was  a  prisoner,  he  spent  some 
time  at  these  works. 

Jeiferson  County  was  proclaimed  by  Gov.  St.  Clair  July  29,  1797,  and 
was  the  fifth  county  established  in  Ohio.  It  is  one  of  the  most  important 
manufacturing  counties  in  the  State.  Its  resources  in  coal  are  also  extended. 
The  surface  is  hilly  and  the  soil  fertile,  producing  wheat,  corn  and  oats.  The 
old  "Mingo"  town  was  on  the  present  farms  of  Jeremiah  Hallock  and  Mr^ 
Daniel  Potter.  The  troops  of  Col.  Williamson  rendezvoused  at  this  point, 
when  they  set  out  in  their  cruel  Moravian  campaign,  and  also  the  troops  of 
Col.  Crawford,  when  they  started  on  the  campaign  against  the  Sandusky 
Indians.  Here  Logan,  the  powerful  and  manly  chief  of  the  Mingo  nation, 
once  resided.     He  took  no  active  part  in  the  old  French  war,  which  closed  in 

132  HISTORY  OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

1760,  except  that  of  a  peacemaker.  He  was  a  stanch  friend  of  the  whites 
until  the  abominable  and  unprovoked  murder  of  his  father,  brother  and  sister, 
which  occurred  in  1774,  near  the  Yellow  Creek.  He  then  raised  the  battle 
cry  and  sought  revenge. 

However,  Logan  was  remarkably  magnanimous  toward  prisoners  who  fell 
into  his  hands.  The  year  1793  was  the  last  spent  in  Indian  warfare  in  Jeffer- 
son County. 

Fort  Steuben  was  erected  on  the  present  site  of  Steuben ville,  the  county  seat, 
in  1789.  It  was  constructed  of  block-houses,  with  palisade  fences,  and  was  dis- 
mantled during  Wayne's  campaign.  Bezaleel  Wells  and  Hon.  James  Ross  laid 
the  town  out  in  1798.  It  was  incorporated  February  14,  1805.  It  is  situated 
upon  an  elevated  plain.  In  1814,  Messrs.  Wells  and  Dickerson  built  a  woolen 
manufactory,  and  introduced  merino  sheep  to  the  county. 

Knox  County  was  formed  March  1,  1808,  from  Fairfield.  It  is  drained  by 
the  Vernon  River.  It  produces  wheat,  corn,  oats,  tobacco,  maple  sugar,  pota- 
toes and  wool.  Mount  Vernon  was  laid  out  in  1805.  The  early  settlers  found 
two  wells  on  the  Vernon  River,  built  of  hammered  stone,  neatly  laid,  and  near 
by  was  a  salt-lick.  Their  direct  origin  remains  a  mystery.  Gilman  Bryant, 
in  1807,  opened  the  first  store  in  Mount  Vernon.  The  court  house  was  built 
in  1810.  The  Indians  came  to  Mount  Vernon  in  large  numbers  for  the  pur- 
pose of  trading  in  furs  and  cranberries.  Each  Saturday,  the  settlers  worked 
on  the  streets,  extracting  stumps  and  improving  the  highway.  The  first  settler 
north  of  the  place  was  N.  M.  Young,  who  built  his  cabin  in  1803.  Mount 
Vernon  is  now  the  county  seat,  beautifully  situated  on  Vernon  River.  Kenyon 
College  is  located  at  Gambler.  It  is  richly  endowed  with  8,000  acres,  and  is 
valued  at  $100,000.  This  institution  was  established  under  the  auspices  of 
Bishop  Chase,  in  July,  1826,  in  the  center  of  a  4,000-acre  tract  belonging  to 
Kenyon  College.     It  was  chartered  as  a  theological  seminary. 

Lucas  County  is  of  comparatively  recent  origin.  A  large  portion  is  covered 
by  the  "  Black  Swamp."  It  produces  corn,  wheat,  potatoes  and  oats.  This 
county  is  situated  in  the  Maumee  Valley,  which  was  the  great  arena  of  histori- 
cal events.  The  frightful  battle  of  Wayne's  campaign,  where  the  Indians  found 
the  British  to  be  traitors,  was  fought  near  Fort  Miami,  in  this  county.  Maumee 
City,  once  the  county  seat,  was  laid  out  in  1817,  as  Maumee,  by  Maj.  Wm.  Oliver 
and  others.  It  is  situated  on  the  Maumee,  at  the  head  of  navigation.  The 
surface  is  100  feet  above  the  water  level.  This  town,  with  Perrysburg,  its  neighbor, 
is  exceedingly  picturesque,  and  was  in  early  times  frequented  by  the  Indians. 
The  French  had  a  trading  station  at  this  point,  in  1680,  and  in  1794,  the  Brit- 
ish Fort — Miami — was  built.  Toledo  is  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Maumee,  and 
covers  the  site  of  a  stockade  fort,  known  as  Fort  Industry,  erected  in  1800. 
An  Indian  treaty  was  held  here  July  4,  1805,  by  which  the  Indians  relinquished 
all  rights  to  the  "  fire  lands."  In  1832,  Capt.  Samuel  Allen  gave  an  impetus 
to  the  place,  and  Maj.  Stickney  also  became  interested  in  its  advancement. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  133 

Speculation  in  lots  began  in  1834.  The  Wabash  &  Erie  Canal  interest  arose  in 
1836.  Mr.  Mason  and  Edward  Bissel  added  their  energies  to  assist  the  growth 
of  the  town.  It  was  incorporated  as  a  city  in  1836.  It  was  the  center  of  the 
military  operations  in  the  "  Ohio  and  Michigan  war,"  known  as  the  "boundary 

The  Ordinance  of  1787  provided  for  the  division  of  the  Northwestern  Terri- 
tory into  three  or  five  States.  The  three  southern  were  to  be  divided  from  the 
two  northern  by  a  line  drawn  east  and  west  through  the  southern  point  of  Lake 
Michigan,  extending  eastward  to  the  Territorial  line  in  Lake  Erie.  The  consti- 
tution of  Ohio  adds  a  provision  that  if  the  line  should  not  go  so  far  north  as  the 
north  cape  of  Maumee  Bay,  then  the  northern  boundary  of  Ohio  should  be  a 
line  drawn  from  the  southerly  part  of  Lake  Michigan  to  the  north  cape  of  the 
Maumee  Bay. 

The  line  of  the  ordinance  was  impossible,  according  to  its  instructions  and 
the  geography  of  the  country. 

When  Michigan  became  a  Territory,  the  people  living  between  the  "  Fulton  " 
and  '•  Harris  "  lines  found  it  more  to  their  wishes  to  be  attached  to  Michigan. 
They  occupied  disputed  ground,  and  were  thus  beyond  the  limits  of  absolute 
law.  In  1835,  the  subject  was  greatly  agitated,  and  J.  Q.  Adams  made  a  warm 
speech  before  Congress  against  the  Ohio  claim.  The  Legislature  of  Ohio  dis- 
cussed the  matter,  and  an  act  was  passed  to  attach  the  disputed  section  to  Ohio, 
according  to  the  constitutional  decree.  An  active  campaign  opened  between 
Michigan  and  Ohio.  Gov.  Lucas  came  out  with  the  Ohio  troops,  in  the  spring 
of  1835,  and  Gov.  Mason,  of  Michigan,  followed  the  example.  He  marched 
into  Toledo,  robbed  melon-patches  and  chicken-houses,  crushed  in  the  front 
door  of  Maj.  Stickney's  house,  and  carried  him  away  prisoner  of  war.  Embas- 
sadors Avere  sent  from  Washington  to  negotiate  matters — Richard  Rush,  of  Penn- 
sylvania and  Col.  Howard,  of  Maryland.  At  the  next  session  of  Congress,  the 
matter  was  settled.  Samuel  Vinton  argued  for  Ohio,  in  the  House,  and  Thomas 
Ewing  in  the  Senate.  Michigan  received  an  equivalent  of  the  large  peninsula 
between  Lakes  Huron,  Michigan  and  Superior.  Ohio  received  the  disputed 
strip,  averaging  eight  miles  in  width.  Manhattan,  Waterville  and  Providence 
are  all  flourishing  towns. 

Lorain  County  was  formed  from  Huron,  Cuyahoga  and  Medina,  on  Decem- 
ber 26,  1822.  The  soil  is  generally  fertile,  and  the  surface  level.  Wheat, 
grass,  oats,  corn,  rye  and  potatoes  constitute  the  principal  crops.  Bog-iron  ore 
is  found  in  large  quantities.  A  curious  relic  has  been  found  in  this  county,  bear-, 
ing  the  date  of  1533.  Elyria  is  the  county  seat,  and  was  laid  out  in  1817. 
The  first  settler  was  Mr.  Heman  Ely.  Oberlin  is  situated  about  eight  miles 
southwest  of  Elyria.  The  Oberlin  Collegiate  Institute  has  attained  a  wide 

Logan  County  was  formed  March  1,  1817.  The  surface  is  broken  and  hilly 
near  the  Mad  River,  but  is  generally  level.     The  soil  is   fertile,  producing 

134  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO 

"wheat,  corn,  rye,  oats,  clover,  flax  and  timothy  seed.  The  Shawnee  Indians 
were  located  here,  and  built  several  villages  on  the  Mad  River.  These  towns 
were  destroyed  in  1786,  by  a  body  of  Kentuckians,  under  Gen.  Benjamin 
Logan.  The  whites  surprised  the  towns.  However,  they  returned  after  the 
work  of  destruction  had  been  completed,  and  for  many  years  frequented  the 
section.  On  the  site  of  Zanes  field  was  a  Wyandot  village.  By  the  treaty  of 
September  29,  1817,  the  Senecas  and  Shawnees  held  a  reservation  around 
Lewistown.  April  6,  1832,  they  vacated  this  right  and  removed  west.  Isaac 
Zane  was  born  about  the  year  1753,  and  was,  while  a  boy,  captured  and  after- 
ward adopted  by  the  Wyandots.  Attaining  the  age  of  manhood,  he  had  no 
desire  to  return  to  his  people.  He  married  a  Wyandot  woman,  w^ho  was  half 
French.  After  the  treaty  of  Greenville,  he  bought  1,800  acres  on  the  site  of 
Zanesville,  where  he  lived  until  the  year  1816,  when  he  died,  lamented  by  all 
his  friends. 

Logan  County  was  settled  about  the  year  1806.  During  the  war  of  1812, 
it  was  a  rendezvous  for  friendly  Indians.  Bellefontaine,  the  county  seat,  was 
laid  out  March  18,  1820,  on  land  owned  by  John  Tulles  and  William  Powell. 
Joseph  Gordon  built  a  cabin,  and  Anthony  Ballard  erected  the  first  frame 

Gen.  Simon  Kenton  is  buried  at  the  head  of  Mad  River,  five  miles  from 
Bellefontaine.  He  died  April  29,  1836,  aged  eighty-one  years  and  twenty-six 
days.  This  remarkable  man  came  West,  to  Kentucky,  in  1771.  He  probably 
encountered  more  thrilling  escapes  than  any  other  man  of  his  time.  In  1778, 
he  was  captured  and  sufiered  extreme  cruelties,  and  was  ransomed  by  the  British. 
He  soon  recovered  his  robust  health,  and  escaped  from  Detroit  the  following 
spring.  He  settled  in  Urbana  in  1802.  He  was  elected  Brigadier  General  of 
the  militia,  and  in  the  war  of  1812,  joined  Gen.  Harrison's  army.  In  the  year 
1820,  he  removed  to  Mad  River.  Gen.  Vance  and  Judge  Burnet  secured  him 
a  pension,  of  $20  per  month 

Licking  County  was  formed  from  Fairfield  March  1,  1808.  The  surface  is 
generally  level,  diversified  by  slight  hills  in  the  eastern  portion.  The  soil  is 
fertile,  producing  wheat,  corn,  oats  and  grass.  Coal  and  iron  ore  of  good 
quality  add  to  the  wealth  of  the  county.  Wool  and  dairy  productions  are  also 
staples.  Newark  is  the  county  seat,  and  is  situated  at  the  confluence  of  the 
three  prmcipal  branches  of  the  Licking.  It  was  laid  out  by  Gen.  William  C. 
Schenk,  George  W.  Burnet  and  John  M.  Cummings,  who  owned  this  military 
section  of  4,000  acres,  in  1801.  In  1802,  Samuel  Elliott  and  Samuel  Parr 
built  hewed-log  houses.  The  picturesque  "Narrows  of  the  Licking"  are  in 
the  eastern  part  of  the  county,  which  have  elicited  general  praise  from  scenic 

Lawrence  County  was  organized  March  1,  1816.  There  are  many  high 
and  abrupt  hills  in  this  section,  which  abound  in  sand  or  freestone.  It  is  rich 
in  minerals,  and  the  most  important  section  of   Ohio  for  iron  manufacture. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  135 

Coal  is  abundant,  and  white  clay  exists  in  the  western  part  suitable  for  pot- 
tery purposes.     Agricultural  productions  are  not  extensive. 

The  county  was  settled  in  1797  by  the  Dutch  and  Irish.  The  iron  region 
extends  through  the  west  part  of  this  county.  Lawrence  County  produces  a 
superior  quality  of  iron,  highly  esteemed  for  castings,  and  is  equal  to  Scotch 
pig  for  furnace  purposes.     Burlington  is  the  county  seat. 

Lake  County  was  formed  from  Geauga  and  Cuyahoga  March  6,  1840.  The 
soil  is  good  and  the  surface  rolling.  It  produces  wheat,  corn,  oats,  buckwheat, 
barley,  hay  and  potatoes.  Dairy  products,  cattle  and  wool  are  also  staples. 
Its  fruits — apples,  peaches,  pears,  plums  and  grapes  are  highly  prized.  As 
early  as  1799,  a  settlement  was  formed  at  Mentor.  Painesville,  the  county 
seat,  is  situated  on  Grand  River,  in  a  beautiful  valley.  The  Painesville  Acad- 
emy is  a  classical  institution  for  the  education  of  both  sexes.  Near  the  town 
is  the  Geauga  furnace.  Painesville  was  laid  out  by  Henry  Champion  in  1805. 
At  Fairport,  the  first  warehouse  in  this  section,  and  probably  the  first  on  the 
lake,  was  built  by  Abraham  Skinner  in  1803.  This  town  has  a  fine  harbor, 
and  has  a  light-house  and  beacon.  Kirtland,  southwest  from  Painesville,  was, 
in  1834,  the  headquarters  of  the  Mormons.  At  that  time,  they  numbered 
about  three  thousand.  The  old  Mormon  temple  is  of  rough  stone,  plastered 
over,  colored  blue,  and  marked  to  imitate  regular  courses  of  masonry.  As  is 
well  known,  the  Mormons  derive  their  name  from  the  book  of  Mormon,  said  to 
have  been  translated  from  gold  plates  found  in  a  hill  in  Palmyra,  N.  Y. 

Madison  County  was  organized  in  March,  1810.  The  surface  is  generally 
level.  It  produces  grass,  corn,  oats  and  cattle — the  latter  forming  a  chief 
staple,  while  wool  and  pork  add  to  the  general  wealth. 

Jonathan  Alder  was  much  interested  in  the  settlement  of  the  county.  He, 
like  some  other  whites,  had  lived  with  the  Indians  many  years,  and  had  formed 
a  lasting  afiection  for  them,  and  had  married  a  squaw,  with  whom  he  became 
dissatisfied,  which  caused  him  to  desire  finding  his  own  family.  He  suc- 
ceeded in  this  through  the  assistance  of  John  Moore.  He  left  his  wife  and 
joined  his  people. 

This  county  was  first  settled  in  1795.  Benjamin  Springer  made  a  clearing 
and  built  a  cabin.  He  settled  near  Alder,  and  taught  him  the  English  lan- 
guage. Mr.  Joshua  Ewing  brought  four  sheep  to  this  place,  and  the  Indians 
exhibited  great  astonishment  over  these  strange  animals.  When  the  hostilities 
of  1812  began,  the  British  offered  inducements  to  the  Indians  to  join  them,  and 
they  consulted  Alder  regarding  the  best  policy  to  adopt.  He  advised  them  to 
preserve  neutrality  until  a  later  period,  which  they  did,  and  eventually  became 
firm  friends  of  the  Americans. 

London  is  the  county  seat,  and  was  laid  out  in  1810-11,  by  Patrick  McLene. 

Marion  County  was  organized  March  1,  1824.  The  soil  is  fertile,  and  pro- 
duces extensive  farm  crops.  The  Delaware  Indians  once  held  a  reservation 
here,  and  conceded  their  claims  in   1829,  August  3,  and  removed  west  of  the 

136  '  HISTORY   OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

Mississippi.  Marion,  the  county  seat,  was  laid  out  in  1821,  by  Eber  Baker 
and  Alexander  Holmes.  Gen.  Harrison  marched  through  this  section  during 
his  campaign. 

Mahoning  County  was  formed  in  1846,  from  Trumbull  and  Columbiana. 
The  surface  is  rolling  and  the  soil  generally  fertile.  The  finer  qualities  of  wood 
are  produced  here.  Bituminous  coal  and  iron  are  found  in  large  quantities. 
Col.  James  Hillman  came  to  the  Western  Reserve  in  1786.  The  settlement 
of  the  county  went  forward.     Canfield  is  the  county  seat. 

Medina  County  was  formed  from  the  Western  Reserve  February  12,  1812. 
The  surface  is  rolling  and  the  soil  is  fertile,  producing  fine  agricultural  prod- 
ucts. The  first  trail  made  through  the  county  was  made  by  George  Poe, 
Joseph  H.  Larwell  and  Roswell  M.  Mason.  The  first  settlement  was  made 
by  Joseph  Harris  in  1811.  He  was  soon  joined  by  the  Burr  brothers.  Me- 
dina is  the  county  seat. 

Meigs  County  was  formed  from  Gallia  and  Athens  April  1,  1819.  The 
general  character  of  the  soil  is  clayey,  producing  large  quantities  of  wheat,  oats, 
corn,  hay  and  potatoes.  Vast  quantities  of  salt  are  made  and  exported.  Pom- 
eroy,  the  county  seat,  is  situated  under  a  lofty  hill,  surrounded  by  picturesque 
scenery.  Mr.  Nathaniel  Clark  was  the  first  settler  of  the  county.  He  arrived  in 
1816.     The  first  coal  mine  opened  in  Pomeroy  was  in  1819,  by  David  Bradshaw. 

Mercer  County  was  formed  from  the  Indian  Territory  in  1820.  The  sur- 
face is  generally  flat,  and  while  covered  with  forests,  inclined  to  be  wet ;  but, 
being  cleared,  it  is  very  fertile,  and  adapted  to  producing  farm  crops.  St. 
Clair's  Battle  was  fought  on  the  boundary  line  between  this  and  Darke  County. 
The  Hon.  Lewis  Cass  and  Duncan  McArthur  made  a  treaty  at  St.  Mary's  with 
the  Wyandots,  Shawnees  and  Ottawas,  in  1818.  The  odious  Simon  Girty  lived 
at  one  time  at  St.  Mary's.  Wayne  built  St.  Mary's  Fort,  on  the  west  bank  of 
the  river.  John  Whistler  was  the  last  commander  of  the  fort.  The  largest 
artificial  lake  in  the  world,  so  it  is  asserted,  is  formed  by  the  reservoir  sup- 
plying the  St.  Mary's  feeder  of  the  Miami  Extension  Canal.  It  is  about  nine 
miles  long,  and  from  two  to  four  broad.     Celina  is  the  county  seat. 

Miami  County  was  formed  January  16,  1807,  from  Montgomery.  It  abounds 
in  excellent  limestone,  and  possesses  remarkable  water-power  facilities.  Its  agri- 
cultural products  rank  highly  in  quality  and  quantity.  John  Knoop  came  into  this 
section  about  the  year  1797,  and  its  first  settlement  began  about  this  time.  Troy, 
the  county  seat,  is  situated  upon  the  Great  Miami.  Piqua  is  another  lovely 
town.     The  Miami  River  aifords  delightful  scenery  at  this  point. 

Monroe  County  was  formed  January  29,  1813,  from  Belmont,  Washington, 
and  Guernsey.  A  portion  of  its  surface  is  abrupt  and  hilly.  Large  quantities' 
of  tobacco  are  raised,  and  much  pork  is  exported.  Wheat  and  corn  grow  well 
in  the  western  portion.  Iron  ore  and  coal  abound.  The  valleys  of  the  streams 
are  very  narrow,  bounded  by  rough  hills.  In  some  places  are  natural  rock 
grottoes.     The  first  settlement  was  made  in  1799,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Sunfish. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  137 

At  this  time,  wolves  were  numerous,  and  caused  much  alarm.  Volney  entered 
this  county,  but  was  not  prepossessed  in  its  favor.  One  township  is  settled  by 
the  Swiss,  who  are  educated  and  refined.     Woodsfield  is  the  county  seat. 

Montgomery  County  was  formed  from  Ross  and  Hamilton  May  1,  1803. 
The  soil  is  fertile,  and  its  agricultural  products  are  most  excellent.  Quarries  of 
grayish-white  limestone  are  found  east  of  the  Miami. 

Dayton  is  the  county  seat,  situated  on  the  Great  Miami,  at  the  mouth  of  Mad 
River.  A  company  was  formed  in  1788,  but  Indian  wars  prevented  settlement. 
After  Wayne's  treaty,  in  1795,  a  new  company  was  formed.  It  advanced 
rapidly  between  the  years  1812  and  1820.  The  beginning  of  the  Miami  Canal 
renewed  its  prosperity,  in  1827.  The  first  canal-boat  from  Cincinnati  arrived 
at  Dayton  on  the  25th  of  January,  1829.  The  first  one  arrived  from  Lake 
Erie  in  June,  1845.  Col.  Robert  Patterson  came  to  Dayton  in  1804.  At  one 
time,  he  owned  Lexington,  Ky.,  and  about  one  third  of  Cincinnati. 

Morgan  County  was  organized  in  1818,  March  1.  The  surface  is  hilly  and 
the  soil  strong  and  fertile,  producing  wheat,  corn,  oats  and  tobacco.  Pork  is  a 
prolific  product,  and  considerable  salt  is  made.  The  first  settlement  was  made 
in  1790,  on  the  Muskingum.  McConnelsville  is  the  county  seat.  Mr.  Ayres 
made  the  first  attempt  to  produce  salt,  in  1817.  This  has  developed  into  a 
large  industry. 

Morrow  County  was  organized  in  1848.  It  is  drained  by  the  Vernon 
River,  Avhich  rises  in  it,  by  the  East  Branch  of  the  Olontangy  or  Whetstone 
River,  and  by  Walnut  Creek.  The  surface  is  undulating,  the  soil  fertile. 
The  staple  products  are  corn,  wheat,  oats,  hay,  wool  and  butter.  The  sugar 
maple  abounds  in  the  forests,  and  sandstone  or  freestone  in  the  quarries. 
Mount  Gilead,  the  county  seat,  is  situated  on  the  East  Branch  of  the  Olen- 
tangy  River. 

Muskingum  County  was  formed  from  Washington  and  Fairfield.  The  sur- 
face is  rolling  or  hilly.  It  produces  wheat,  corn,  oats,  potatoes,  tobacco,  wool 
and  pork.  Large  quantities  of  bituminous  coal  are  found.  Pipe  clay,  buhr- 
stone  or  cellular  quartz  are  also  in  some  portions  of  the  State.  Salt  is  made  in 
large  quantities — the  fine  being  obtained  from  a  stratum  of  whitish  sandstone. 
The  Wyandots,  Delawares,  Senecas  and  Shawanoese  Indians  once  inhabited  this 
section.  An  Indian  town  occupied  the  site  of  Duncan's  Falls.  A  large  Shawan- 
oese town  was  located  near  Dresden. 

Zanesville  is  the  county  seat,  situated  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Licking. 
It  was  laid  out  in  1799,  by  Mr.  Zane  and  Mr.  Mclntire.  This  is  one  of  the 
principal  towns  in  the  State,  and  is  surrounded  by  charming  scenery. 

Noble  County,  organized  in  1851,  is  drained  by  Seneca,  Duck  and  Wills 
Creeks.  The  surface  is  undulating,  and  a  large  part  of  it  is  covered  with  for- 
ests. The  soil  is  fertile.  Its  staples  are  corn,  tobacco,  wheat,  hay,  oats  and 
wool.  Among  its  mineral  resources  are  limestone,  coal  and  petroleum.  Near 
Caldwell,  the  county  seat,  are  found  iron  ore,  coal  and  salt. 

138  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

Ottawa  County  was  formed  from  Erie,  Sandusky  and  Lucas,  March  6, 1840, 
It  is  mostly  within  the  Black  Swamp,  and  considerable  of  its  land  is  prairie  and 
•marsh.  It  was  very  thinly  settled  befere  1830.  Extensive  plaster  beds  exist 
on  the  peninsula,  which  extends  into  Lake  Erie.  It  has  also  large  limestone 
quarries,  which  are  extensively  worked.  The  very  first  trial  at  arms  upon  the 
soil  of  Ohio,  during  the  war  of  1812,  occurred  upon  this  peninsula.  Port  Clin- 
ton, the  county  seat,  was  laid  out  in  1827. 

Perry  County  was  formed  from  Washington,  Fairfield  and  Muskingum, 
March  1,  1817.  Fine  tobacco  is  raised  in  large  quantities.  Wheat,  corn,  oats, 
hay,  cattle,  pork  and  wool  add  to  the  general  wealth.  This  county  was  first  set- 
tled in  1801.  First  settler  was  Christian  Binckley,  who  built  the  first  cabin  in 
the  county,  about  five  miles  west  of  Somerset,  near  the  present  county  line. 
New  Lexington  is  now  the  county  seat. 

Paulding  County  was  formed  from  old  Indian  territory  August  1,  1820. 
It  produces  corn,  wheat  and  oats.     Paulding  is  the  county  seat. 

Pickaway  County  was  formed  from  Fairfield^  Ross  and  Franklin,  January 
12,  1810.  The  county  has  woodland,  barren,  plain  and  prairie.  The  barrens 
were  covered  by  shrub  oaks,  and  when  cleared  are  adapted  to  the  raising  of  corn 
and  oats.  The  Pickaway  plains  are  three  and  a  half  miles  west  of  Circleville, 
and  this  tract  is  said  to  contain  the  richest  land  in  Ohio.  Here,  in  the  olden 
times,  burned  the  great  council  fires  of  the  red  man.  Here  the  allied  tribes  met 
Gen.  Lewis,  who  fought  the  battle  of  Point  Pleasant.  Dunmoi-e's  campaign 
was  terminated  on  these  plains.  It  was  at  the  Chillicothe  towns,  after  Dun- 
more's  treaty,  that  Logan  delivered  his  famous  speech.  Circleville,  the  county 
seat,  is  situated  on  the  Scioto  River  and  the  Ohio  Canal.  It  was  laid  out  in 
1810,  by  Daniel  Dresbach.     It  is  situated  on  the  site  of  ancient  fortifications. 

Portage  County  was  formed  June  7,  1807,  from  Trumbull.  It  is  a  wealthy, 
thriving  section.  Over  a  thousand  tons  of  cheese  are  annually  produced.  It 
also  produces  wheat,  corn,  oats,  barley,  buckw^heat,  rye,  butter  and  wool. 
Ravenna  is  the  county  seat,  and  was  originally  settled  by  the  Hon.  Benjamin 
Tappen  in  June,  1799.  In  1806,  an  unpleasant  difficulty  arose  between  the 
settlers  and  a  camp  of  Indians  in  Deerfield,  caused  by  a  horse  trade  between  a 
white  man  and  an  Indian.    David  Daniels  settled  on  the  site  of  Palmyra  in  1799. 

Pike  County  was  organized  in  1815.  The  surface  is  generally  hilly,  which 
abound  with  freestone,  which  is  exported  in  large  quantities  for  building  pur- 
poses. Rich  bottom  lands  extend  along  the  Scioto  and  its  tributaries.  John 
Noland  and  the  three  Chenoweth  brothers  settled  on  the  Pee  Pee  prairie  about 
1796.  Piketown,  the  former  county  seat,  was  laid  out  about  1814.  Waverly, 
the  present  county  seat,  is  situated  on  the  Scioto  River. 

Preble  County  was  formed  March  1,  1808,  from  Montgomery  and  Butler. 
The  soil  is  varied.     Excellent  water-power  facilities  are  furnished. 

Eaton,  the  county  seat,  was  laid  out  in  1806,  by  William  Bruce,  who  owned 
the  land.  An  overflowing  well  of  strong  sulphur  water  is  near  the  town,  while 
directly  beside  it  is  a  limestone  quarry.     Holderman's  quarry  is  about  two 

HISTORY   OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  139 

miles  distant,  from  which  is  obtained  a  beautifully  clouded  gray  stone.  Fort  St. 
Clair  was  built  near  Eaton,  in  the  winter  of  1791-92.  Gen.  Harrison  was  an  En- 
sign at  the  time,  and  commanded  a  guard  every  other  night  for  three  weeks,  during 
the  building.  The  severe  battle  of  November  6,  1792,  was  fought  under  its  very 
guns.  Little  Turtle,  a  distinguished  chief  of  the  Miamis,  roamed  over  this  county 
for  a  time.  He  was  witty,  brave  and  earnest,  and,  although  engaged  in  several 
severe  contests  with  the  whites,  he  was  inclined  toward  peace.  But  when  his 
warriors  cried  for  war  he  led  them  bravely. 

Putnam  County  was  formed  April  1,  1820,  from  old  Indian  territory.  The 
soil  is  fertile,  its  principal  productions  being  wheat,  corn,  potatoes  and  oats. 
Large  quantities  of  pork  are  exported.  Kalida,  once  the  county  seat,  was  laid 
out  in  1834.     Ottawa  is  the  county  seat. 

Ross  County  was  formed  August  20,  1798,  by  the  proclamation  of  Gov.  St. 
Clair,  and  was  the  sixth  county  formed  in  the  Northwestern  Territory.  The 
Scioto  River  and  Paint  Creek  run  through  it,  bordered  with  fertile  lands. 
Much  water-power  is  obtained  from  the  many  streams  watering  it.  The  main 
crops  are  wheat,  corn  and  oats.     It  exports  cattle  and  hogs. 

The  Rev.  Robert  W.  Finley,  in  1794,  addressed  a  letter  of  inquiry  to  Col. 
Nathaniel  Massie,  as  many  of  his  associates  had  designed  settling  in  the  new 
State.  This  resulted  in  packing  their  several  eifects  and  setting  out.  A  triv- 
ial Indian  encounter  was  the  only  interruption  they  met  with  on  their  way. 
After  Wayne's  treaty,  Col.  Massie  and  many  of  these  early  explorers  met 
again  and  formed  a  settlement — in  1796 — at  the  mouth  of  Paint  Creek.  In 
August  of  this  year,  Chillicothe  was  laid  out  by  Col.  Massie,  in  a  dense  forest. 
He  donated  lots  to  the  early  settlers.  A  ferry  was  established  over  the  Scioto, 
and  the  opening  of  Zane's  trace  assisted  the  progress  of  settlement. 

Chillicothe,  the  county  seat,  is  situated  on  the  Scioto.  Its  site  is  thirty 
feet  above  the  river.  In  1800,  it  was  the  seat  of  the  Northwestern  Territorial 
Government.  It  was  incorporated  as  a  city  in  January,  1802.  During  the  war 
of  1812,  the  city  was  a  rendezvous  for  the  United  States  troops.  A  large  num- 
ber of  British  were  at  one  time  guarded  here.  Adena  is  a  beautiful  place,  and 
the  seat  of  Gov.  Worthington's  mansion,  which  was  built  in  1806.  Near  this 
is  Fruit  Hill,  the  residence  of  the  late  Gen.  McArthur,  and  latterly  the  home 
of  his  son-in-law,  the  Hon.  William  Allen.  Eleven  miles  from  Chillicothe,  on 
the  road  to  Portsmouth,  is  the  home  of  the  hermit  of  the  Scioto. 

Richland  was  organized  March  1,  1813.  It  produces  wheat,  com,  oats,  hay, 
potatoes,  rye,  hemp  and  barley.  It  was  settled  about  1809,  on  branches  of  the 
Mohican.  Two  block-houses  were  built  in  1812.  Mansfield,  the  county  seat, 
is  charmingly  situated,  and  was  laid  out  in  1808,  by  Jacob  Newman,  James 
Hedges  and  Joseph  H.  Larwell.  The  county  was  at  that  period  a  vast  wilder- 
ness, destitute  of  roads.     From  this  year,  the  settlement  progressed  rapidly. 

Sandusky  County  was  formed  April  1,  1820,  from  the  old  Indian  Territory. 
The  soil  is  fertile,  and  country  generally  level.     It  mainly  produces  corn,  wheat, 

140  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

oats,  potatoes  and  pork.  The  Indians  were  especially  delighted  with  this  tract. 
Near  Lower  Sandusky  lived  a  band  of  Wyandots,  called  the  Neutral  Nation. 
These  two  cities  never  failed  to  render  refuge  to  any  who  sought  their  protec- 
tion. They  preserved  their  peacemaking  attributes  through  the  Iroquois 
conflicts.  Fremont,  formerly  called  Lower  Sandusky,  the  county  seat,  is 
situated  at  the  head  of  navigation,  on  the  Sandusky,  on  the  site  of  the  old 
reservation  grant  to  the  Indians,  at  the  Greenville  treaty  council.  Fort 
Stephenson  was  erected  in  August,  1813,  and  was  gallantly  defended  by  Col. 

Summit  County  was  formed  March  3,  1840,  from  Medina,  Portage  and 
Stark.  The  soil  is  fertile  and  produces  excellent  fruit,  besides  large  crops  of 
corn,  wheat,  hay,  oats  and  potatoes.  Cheese  and  butter  may  be  added  as 

The  first  settlement  made  in  the  county  was  at  Hudson,  in  1800.  The  old 
Indian  portage-path,  exter ding  through  this  county,  between  the  Cuyahoga,  and 
Tuscarawas  Branch  of  the  Muskingum.  This  was  a  part  of  the  ancient  boundary 
between  the  Six  Nations  and  the  Western  Indians.  Akron,  the  county  seat,  is 
situated  on  the  portage  summit.  It  was  laid  out  in  1825.  In  1811,  Paul 
Williams  and  Amos  and  Minor  Spicer  settled  in  this  vicinity.  Middlebury  was 
laid  out  in  1818,  by  Norton  &  Hart. 

Stark  County  was  formed  February  13,  1808.  It  is  a  rich  agricultural 
county.  It  has  large  quantities  of  mineral  coal,  iron  ore,  flocks  of  the  finest 
sheep  and  great  water  power.  Limestone  and  extensive  beds  of  lime-marl  exist. 
The  manufacture  of  silk  has  been  extensively  carried  on.  Frederick  Post,  the 
first  Moravian  missionary  in  Ohio,  settled  here  in  1761. 

Canton  is  the  county  seat,  situated  in  the  forks  of  the  Nimishillen,  a  tribu- 
tary of  the  Muskingum.  It  was  laid  out  in  1806,  by  Bezaleel  Wells,  who 
owned  the  land.     Massillon  was  laid  out  in  March,  1826,  by  John  Duncan. 

Shelby  County  was  formed  in  1819,  from  Miami.  The  southern  portion  is 
undulating,  arising  in  some  places  to  hills.  Through  the  north,  it  is  a  flat  table- 
land. It  produces  wheat,  corn,  oats  and  grass.  The  first  point  of  English  set- 
tlement in  Ohio  was  at  the  mouth  of  Laramie's  Creek,  in  this  county,  as  early 
as  1752.  Fort  Laramie  was  built  in  1794,  by  Wayne.  The  first  white  family 
that  settled  in  this  county  was  that  of  James  Thatcher,  in  1804.  Sidney,  the 
county  seat,  was  laid  out  in  1819,  on  the  farm  of  Charles  Starrett. 

Seneca  County  was  formed  April  1,  1820,  from  the  old  Indian  territory. 
Its  principal  products  are  corn,  wheat,  grass,  oats,  potatoes  and  pork. 

Fort  Seneca  was  built  durins;  the  war  of  1812,  The  Senecas  owned 
40,000  acres  of  land  on  the  Sandusky  River,  mostly  in  Seneca  County. 
Thirty  thousand  acres  of  this  land  was  granted  to  them  in  1817,  at  the  treaty 
held  at  the  foot  of  the  Maumee  Rapids.  The  remaining  10,000  was  granted 
the  following  year.  These  Indians  ceded  this  tract,  however,  to  the  Govern- 
ment in  1831.     It  was  asserted  by  an  old  chief,  that  this  band  was  the  remnant 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  141 

of  Logan's  tribe.  Tiffin,  the  county  seat,  was  laid  out  by  Josiah  Hedges  in 
the  year  1821. 

Scioto  County  was  formed  May  1,  1803.  It  is  a  good  agricultural  section, 
besides  producing  iron  ore,  coal  and  freestone.  It  is  said  that  a  French  fort 
stood  at  the  mouth  of  the  old  Scioto,  as  early  as  1740.  In  1785,  four  families 
settled  where  Portsmouth  now  stands.  Thomas  McDonald  built  the  first  cabin  in 
the  county.  The  "French  grant"  was  located  in  this  section — a  tract  com- 
prising 24,000  acres.  The  grant  was  made  in  March,  1795.  Portsmouth,  the 
county  seat,  is  located  upon  the  Ohio. 

Trumbull  County  was  formed  in  1800.  The  original  Connecticut  Western 
Reserve  was  Avithin  its  limits.  The  county  is  well  cultivated  and  very  wealthy. 
Coal  is  found  in  its  northern  portion.  We  have,  in  our  previous  outline,  given 
a  history  of  this  section,  and  it  is  not,  therefore,  necessary  to  repeat  its  details. 
Warren,  the  county  seat,  is  situated  on  the  Mahoning  River.  It  was  laid  out 
by  Ephraim  Quinby  in  1801.  Mr.  Quinby  owned  the  soil.  His  cabin  was  built 
here  in  1799.  In  August,  1800,  while  Mr.  McMahon  was  away  from  home, 
a  party  of  drunken  Indians  called  at  the  house,  abused  the  family,  struck  a 
child  a  severe  blow  with  a  tomahawk  and  threatened  to  kill  the  family.  Mrs. 
McMahon  could  not  send  tidings  which  could  reach  her  husband  before  noon 
the  following  day.  The  following  Sunday  morning,  fourteen  men  and  two 
boys  armed  themselves  and  went  to  the  Indian  camp  to  settle  the  difficulty. 
Quinby  advanced  alone,  leaving  the  remainder  in  concealment,  as  he  was  better 
acquainted  with  these  people,  to  make  inquiries  and  ascertain  their  intentions. 
He  did  not  return  at  once,  and  the  party  set  out,  marched  into  camp,  and  found 
Quinby  arguing  with  Capt.  George,  the  chief.  Capt.  George  snatched  his 
tomahawk  and  declared  war,  rushing  forward  to  kill  McMahon.  But  a  bullet 
from  the  frontierman's  gun  killed  him  instantly,  while  Storey  shot  "  Spotted 
John"  at  the  same  time.  The  Indians  then  fled.  They  joined  the  council  at 
Sandusky.  Quinby  garrisoned  his  house.  Fourteen  days  thereafter,  the 
Indians  returned  with  overtures  of  peace,  which  were,  that  McMahon  and 
Storey  be  taken  to  Sandusky,  tried  by  Indian  laws,  and  if  found  guilty,  pun- 
ished by  them.  This  could  not  be  done.  McMahon  was  tried  by  Gen.  St. 
Clair,  and  the  matter  was  settled.  The  first  missionary  on  the  Reserve  was  the 
Rev.  Joseph  Badger. 

Tuscarawas  County  was  formed  February  15,  1808,  from  Muskingum.  It 
is  well  cultivated  with  abundant  supplies  of  coal  and  iron. 

The  first  white  settlers  were  Moravian  missionaries,  their  first  visits  dating 
back  to  1761.  The  first  permanent  settlement  was  made  in  1798.  Miss  Mary 
Heckewelder,  the  daughter  of  a  missionary,  was  born  in  this  county  April  16, 
1781.  Fort  Laurens  was  built  during  the  Revolution.  It  was  the  scene  of  a 
fearful  carnage.  It  was  established  in  the  fall  of  1778,  and  placed  under  the 
command  of  Gen.  Mcintosh.  New  Philadelphia  is  the  county  seat,  situated  on 
the   Tuscarawas.     It  was  laid  out  in   1804  by  John  Knisely.     A   German 

142  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

colony  settled  in  this  county  in  1817,  driven  from  their  native  land  by  religious 
dictation  they  could  not  espouse.  They  called  themselves  Separatists.  They 
are  a  simple-minded  people,  strictly  moral  and  honest. 

Union  County  was  formed  from  Franklin,  Delaware,  Logan  and  Madison  in 
1820.  It  produces  corn,  grass,  wheat,  oats,  potatoes,  butter  and  cheese. 
Extensive  limestone  quarries  are  also  valuable.  The  Ewing  brothers  made  the 
first  white  settlement  in  1798.  Col.  James  Curry,  a  member  of  the  State  Leg- 
islature, was  the  chief  instigator  in  the  progress  of  this  section.  He  located 
within  its  limits  and  remained  until  his  death,  which  occurred  in  1834.  Marys- 
ville  is  the  county  seat. 

Van  Wert  County  was  formed  from  the  old  Indian  territory  April  1,  1820. 
A  great  deal  of  timber  is  within  the  limits  of  this  county,  but  the  soil  is  so 
tenacious  that  water  will  not  sink  through  it,  and  crops  are  poor  during  wet 
seasons.  The  main  product  is  corn.  Van  Wert,  the  county  seat,  was  founded 
by  James  W.  Riley  in  1837.  An  Indian  town  had  formerly  occupied  its  site. 
Capt.  Riley  was  the  first  white  man  who  settled  in  the  county,  arriving  in  1821. 
He  founded  Willshire  in  1822. 

Vinton  County  was  organized  in  ]  850.  It  is  drained  by  Raccoon  and  Salt 
Creeks.  The  surface  is  undulating  or  hilly,  and  is  extensively  covered  with 
forests  in  which  the  oak,  buckeye  and  sugar  maple  are  found.  Corn,  hay,  but- 
ter and  wool  are  staple  products.  Bituminous  coal  and  iron  ore  are  found. 
McArthur  is  the  county  seat. 

Washington  County  was  formed  by  proclamation  of  Gov.  St.  Clair  July  27, 
1788,  and  was  the  first  county  founded  within  the  limits  of  Ohio.  The  surface 
is  broken  with  extensive  tracts  of  level,  fertile  land.  It  was  the  first  county 
settled  in  the  State  under  the  auspices  of  the  Ohio  Company.  A  detachment 
of  United  States  troops,  under  command  of  Maj.  John  Doughty,  built  Fort 
Harmar  in  1785,  and  it  was  the  first  military  post  established  in  Ohio  by 
Americans,  with  the  exception  of  Fort  Laurens,  which  was  erected  in  3778. 
It  was  occupied  by  United  States  troops  until  1790,  when  they  were  ordered 
to  Connecticut.  A  company  under  Capt.  Haskell  remained.  In  1785,  the 
Directors  of  the  Ohio  Company  began  practical  operations,  and  settlement 
went  forward  rapidly.  Campus  Martins,  a  stockade  fort,  was  completed  in 
1791.  This  formed  a  sturdy  stronghold  during  the  war.  During  the  Indian 
war  there  was  much  suffering  in  the  county.  Many  settlers  were  killed  and 

Marietta  is  the  county  seat,  and  the  oldest  town  in  Ohio.  Marietta  College 
was  chartered  in  1835.  Herman  Blannerhassett,  whose  unfortunate  association 
with  Aaron  Burr  proved  fatal  to  himself,  was  a  resident  of  Marietta  in  1796. 
About  the  year  1798,  he  began  to  beautify  and  improve  his  island. 

Warren  County  was  formed  May  1,  1803,  from  Hamilton.  The  soil  is 
very  fertile,  and  considerable  water-power  is  furnished  by  its  streams.  Mr. 
Bedell  made  the  first  settlement  in  1795.     Lebanon  is  the  eounty  seat.     Henry 


Taylor  settled   in   this   vicinity   in   1796.     Union  Village  is  a  settlement  of 
Shakers.     They  came  here  about  1805. 

Wayne  County  was  proclaimed  by  Gov.  St.  Clair  August  15,  1796,  and 
was  the  third  county  in  the  Northwest  Territory.  The  settlement  of  this  sec- 
tion has  already  been  briefly  delineated.  Wooster  is  the  county  seat.  It  was 
laid  out  during  the  fall  of  1808,  by  John  Beaver,  William  Henry  and  Joseph 
H.  Larwell,  owners  of  the  land.  Its  site  is  337  feet  above  Lake  Erie.  The 
first  mill  was  built  by  Joseph  Stibbs,  in  1809,  on  Apple  Creek.  In  1812,  a 
block- house  was  erected  in  Wooster, 

Wood  County  was  formed  from  the  old  Indian  territory  in  1820.  The  soil 
is  rich,  and  large  crops  are  produced.  The  county  is  situated  within  the  Mau- 
mee  Valley.  It  was  the  arena  of  brilliant  military  exploits  during  early  times. 
Bowling  Green  is  the  county  seat. 

Williams  County  was  formed  April  1,  1820,  from  the  old  Indian  territory. 
Bryan  is  the  county  seat.     It  was  laid  out  in  1840. 

Wyandot  County  was  formed  February  3,  1845,  from  Marion,  Hardin,  Han- 
cock and  Crawford.  The  surface  is  level,  and  the  soil  exceedingly  fertile. 
The  Wyandot  Indians  occupied  this  section,  especially  the  reservation,  from 
time  immemorial  until  1843.  The  treaty  of  1817,  by  Hon.  Lewis  Cass  and 
Hon.  Duncan  McArthur,  United  States  Commissioners,  granted  to  the  Indians 
a  reservation  twelve  miles  square,  the  central  point  being  Fort  Ferree,  now 
within  the  corporate  limits  of  Upper  Sandusky.  The  Delaware  Reserve  was 
ceded  to  the  United  States  in  1829.  The  Wyandots  ceded  theirs  March  17, 
1842.  Col.  John  Johnston,  the  United  States  Commissioner,  conducted  the 
negotiations,  and  thus  made  the  Indian  treaty  in  Ohio.  It  was  the  scene  of 
Col.  Crawford's  defeat  and  tragic  death,  June  11,  1782.  The  Wyandots  were 
exceedingly  brave,  and  several  of  their  chiefs  were  distinguished  orators  and 
men  of  exalted  moral  principles. 

Upper  Sandusky  is  the  county  seat,  and  was  laid  out  in  1843.  Gen.  Har- 
rison had  built  Fort  Ferree  on  this  spot  during  the  war  of  1812.  Gov.  Meigs, 
in  1813,  encamped   on  this  river  with  several   thousand  of  the  Ohio  militia. 

The  Indian  village  of  Crane  Town  was  originally  called  Upper  Sandusky. 
The  Indians,  after  the  death  of  Tarhe,  or  "  the  Crane,"  transferred  their  town 
to  Upper  Sandusky. 


The  Territorial  Governors  we  have  already  mentioned  in  the  course  of  our 
brief  review  of  the  prominent  events  of  the  State  of  Ohio.  After  the  Terri- 
tory was  admitted  as  a  State,  in  1802,  Edward  Tiffin  was  elected  to  that  posi- 
tion, and  again  received  the  same  honor  in  1804  and  1806.  In  1807,  circum- 
stances led  him  to  resign,  and  Thomas  Kirker,  Speaker  of  the  Senate,  acted  as 
Governor  until  the  close  of  the  term. 

Edward  Tiffin  was  born  in  Carlisle,  England,  coming  to  this  country  in 
1784,  at  the  age  of  eighteen.  He  entered  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  and 
applied  himself  to  the  study  of  medicine,  graduating  and  beginning  his  practice 
at  the  age  of  twenty,  in  the  State  of  Virginia.      In  1789,   he  married  Mary, 

144  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

daughter  of  Col.  Worthington,  and  sister  of  Thomas  Worthington,  who  subse- 
quently became  Governor  of  Ohio.  In  his  profession,  Gov.  Tiffin  was  highly 
esteemed,  and  his  public  labors  were  carried  forward  Avith  a  zealous  earnestness; 
which  marked  his  career  as  one  of  usefulness.  He  settled  in  Chillicothe,  Ohio, 
in  1796,  where  he  died,  in  1829. 

Samuel  Huntington,  the  recipient  of  the  honor  of  third  Governor,  was 
inaugurated  in  1808.  He  was  an  American  by  birth,  Norwich,  Conn.^ 
being  his  native  place.  He  was  a  diligent  student  in  Yale  College,  graduating 
in  1785.  He  removed  to  Cleveland,  Ohio,  in  1801.  He  attained  a  reputation 
for  integrity,  ability  and  rare  discretion.  As  a  scholar,  he  was  eminently  supe- 
rior.    He  resided  in  Cleveland  at  the  time  of  his  death,  in  1817. 

Return  Jonathan  Meigs  followed  Gov.  Huntington.  He  was  born  in  Mid- 
dletown.  Conn.,  in  1765.  He  was  also  a  student  in  Yale  College,  graduating 
in  1785,  with  the  highest  honors.  He  immediately  entered  the  study  of  law, 
and  was  admitted  to  practice  in  his  twenty-third  year.  He  married  Miss  Sophia 
Wright,  and  settled  in  Marietta,  Ohio,  in  1788.  He  took  his  seat  as  Gover- 
nor in  1810,  and  was  re-elected  in  1812.  In  1813,  President  Madison  appointed 
him  to  the  position  of  Postmaster  General,  which  occasioned  his  resignation  as 
Governor.  Othniel  Looker,  Speaker  of  the  Senate,  acted  as  Governor  during 
the  remainder  of  the  term.  Mr.  Meigs  died  in  1825,  leaving  as  a  memento  of 
his  usefulness,  a  revered  memory. 

Thomas  Worthington,  the  sixth  Governor,  was  born  in  Jefferson  County, 
Va.,  in  1769.  He  gained  an  education  in  William  and  Mary's  College. 
In  1788,  he  located  at  Chillicothe,  and  was  the  first  Senator  from  the  new 
State.  He  was  also  the  first  man  to  erect  the  first  saw-mill  in  Ohio.  He 
served  two  terms  as  Senator,  from  1803  to  1815,  resigning  in  1814,  to  take  his 
position  as  Governor.  In  1816,  he  was  re-elected.  He  was  exceedingly  active 
in  paving  the  way  for  the  future  prosperity  of  Ohio.  His  measures  were  famous 
for  practical  worth  and  honesty.  Chief  Justice  Chase  designated  him  as  "  a 
gentleman  of  distinguished  ability  and  great  influence."     He  died  in  1827. 

Ethan  Allen  Brown  followed  Mr.  Worthington.  His  birthplace  w^as  on  the 
shore  of  Long  Island  Sound,  in  Fairfield  County,  Conn.,  July  4,  1766.  His 
education  was  derived  under  the  most  judicious  instruction  of  a  private  tutor. 
In  classics,  he  became  proficient.  Directly  he  had  reached  the  required  stand- 
ard in  general  education,  he  began  the  study  of  law,  at  home.  After  becoming 
conversant  with  preliminary  requirements,  he  entered  the  law  office  of  Alex- 
ander Hamilton,  who  at  that  time  was  a  national  pride,  as  a  scholar,  lawyer  and 
statesman.  Opportunities  coming  in  his  way,  which  promised  a  fortune,  he 
abandoned  the  law,  and  achieved  success  and  a  fortune.  He  then  decided  to 
return  to  his  study,  and  was  admitted  to  practice  in  1802.  Thereafter,  he  was 
seized  with  an  exploring  enthusiasm,  and  with  his  cousin  as  a  companion,  set 
out  upon  a  horseback  tour,  following  the  Indian  trails  from  east  to  west,  through 
Pennsylvania,  until  they  reached  Brownsville,  on  the  Monongahela  River.  Here 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  145 

they  purchased  two  flatboats,  and  fully  stocking  them  with  provisions  and 
obtaining  efficient  crews,  started  for  New  Orleans.  Reaching  that  city,  they 
found  they  could  not  dispose  of  their  cargoes  to  any  advantage,  and  shipped  the 
flour  to  Liverpool,  England,  taking  passage  in  the  same  vessel.  They  succeeded 
in  obtaining  good  prices  for  their  stock,  and  set  sail  for  America,  arriving  in  Bal- 
timore nine  months  after  first  leaving  "  home,"  on  this  adventure.  Mr.  Brown's 
father  decided  to  secure  a  large  and  valuable  tract  of  Western  land,  as  a  per- 
manent home,  and  authorized  his  son  to  select  and  purchase  the  same  for  him. 
He  found  what  he  desired,  near  Rising  Sun,  Ind.  After  this,  he  settled  in 
Cincinnati,  and  engaged  in  the  practice  of  law,  speedily  achieving  prominency 
and  distinction.  Financially,  he  was  most  fortunate.  In  1810,  he  was  elected 
Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court,  which  position  he  filled  with  honor,  until  he  was 
chosen  Governor,  in  1818.  He  was  re-elected  in  1820.  In  1821,  he  received 
the  honor  of  Senator,  and  served  one  term.  Allen  Trimble,  Speaker  of  the 
Senate,  acted  as  Governor  the  remainder  of  the  term.  In  1830  he  was 
appointed  Minister  to  Brazil.  He  remained  there  four  years,  and  returning, 
was  appointed  Commissioner  of  Public  Lands,  by  President  Jackson,  holding 
this  position  two  years.  At  this  time,  he  decided  to  retire  from  public  life. 
Since  he  never  married,  he  was  much  with  his  relatives,  at  Rising  Sun,  Ind., 
during  the  latter  part  of  his  life.  His  death  was  sudden  and  unexpected,  occur- 
ring in  February,  1852,  while  attending  a  Democratic  Convention,  at  Indianap- 
olis, Ind.     He  was  interred  near  his  father,  at  Rising  Sun. 

Jeremiah  Morrow,  the  ninth  Governor  of  Ohio,  was  born  at  Gettysburg, 
Penn.,  in  October,  1771.  His  people  were  of  the  "  Scotch-Irish  "  class,  and  his 
early  life  was  one  of  manual  labor  upon  his  father's  farm.  During  the  winter, 
he  had  the  privilege  of  a  private  school.  With  a  view  of  establishing  himself 
and  securing  a  competency,  he  bade  the  old  home  farewell,  in  1795,  and  set  out 
for  the  "  Far  West."  A  flatboat  carried  him  to  a  little  cluster  of  cabins,  known 
by  the  name  of  Columbia,  six  miles  from  Fort  Washington — Cincinnati.  He 
devoted  himself  to  whatever  came  in  his  way,  that  seemed  best  and  most  worthy 
— teaching  school,  surveying  and  working  on  farms  between  times.  Having 
accumulated  a  small  capital,  he  ascended  the  Little  Miami,  as  far  as  Warren 
County,  and  there  purchased  an  extensive  farm,  and  erected  an  excellent  log 
house.  In  the  spring  of  1799,  he  married  Miss  Mary  Packtrell,  of  Columbia. 
The  young  couple  set  out  upon  pioneer  farming.  Gaining  popularity  as  well  as 
a  desirable  property,  he  was  deputized  to  the  Territorial  Legislature,  which  met 
at  Chillicothe,  at  which  time  measures  were  inaugurated  to  call  a  Constitutional 
Convention,  during  the  following  year,  to  organize  the  State  of  Ohio.  Mr. 
Morrow  was  one  of  the  Delegates  to  this  convention,  and  steadfastly  worked  in  the 
interests  of  those  who  sent  him,  until  its  close  in  1802.  The  following  year, 
he  was  elected  to  the  Senate  of  Ohio,  and  in  June  of  the  same  year,  he  was 
appointed  the  first  Representative  to  the  United  States  Congress  from  the  new 

14G  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

Ohio  was  then  entitled  to  but  one  Representative  in  Congress,  and  could  not 
add  to  that  number  for  ten  years  thereafter.  During  these  years,  Mr.  Morrow 
represented  the  State.  In  1813,  he  was  sent  to  the  United  States  Senate,  and 
in  1822,  was  elected  Governor  of  Ohio,  almost  unanimously,  being  re-elected  in 
1824.  It  was  during  his  administration  that  work  was  begun  on  the  Ohio 
Canal.  Mr.  Morrow  received  the  national  guest.  La  Fayette,  with  an  earnest 
and  touching  emotion,  which  aifected  the  emotions  of  the  generous  Frenchman 
more  profoundly  than  any  of  the  elaborate  receptions  which  paved  his  way 
through  America.  On  the  4th  of  July,  1839,  Gov.  Morrow  was  appointed  to 
lay  the  corner  stone  of  the  new  State  capitol,  at  Columbus,  and  to  deliver  the 
address  on  this  occasion.  Again,  in  1840,  he  was  in  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives, filling  the  vacancy  caused  by  the  resignation  of  Hon.  Thomas  Corwin. 
He  was  elected  for  the  following  term  also.  He  died  at  his  own  homestead,  in 
Warren  County,  March  22,  1853. 

Allen  Trimble  was  a  native  of  Augusta  County,  Va.  The  date  of  his  birth 
was  November  24,  1783.  His  ancestors  were  of  Scotch-Irish  origin,  and  were 
among  the  early  settlers  of  Virginia.  His  father  moved  to  Ohio  in  1804,  pur- 
chasing a  tract  of  land  in  Highland  County.  His  cabin  was  remarkably  spa- 
cious, and  elicited  the  admiration  of  his  neighbors.  He  cleared  six  acres  of 
land  for  an  orchard,  and  brought  the  trees  on  horseback,  from  Kentucky.  Be- 
fore this  new  home  was  completed,  Allen,  then  a  young  man  of  twenty,  took 
possession.  This  was  in  the  year  1805.  Four  years  thereafter,  he  occupied 
the  position  of  Clerk  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  and  Recorder  of  High- 
land County.  He  was  serving  in  the  latter  capacity  at  the  breaking  out  of  the 
war  of  1812.  Naturally  enthusiastic  and  patriotic,  he  engaged  a  competent 
person  to  perform  his  civil  duties,  while  he  went  into  active  service  as  Colonel 
of  a  regiment  he  had  summoned  and  enlisted.  He  was  always  eager  to  be  in 
the  front,  and  led  his  men  with  such  valor  that  they  Avere  termed  soldiers  who 
did  not  know  the  art  of  flinching.  His  commanding  General  lavished  praises 
upon  him.  In  1816,  he  was  in  the  State  Senate,  representing  Highland 
County.  He  occupied  the  same  position  for  four  terms,  two  years  each.  In 
1818,  he  was  Speaker  of  the  Senate,  over  Gen.  Robert  Lucas.  He  remained 
in  this  office  until  elected  to  the  United  States  Senate,  to  fill  the  vacancy  caused 
by  the  death  of  his  brother,  Col.  William  A.  Trimble.  When  Governor  Brown 
resigned  to  accept  the  office  of  United  States  Senator  in  1822,  he  succeeded  to 
the  office,  acting  as  Governor  the  remainder  of  the  term.  In  October,  1826, 
he  was  elected  Governor  of  Ohio,  by  an  astonishing  majority.  The  united  vote 
of  his  three  competitors  was  but  one-sixth  of  the  vote  polled.  Gov.  Trimble 
was  an  earnest  Henry  Clay  Whig.  In  1828  he  was  re-elected.  Gov.  Trimble 
was  married  in  1806  to  Miss  Margaret  McDowell.  Three  years  thereafter 
she  died,  leaving  two  children.  He  was  united  in  marriage  to  Miss  Rachel 
Woodrow,  and  they  lived  together  sixty  years,  when  he  died,  at  home,  in  Hills- 
boro,  Highland  County,  Feb.  3,  1870.  His  wife  survived  him  but  a  few  months. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  147 

Duncan  Mc Arthur,  the  tenth  Governor  of  Ohio,  was  born  in  Dutchess 
County,  N.  Y.,  in  1772.  While  yet  a  child,  his  parents  removed  to  the  west- 
ern part  of  Pennsylvania,  where  they  entered  upon  the  hard  life  of  pioneers. 
While  there,  young  Duncan  had  the  meager  advantages  of  a  backwoods  school. 
His  life  was  a  general  routine  until  his  eighteenth  year,  when  he  enlisted  under 
Gen.  Harmer  for  the  Indian  campaign.  His  conduct  and  bravery  won  worthy 
laurels,  and  upon  the  death  of  the  commander  of  his  company,  he  was  elected 
to  that  position,  although  the  youngest  man  in  the  company.  When  his  days 
of  service  had  expired,  he  found  employment  at  salt-making  in  Maysville,  Ky., 
until  he  was  engaged  as  chain-bearer  in  Gen.  Massie's  survey  of  the  Scioto 
Valley.  At  this  time,  Indian  atrocities  alarmed  the  settlers  occasionally,  and 
his  reputation  for  bravery  caused  him  to  be  appointed  one  of  the  three  patrols 
of  the  Kentucky  side  of  the  Ohio,  to  give  the  alarm  to  scattered  cabins  in  case 
of  danger.  This  was  during  the  summer  of  1793.  Gen.  Massie  again  secured 
his  services,  this  time  as  assistant  surveyor.  He  was  thus  engaged  for  several 
years,  during  which  time  he  assisted  in  platting  Chillicothe.  He  purchased  a 
large  tract  of  land  just  north  of  town,  and  under  his  vigorous  and  practical 
management,  it  became  one  of  the  finest  estates  of  Ohio,  which  reputation  it 
sustains  at  the  present  time.  He  amassed  wealth  rapidly,  his  investments 
always  being  judicious.  In  1805,  he  was  elected  to  the  State  Legislature. 
He  was  a  Colonel  of  an  Ohio  regiment,  and  accompanied  Gen.  Hull  to  Detroit 
in  1813.  At  Hull's  surrender  he  was  a  prisoner,  but  released  on  parole, 
returned  to  Ohio  in  a  state  of  indignation  over  his  commander's  stupidity. 
Soon  thereafter  he  was  sent  to  Congress  on  the  Democratic  ticket.  Soon  there- 
after he  was  released  from  parole  by  exchange,  and,  greatly  rejoiced,  h& 
resigned  his  seat,  entered  the  army  as  a  Brigadier  General  under  Gen.  Harri- 
son, and  the  following  year  succeeded  him  as  commander  of  the  Northwestern 
forces.  At  the  termination  of  the  war,  he  was  immediately  returned  to  the 
State  Legislature.  He  occupied  State  offices  until  1822,  when  he  was  again 
sent  to  Congress.  Serving  one  term,  he  declined  re-election.  In  1830,  he 
was  elected  Governor  of  Ohio.  When  his  term  expired,  he  decided  to  enjoy 
life  as  a  citizen  on  his  farm,  "  Fruit  Hill,"  and  lived  there  in  contentment  until 
1840,  when  he  died. 

Robert  Lucas  Avas  another  Virginian,  having  been  born  in  1781,  in  Jeffer- 
son County  of  that  State.  While  a  boy,  his  father  liberated  his  slaves,  moving 
to  Chillicothe  as  one  of  the  early  settlers.  He  procured  a  proficient  tutor  for 
his  children.  Robert  became  an  expert  in  mathematics  and  surveying.  Before 
he  reached  his  majority,  he  was  employed  as  surveyor,  earning  liberal  compen- 
sation. At  the  age  of  twenty-three,  he  was  appointed  Surveyor  of  Scioto 
County.  At  twenty-five,  he  was  Justice  of  the  Peace  for  Union  Township, 
Scioto  County.  He  married  Miss  Elizabeth  Brown  in  1810,  who  died  two 
years  thereafter,  leaving  a  young  daughter.  In  1816,  he  married  Miss  Sum- 
ner.    The  same  year  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Ohio  Legislature-     For 

148  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

nineteen  consecutive  years  he  served  in  the  House  or  Senate.  In  1820  and 
1828,  he  was  chosen  one  of  the  Presidential  electors  of  Ohio.  In  1832, 
he  was  Chairman  of  the  National  Convention  at  Baltimore,  which  nom- 
inated Gen.  Jackson  as  President  of  the  United  States.  In  1832,  he 
became  Governor  of  Ohio,  and  was  re-elected  in  1834.  He  declined  a  third 
nomination,  and  was  appointed  by  President  Van  Buren  Territorial  Governor 
of  Iowa  and  Superintendent  of  Indian  Affairs.  On  the '  16th  of  August, 
1838,  he  reached  Burlington,  the  seat  of  government.  He  remained  in  Iowa 
until  his  death,  in  1853. 

Joseph  Vance,  the  twelfth  Governor  of  Ohio,  was  born  in  Washington 
County,  Penn.,  March  21,  1781.  He  was  of  Scotch-Irish  descent,  and  his 
father  emigrated  to  the  new  Territory  when  Joseph  was  two  years  of  age.  He 
located  on  the  southern  bank  of  the  Ohio,  building  a  solid  block  house.  This 
formed  a  stronghold  for  his  neighbors  in  case  of  danger.  In  1801,  this  pioneer 
decided  to  remove  north  of  the  Ohio  River,  and  eventually  settled  in  Urbana. 
Joseph  had  the  primitive  advantages  of  the  common  schools,  and  became  pro- 
ficient in  handling  those  useful  implements — the  plow,  ax  and  rifle.  The  first 
money  he  earned  he  invested  in  a  yoke  of  oxen.  He  obtained  several  barrels 
of  salt,  and  set  out  on  a  speculative  tour  through  the  settlements.  He  traveled 
through  a  wilderness,  over  swamps,  and  surmounted  serious  difficulties.  At 
night  he  built  a  huge  fire  to  terrify  the  wolves  and  panthers,  and  laid  down  to 
sleep  beside  his  oxen,  frequently  being  obliged  to  stand  guard  to  protect 
them  from  these  ferocious  creatures.  Occasionally  he  found  a  stream  so  swol- 
len that  necessarily  he  waited  hours  and  even  days  in  the  tangled  forest,  before 
he  could  cross.  He  often  suffered  from  hunger,  yet  he  sturdily  persevered  and 
sold  his  salt,  though  a  lad  of  only  fifteen  years.  When  he  attained  his  major- 
ity, he  married  Miss  Mary  Lemen,  of  Urbana.  At  twenty-three,  he  was 
elected  Captain  of  a  rifle  company,  and  frequently  led  his  men  to  the  front  to 
fight  the  Indians  prior  to  the  war  of  1812.  During  that  year,  he  and  his 
brother  piloted  Hull's  army  through  the  dense  forests  to  Fort  Meigs.  In  1817, 
with  Samuel  McCullough  and  Henry  Van  Meter,  he  made  a  contract  to  supply 
the  Northwestern  army  with  provisions.  They  drove  their  cattle  and  hogs 
many  miles,  dead  weight  being  transported  on  sleds  and  in  wagons.  He 
engaged  in  mercantile  business  at  Urbana  and  Fort  Meigs — now  Perrysburg. 

While  thus  employed,  he  was  elected  to  the  Legislature,  and  there  remained 
four  years.  He  then  purchased  a  large  tract  of  land  on  Blanchard's  Fork, 
and  laid  out  the  town  of  Findlay.  He  was  sent  to  Congress  in  1821,  and  was 
a  member  of  that  body  for  fifteen  years.  In  1836,  he  was  chosen  Governor  of 
Ohio.  Again  he  was  sent  to  Congress  in  1842.  While  attending  the  Consti- 
tutional Convention  in  1850,  he  was  stricken  with  paralysis,  and  suffered 
extremely  until  1852,  when  he  died  at  his  home  in  Urbana. 

Wilson  Shannon  was  a  native  of  Belmont  County,  Ohio.  He  was  born 
during  1803.     At  the  age  of  fifteen,  he  was  sent  to  the  university  at  Athens, 

^     >% 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  151 

where  he  remained  a  year,  and  then  changed  to  the  Transylvania  University, 
at  Lexington,  Ky.  He  continued  his  studies  tjvo  years,  then  returning  home 
and  entering  upon  reading  law.  He  completed  his  course  at  St.  Clairsville, 
Belmont  County,  and  was  admitted  to  practice.  He  was  engaged  in  the  courts 
of  the  county  for  eight  years.  In  1832,  the  Democrats  nominated  him  to  Con- 
gress, but  he  was  not  elected.  He  received  the  position  of  Prosecuting  Attor- 
ney in  1834,  in  which  position  his  abilities  were  so  marked  that  in  1838  he  was 
elected  Governor  by  a  majority  of  3,600.  He  was  re-nominated  in  1840,  but 
Tom  Corwin  won  the  ticket.  Two  years  thereafter  he  was  again  nominated  and 
elected.  In  1843  he  was  appointed  Minister  to  Mexico,  Thomas  W.  Bartley, 
Speaker  of  the  Senate,  acting  as  Governor  the  remainder  of  the  term.  When 
Texas  was  admitted  as  a  State,  Mexico  renounced  all  diplomatic  relations  with  the 
United  States.  Mr.  Shannon  returned  horn  and  resumed  the  practice  of  law.  He 
was  sent  to  Congress  in  1852.  President  Pierce  conferred  upon  him  the  posi- 
tion of  Territorial  Governor  of  Kansas,  which  duty  he  did  not  perform  satis- 
factorily, and  was  superseded  after  fourteen  months  of  service.  He  settled  in 
Lecompton,  Kan.,  and  there  practiced  law  until  his  death,  which  occurred  in 

Thomas  Corwin,  the  fourteenth  Governor  of  Ohio,  was  born  in  Bourbon 
County,  Ky.,  July  29,  1794.  His  father  settled  at  Lebanon  in  1798.  ■  The 
country  was  crude,  and  advantages  meager.  When  Thomas  was  seventeen 
years  of  age,  the  war  of  1812  was  inaugurated,  and  this  young  man  was 
engaged  to  drive  a  wagon  through  the  wilderness,  loaded  with  provisions,  to 
Gen.  Harrison's  headquarters.  In  1816,  he  began  the  study  of  law,  and 
achieved  knowledge  so  rapidly  that  in  1817  he  passed  examination  and  was 
admitted  to  practice.  He  was  elected  Prosecuting  Attorney  of  his  county,  in 
1818,  which  position  he  held  until  1830.  He  was  elected  to  the  Legislature  of 
Ohio  in  1822.  Again,  in  1829,  he  was  a  member  of  the  same  body.  He  was 
sent  to  Congress  in  1830,  and  continued  to  be  re-elected  for  the  space  of  ten 
years.  He  became  Governor  of  Ohio  in  1840.  In  1845,  he  was  elected  to 
the  United  States  Senate,  where  he  remained  until  called  to  the  cabinet  of  Mr. 
Fillmore,  as  Secretary  of  the  Treasury.  He  was  again  sent  to  Congress  in 
1858,  and  re-elected  in  1860.  He  was  appointed  Minister  to  Mexico,  by  Pres- 
ident Lincoln.  After  his  return,  he  practiced  law  in  Washington,  D.  0  , 
where  he  died  in  1866. 

Mordecai  Bartley  was  born  in  1783,  in  Fayette  County,  Penn.  There  he 
remained,  on  his  father's  farm,  until  he  was  twenty-one  years  of  age.  He  mar- 
ried Miss  Wells  in  1804,  and  removed  to  Jefferson  County,  Ohio,  where  he 
purchased  a  farm,  near  Cross  Creek.  At  the  opening  of  the  war  of  1812,  he 
enlisted  in  a  company,  and  was  elected  its  Captain.  He  entered  the  field  under 
Harrison.  At  the  close  of  the  war,  he  removed  to  Richland  County,  and  opened 
a  clearing  and  set  up  a  cabin,  a  short  distance  from  Mansfield.  He  remained 
on  his  farm  twenty  years,  then  removing  to  Mansfield,  entered  the  mercantile 


152  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

business.  In  1817,  he  was  elected  to  the  State  Senate.  He  was  sent  to  Con- 
gress in  1823,  and  served  four  terms.  In  1844,  he  became  Governor  of  Ohio, 
on  the  Whig  ticket.  He  declined  a  re-nomination,  preferring  to  retire  to  his 
home  in  Mansfield,  where  he  died  in  1870. 

William  Bebb,  the  seventeenth  Governor,  was  from  Hamilton  County,  Ohio. 
He  was  born  in  1804.  His  early  instructions  were  limited,  but  thorough.  He 
opened  a  school  himself,  when  he  was  twenty  years  of  age,  at  North  Bend, 
residing  in  the  house  of  Gen.  Harrison.  He  remained  thus  employed  a  year, 
during  which  time  he  married  Shuck.  He  very  soon  began  the  study  of  law, 
continuing  his  school.  He  was  successful  in  his  undertakings,  and  many  pupils 
were  sent  him  from  the  best  families  in  Cincinnati.  In  1831,  he  was  admitted 
to  practice,  and  opened  an  office  in  Hamilton,  Butler  County,  remaining  thus- 
engaged  for  fourteen  years.  In  1845,  he  was  elected  Governor  of  Ohio.  In 
1847,  he  purchased  5,000  acres  of  land  in  the  Rock  River  country,  111.,  and 
removed  there  three  years  later.  On  the  inauguration  of  President  Lincoln,  he 
was  appointed  Pension  Examiner,  at  Washington,  and  remained  in  that  position 
until  1866,  when  he  returned  to  his  Illinois  farm.  He  died  at  Rockford,  111., 
in  1873. 

Seabury  Ford,  the  eighteenth  Governor  of  Ohio,  was  born  in  the  year  1802, 
at  Cheshire,  Conn.  His  parents  settled  in  Burton  Township.  He  attended 
the  common  schools,  prepared  for  college  at  an  academy  in  Burton,  and  entered 
Yale  College,  in  1821,  graduating  in  1825.  He  then  began  the  study  of  law, 
in  the  law  office  of  Samuel  W.  Phelps,  of  Painesville,  completing  his  course 
with  Judge  Hitchcock.  He  began  practice  in  1827,  in  Burton.  He  married 
Miss  Harriet  E.  Cook,  of  Burton,  in  1828.  He  was  elected  by  the  Whigs  to 
the  Legislature,  in  1835,  and  served  six  sessions,  during  one  of  which  he  was 
Speaker  of  the  House.  He  entered  the  State  Senate  in  1841,  and  there 
remained  until  1844,  when  he  was  again  elected  Representative.  In  1846,  he 
was  appointed  to  the  Senate,  and  in  1848,  he  became  Governor  of  Ohio.  On 
the  first  Sunday  after  his  retirement,  he  was  stricken  with  paralysis,  from  which 
he  never  recovered.     He  died  at  his  home  in  Burton  in  1855. 

Reuben  Wood,  the  nineteenth  Governor,  was  a  Vermonter.  Born  in  1792, 
in  Middleton,  Rutland  County,  he  was  a  sturdy  son  of  the  Green  Mountain 
State.  He  was  a  thorough  scholar,  and  obtained  a  classical  education  in  Upper 
Canada.  In  1812,  he  was  drafted  by  the  Canadian  authorities  to  serve  against 
the  Americans,  but  being  determined  not  to  oppose  his  own  land,  he  escaped 
one  stormy  night,  accompanied  by  Bill  Johnson,  who  was  afterward  an  Ameri- 
can spy.  In  a  birchbark  canoe  they  attempted  to  cross  Lake  Ontario.  A 
heavy  storm  of  wind  and  rain  set  in.  The  night  was  intensely  dark,  and  they 
were  in  great  danger.  They  fortunately  found  refuge  on  a  small  island,  where 
they  were  storm-bound  three  days,  suffering  from  hunger  and  exposure.  They 
reached  Sacket's  Harbor  at  last,  in  a  deplorable  condition.  Here  they  were 
arrested  as  spies  by  the  patrol  boats  of  the  American  fleet.     They  were  prisoners 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  153 

four  days,  when  an  uncle  of  Mr.  Wood's,  residing  not  far  distant,  came  to 
their  rescue,  vouched  for  their  loyalty,  and  they  were  released.  Mr.  Wood 
then  went  to  Woodville,  N.  Y.,  where  he  raised  a  company,  of  which  he  was 
elected  Captain.  They  marched  to  the  northern  frontier.  The  battles  of 
Plattsburg  and  Lake  Champlain  were  fought,  the  enemy  defeated,  and  the  com- 
pany returned  to  Woodville  and  was  disbanded. 

Young  Wood  then  entered  the  law  office  of  Gen.  Jonas  Clark,  at  Middle- 
bury,  Vt.  He  was  married  in  1816,  and  two  years  later,  settled  in  Cleveland, 
Ohio.  When  he  first  established  himself  in  the  village,  he  possessed  his  wife, 
infant  daughter  and  a  silver  quarter  of  a  dollar.  He  was  elected  to  the  State 
Senate  in  1825,  and  filled  the  office  three  consecutive  terms.  He  was  appointed 
Judge  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas.  He  was  promoted  to  the  Bench  of  the 
Supreme  Court,  serving  there  fourteen  years,  the  latter  portion  of  the  term  as 
Chief  Justice.  He  was  termed  the  "Cayuga  Chief,"  from  his  tall  form  and 
courtly  bearing.  He  was  elected  Governor  in  1850,  by  a  majority  of  11,000. 
The  new  constitution,  which  went  into  effect  in  March,  1851,  vacated  the  office 
of  Governor,  and  he  was  re-elected  by  a  majority  of  26,000.  The  Democrats 
holding  a  national  convention  in  Baltimore  in  1852,  party  division  caused  fifty 
unavailing  votes.  The  Virginia  delegation  offered  the  entire  vote  to  Gov. 
Wood,  if  Ohio  would  bring  him  forward.  The  opposition  of  one  man  pre- 
ve'nted  this.  The  offer  was  accepted  by  New  Hampshire,  and  Frank  Pierce 
became  President.  Mr.  Wood  was  appointed  Consul  to  Valparaiso,  South 
America,  and  resigned  his  office  of  Governor.  He  resigned  his  consulship  and 
returned  to  his  fine  farm  near  Cleveland,  called  "Evergreen  Place."  He 
expected  to  address  a  Union  meeting  on  the  5th  of  October,  1864,  but  on  the 
1st  he  died,  mourned  by  all  who  knew  him. 

William  Medill,  the  twentieth  Governor,  was  born  in  New  Castle  County, 
Del.,  in  1801.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Delaware  College  in  1825.  He  began 
the  study  of  law  under  Judge  Black,  of  New  Castle,  and  was  admitted  to  the 
bar  in  1832.  He  removed  to  Lancaster,  Ohio,  in  1830.  He  was  elected  Rep- 
resentative from  Fairfield  County  in  1835.  He  was  elected  to  Congress  in 
1838,  and  was  re-elected  in  1840.  He  was  appointed  Assistant  Postmaster 
General  by  President  Polk.  During  the  same  year,  he  was  appointed  Com- 
missioner of  Indian  Affairs.  In  1851,  he  was  elected  Lieutenant  Governor,  and, 
in  1853,  he  became  Governor.  He  occupied  the  position  of  First  Comptroller 
of  the  United  States  Treasury  in  1857,  under  President  Buchanan,  retaining  the 
office  until  1861,  when  he  retired  from  public  life.  His  death  occurred  in 

Salmon  P.  Chase  was  a  native  of  Cornish,  N.  H.  He  was  born  in  1803. 
He  entered  Dartmouth  College  in  1822,  graduating  in  1826.  He  was  there- 
after successful  in  establishing  a  classical  school  in  Washington,  but  finan- 
cially it  did  not  succeed.  He  continued  to  teach  the  sons  of  Henry  Clay, 
William  Wirt  and  S.  L.  Southard,  at  the  same  time  reading  law  when  not  busy 

154  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

as  tutor.  He  was  admitted  to  practice  in  1829,  and  opened  a  law  office  in  Cin- 
cinnati. He  succeeded  but  moderately,  and  during  his  leisure  hours  prepared 
a  new  edition  of  the  "Statutes  of  Ohio."  He  added  annotations  and  a  well- 
written  sketch  of  the  early  history  of  the  State.  This  was  a  thorough  success, 
and  gave  the  earnest  worker  popularity  and  a  stepping-stone  for  the  future. 
He  was  solicitor  for  the  banks  of  the  United  States  in  1834,  and  soon  there- 
after, for  the  city  banks.  He  achieved  considerable  distinction  in  1837,  in  the 
case  of  a  colored  woman  brought  into  the  State  by  her  master,  and  escaping 
his  possession.  He  was  thus  brought  out  as  an  Abolitionist,  which  was  further 
sustained  by  his  defense  of  James  G.  Birney,  who  had  suffered  indictment  for 
harboring  a  fugitive  slave.  In  1846,  associated  with  William  H.  Seward,  he 
defended  Van  Zandt  before  the  Supreme  Oburt  of  the  United  States.  His 
thrilling  denunciations  and  startling  conjectures  alarmed  the  slaveholding 
States,  and  subsequently  led  to  the  enactment  of  the  fugitive-slave  law  of  1850. 
Mr.  Chase  was  a  member  of  the  United  States  Senate  in  1849,  through  the 
coalition  of  the  Democrats  and  Free-Soilers.  In  1855,  he  was  elected  Gover- 
nor of  Ohio  by  the  opponents  of  Pierce's  administration.  He  was  re-elected 
in  1859.  President  Lincoln,  in  1861,  tendered  him  the  position  of  Secretary 
of  the  Treasury.  To  his  ability  and  official  management  we  are  indebted  for 
the  present  national  bank  system.  In  1864,  he  was  appointed  Chief  Justice  of 
the  United  States.  He  died  in  the  city  of  New  York  in  1873,  after  a  useful 

William  Dennison  was  born  in  Cincinnati  in  1815.  He  gained  an  educa- 
tion at  Miami  University,  graduating  in  1835.  He  began  the  study  of  law  in 
the  office  of  the  father  of  George  H.  Pendleton,  and  was  qualified  and  admitted 
to  the  bar  in  1840.  The  same  year,  he  married  a  daughter  of  William  Neil, 
of  Columbus.  The  Whigs  of  the  Franklin  and  Delaware  District  sent  him  to 
the  State  Senate,  in  1848.  He  was  President  of  the  Exchange  Bank  in  Cin- 
cinnati, in  1852,  and  was  also  President  of  Columbus  &  Xenia  Railway.  He  was 
elected  the  twenty-second  Governor  of  Ohio  in  1859.  By  his  promptness  and 
activity  at  the  beginning  of  the  rebellion,  Ohio  was  placed  in  the  front  rank  of 
loyalty.  At  the  beginning  of  Lincoln's  second  term,  he  was  appointed  Post- 
master General,  retiring  upon  the  accession  of  Johnson.  He  then  made  his 
home  at  Columbus. 

David  Tod,  twenty-third  Governor  of  Ohio,  was  born  at  Youngstown,  Ohio, 
in  1805.  His  education  was  principally  obtained  through  his  own  exertions. 
He  set  about  the  study  of  law  most  vigorously,  and  was  admitted  to  practice  in 
1827.  He  soon  acquired  popularity  through  his  ability,  and  consequently  was 
financially  successful.  He  purchased  the  Briar  Hill  homestead.  Under  Jack- 
son's administration,  he  was  Postmaster  at  Warren,  and  held  the  position  until 
1838,  when  he  was  elected  State  Senator  by  the  Whigs  of  Trumbull  District,  by 
the  Democrats.  In  1844,  he  retired  to  Briar  Hill,  and  opened  the  Briar  Hill 
Coal  Mines.     He  was  a  pioneer  in  the  coal  business  of  Ohio.     In  the  Cleveland 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  155 

&  Mahoning  Railroad,  he  was  largely  interested,  and  was  its  President,  after  the 
death  of  Mr.  Perkins.  He  was  nominated,  in  1844,  for  Governor,  by  the  Dem- 
ocrats, but  was  defeated.  In  1847,  he  went  to  Brazil  as  Minister,  where  he 
resided  for  four  and  a  half  years.  The  Emperor  presented  him  with  a  special 
commendation  to  the  President,  as  a  testimonial  of  his  esteem.  He  was  also  the 
recipient  of  an  elegant  silver  tray,  as  a  memorial  from  the .  resident  citizens  of 
Rio  Janeiro.  He  was  a  delegate  to  the  Democratic  National  Convention,  which 
met  at  Charleston  in  1860.  He  was  Vice  President  of  this  Convention.  He 
was  an  earnest  advocate  for  Stephen  A.  Douglas.  When  the  Southern  members 
withdrew,  the  President,  Caleb  Cashing,  going  with  them,  the  convention 
adjourned  to  Baltimore,  when  Mr.  Tod  assumed  the  chair  and  Douglas  was  nom- 
inated. He  was  an  earnest  worker  in  the  cause,  but  not  disheartened  by  its 
defeat.  When  Fort  Sumter  was  fired  upon,  he  was  one  of  the  most  vigorous 
prosecutors  of  the  war,  not  relaxing  his  active  earnestness  until  its  close.  He 
donated  full  uniforms  to  Company  B,  of  the  Nineteenth  Regiment,  and  contrib- 
uted largely  to  the  war  fund  of  his  township.  Fifty-five  thousand  majority 
elected  him  Governor  in  1861.  His  term  was  burdened  with  war  duties, 
and  he  carried  them  so  bravely  as  Governor  that  the  President  said  of  him : 
"  Governor  Tod  of  Ohio  aids  me  more  and  troubles  me  less  than  any  other  Gov- 
ernor."    His  death  occurred  at  Briar  Hill  during  the  year  1868. 

John  Brough  was  a  native  of  Marietta,  Ohio.  He  was  born  in  1811.  The  death 
of  his  father  left  him  in  precarious  circumstances,  which  may  have  been  a  discipline 
for  future  usefulness.  He  entered  a  printing  office,  at  the  age  of  fourteen,  in 
Marietta,  and  after  serving  a  few  months,  began  his  studies  in  the  Ohio  Uni- 
versity, setting  type  mornings  and  evenings,  to  earn  sufficient  for  support.  He 
occupied  the  leading  position  in  classes,  and  at  the  same  time  excelled  as  a 
type-setter.  He  was  also  admired  for  his  athletic  feats  in  field  amusements. 
He  completed  his  studies  and  began  reading  law,  which  pursuit  was  interrupted 
by  an  opportunity  to  edit  a  paper  in  Petersburg,  Va.  He  returned  to  Marietta 
in  1831,  and  became  editor  and  proprietor  of  a  leading  Democratic  newspaper 
— the  Washington  County  Republican.  He  achieved  distinction  rapidly, 
and  in  1833,  sold  his  interest,  for  the  purpose  of  entering  a  more  extended  field 
of  journalism.  He  purchased  the  Ohio  Eagle,  at  Lancaster,  and  as  its  editor, 
held  a  deep  influence  over  local  and  State  politics.  He  occupied  the  position 
of  Clerk  of  the  Ohio  Senate,  between  the  years  1835  and  1838,  and  relinquished  his 
paper.  He  then  represented  the  counties  of  Fairfield  and  Hocking  in  the  Leg- 
islature. He  was  then  appointed  Auditor  of  State  by  the  General  Assembly, 
in  which  position  he  served  six  years.  He  then  purchased  the  Phcenix  news- 
paper in  Cincinnati,  changed  its  name  to  the  Enquirer,  placing  it  in  the  care 
of  his  brother,  Charles,  while  he  opened  a  law  office  in  the  city.  His  editorials 
in  the  Enquirer,  and  his  activity  in  political  afiairs,  were  brilliant  and  strong. 
He  retired  from  politics  in  1848,  sold  a  half-interest  in  the  Enquirer  and  carried 
on  a  prosperous  business,  but  was  brought  forward  again  by  leaders  of  both 

156  HISTORY  OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

political  parties  in  1863,  through  the  Vallandigham  contest,  and  was  elected 
Governor  the  same  year,  by  a  majority  of  101,099  votes  in  a  total  of  471,643. 
He  was  three  times  married.  His  death  occurred  in  1865 — Charles  Anderson 
serving  out  his  term. 

Jacob  Dolson  Cox,  the  twenty-sixth  Governor,  was  born  in  1828,  in  Mon- 
treal, Canada,  where  his  parents  were  temporarily.  He  became  a  student  of 
Oberlin  College,  Ohio,  in  1846,  graduating  in  1851,  and  beginning  the  practice 
of  law  in  Warren  in  1852.  He  was  a  member  of  the  State  Senate  in  1859, 
from  the  Trumbull  and  Mahoning  Districts.  He  was  termed  a  radical.  He 
was  a  commissioned  Brigadier  General  of  Ohio  in  1861,  and,  in  1862,  was  pro- 
moted to  Major  General  for  gallantry  in  battle.  While  in  the  service  he  was 
nominated  for  Governor,  and  took  that  position  in  1865.  He  was  a  member  of 
Grant's  Cabinet  as  Secretary  of  the  Interior,  but  resigned.  He  went  to  Con- 
gress in  1875,  from  the  Toledo  District. 

Rutherford  B.  Hayes,  the  nineteenth  President  of  the  United  States,  and 
the  twenty-seventh  Governor  of  Ohio,  was  born  at  Delaware,  Ohio,  in  1822.  He 
was  a  graduate  of  Kenyon  College  in  1842.  He  began  the  study  of  law,  and, 
in  1843,  pursued  that  course  in  the  Cambridge  University,  graduating  in  1845. 
He  began  his  practice  at  Fremont.  He  was  married  to  Miss  Lucy  Webb  in 
1852,  in  Cincinnati.  He  was  Major  of  the  Twenty-third  Ohio  Volunteer 
Infantry  in  1861,  and  in  1862,  was  promoted  to  Colonel  on  account  of  bravery 
in  the  field,  and  eventually  became  Major  General.  In  1864,  he  was  elected  to 
Congress,  and  retired  from  the  service.  He  remained  in  Congress  tAvo  terms, 
and  was  Governor  of  Ohio  in  1867,  being  re-elected  in  1869.  He  was  again 
elected  in  1875,  but  resigned  in  1877,  to  accept  the  office  of  President  of  the 
United  States,  Thomas  L.  Young  acting  as  Governor  the  remander  of  the  term. 

Edward  F.  Noyes  was  born  in  Haverhill,  Mass.,  in  1832.  While  a  lad  of 
fourteen,  he  entered  the  office  of  the  Morning  Star,  published  at  Dover,  N.  H., 
in  order  to  learn  the  business  of  printing.  At  the  age  of  eighteen,  he  entered 
the  academy  at  Kingston,  N.  H.  He  prepared  for  college,  and  entered 
Dartmouth  in  1853,  graduating  with  high  honors  in  1857.  He  had  begun  the 
study  of  law,  and  continued  the  course  in  the  Cincinnati  Law  School,  and  began 
to  practice  in  1858.  He  was  an  enthusiast  at  the  opening  of  the  rebellion  and 
was  interested  in  raising  the  Twentieth  Regiment,  of  which  he  was  made  Major. 
He  was  promoted  to  Colonel  in  1862.  At  the  conflict  at  Ruff"'s  Mills,  in 
Georgia,  in  1864,  he  was  so  unfortunate  as  to  lose  a  leg.  At  the  time,  amputa- 
tion was  necessary,  but  was  unskillfully  performed.  He  was  brought  to  Cincin- 
nati, and  the  operation  was  repeated,  which  nearly  cost  him  his  life.  He  reported 
three  months  later,  to  Gen.  Hooker  for  duty,  on  crutches.  He  was  assigned  to 
command  of  Camp  Dennison.  He  was  promoted  to  the  full  rank  of  Brigadier 
General,  and  while  in  discharge  of  his  duty  at  that  place,  he  was  elected  City 
Solicitor  of  Cincinnati.  He  occupied  the  position  until  1871,  when  he  was 
elected  Governor,  by  a  majority  of  20,000. 


William  Allen,  the  twenty-ninth  Governor  of  Ohio,  was  born  in  1807,  in 
Chowan  County,  N.  C.  While  an  infant,  he  was  left  an  orphan,  and  his  sister 
superintended  his  education.  He  was  placed  in  a  private  school  at  Lynchburg, 
Va.,  at  the  age  of  fourteen.  Two  years  later  he  joined  his  family  at  Chilli- 
cothe,  and  attended  the  academy  a  year,  when  he  entered  the  law  office  of 
Edward  King.  Before  he  was  twenty-five  he  was  sent  to  Congress  by  a  strong 
Whig  district.  He  was  elected  United  States  Senator  in  1837  and  served 
until  1849.  In  1845  he  married  Effie  McArthur,  who  died  soon  after  the 
birth  of  their  daughter.  In  1873  he  was  elected  Governor.  His  administra- 
tion gave  general  satisfaction.     He  died  at  his  home  at  "  Fruit  Hill,"  in  1879. 

Richard  M.  Bishop,  the  thirty-first  Governor  of  Ohio,  was  born  November 
4,  1812,  in  Fleming  County,  Ky.  For  several  years  he  devoted  himself  to 
mercantile  business  in  his  native  State.  In  1848  he  engaged  in  the  wholesale 
grocery  business  at  Cincinnati,  and  subsequently  admitted  his  three  sons  part- 
ners, under  the  firm  name  of  R.  M.  Bishop  &  Sons.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
Council  of  Cincinnati,  and  in  1859  was  its  Mayor,  holding  that  office  until  1861. 
In  1877  he  was  nominated  by  the  Democrats  and  elected  Governor  of  Ohio. 

Charles  Foster,  the  thirty-second  Governor  of  Ohio,  was  born  in  Seneca 
County,  Ohio,  April  12,  1828.  He  was  educated  at  the  common  schools  and 
the  academy  at  Norwalk,  Ohio.  Engaged  in  mercantile  and  banking  business 
at  Fostoria,  and  never  held  any  public  office  until  he  was  elected  to  the  Forty- 
second  Congress ;  was  re-elected  to  the  Forty-third  Congress,  and  again  to  the 
Forty-fourth  Congress  as  a  Republican.  In  1879  he  was  nominated  by  the 
Republicans  and  elected  Governor  of  the  State,  was  re-elected  in  1881,  and 
served  through  both  terms  winning  the  esteem  of  all  political  parties. 

George  Hoadly,  the  thirty-third  Governor  of  Ohio,  was  born  at  New 
Haven,  Conn.,  July  31,  1826.  His  parents,  George  and  Mary  Ann  (Woolsey) 
Hoadly,  names  well  known  in  the  educational  circles  of  Connecticut,  were  inti- 
mately connected  with  the  commercial  and  social  progress  of  that  State.  Gov. 
Hoadly  completed  his  education  at  what  is  now  known  as  Adelbert  College,  of 
which  he  is  a  LL.  D.,  while  in  1884  he  received  the  same  honor  from  Yale.  In 
1844  he  entered  the  law  school  of  Cambridge,  Mass.;  in  1846  entered  the 
office  of  Chase  &  Ball,  Cincinnati,  Ohio ;  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  August 
following ;  elected  Judge  of  the  Cincinnati  Superior  Court  in  1851,  succeeded 
Judge  Gholson  on  the  bench  of  the  present  Superior  Court  in  1859,  and  was 
re-elected  in  1864 ;  refused  a  seat  on  the  Supreme  bench  in  1856  and  again  in 
1862 ;  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Constitutional  Convention  1873-74.  He 
was  nominated  by  the  Democrats  for  Governor  in  1883  and  elected. 


Ohio  has  furnished  a  prolific  field  for  antiquarians  and  those  interested  in 
scientific  explorations,  either  for  their  own  amusement  and  knowledge,  or  for 
the  records  of  "facts  and  formations." 

158  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

It  is  well  known  that  the  "  Mound  Builders  "  had  a  wide  sweep  through  this 
continent,  but  absolute  facts  regarding  their  era  have  been  most  difficult  to 
obtain.  Numerous  theories  and  suppositions  have  been  advanced,  yet  they  are 
emphatic  evidences  that  they  have  traced  the  origin  and  time  of  this  primeval  race. 

However,  they  have  left  their  works  behind  them,  and  no  exercise  of  faith 
is  necessary  to  have  confidence  in  that  part  of  the  story.  That  these  works  are 
of  human  origin  is  self-evident.  Temples  and  military  works  have  been  found 
which  required  a  considerable  degree  of  scientific  skill  on  the  part  of  those  early 
architects  and  builders. 

Evidently  the  Indians  had  no  knowledge  of  these  works  of  predecessors, 
which  differed  in  all  respects  from  those  of  the  red  men.  An  ancient  cemetery 
has  been  found,  covering  an  area  of  four  acres,  which  had  evidently  been  laid 
out  into  lots,  from  north  to  south.  Nearly  3,000  graves  have  been  discovered, 
containing  bones  which  at  some  time  must  have  constituted  the  framework  of 
veritable  giants,  while  others  are  of  no  unusual  size.  In  1815,  a  jaw-bone  was 
exhumed,  containing  an  artificial  tooth  of  silver. 

Mounds  and  fortifications  are  plentiful  in  Athens  County,  some  of  them 
being  of  solid  stone.  One,  differing  in  the  quality  of  stone  from  the  others,  is 
supposed  to  be  a  dam  across  the  Hocking.  Over  a  thousand  pieces  of  stone 
were  used  in-  its  construction.  Copper  rings,  bracelets  and  ornaments  are 
numerous.  It  is  also  evident  that  these  people  possessed  the  knowledge  of 
hardening  copper  and  giving  it  an  edge  equal  to  our  steel  of  to-day. 

In  the  branch  formed  by  a  branch  of  the  Licking  River  and  Raccoon  Creek, 
in  Licking  County,  ancient  works  extend  over  an  area  of  several  miles.  Again, 
three  miles  northwest  of  this  locality,  near  the  road  between  Newark  and  Gran- 
ville, another  field  of  these  relics  may  be  found.  On  the  summit  of  a  high  hill 
is  a  fortification,  formed  to  represent  an  alligator.  The  head  and  neck  includes 
32  feet ;  the  length  of  the  body  is  73  feet ;  the  tail  was  105  feet ;  from  the  termini  of 
the  fore  feet,  over  the  shoulders,  the  width  is  100  feet ;  from  the  termini  of 
the  hind  feet,  over  the  hips,  is  92  feet ;  its  highest  point  is  7  feet.  It  is  composed 
of  clay,  which  must  have  been  conveyed  hither,  as  it  is  not  similar  to  the  clay 
found  in  the  vicinity. 

Near  Miamisburg,  Montgomery  County,  are  other  specimens.  Near  the 
village  is  a  mound,  equaled  in  size  by  very  few  of  these  antiquities.  It  meas- 
ures 800  feet  around  the  base,  and  rises  to  a  height  of  sixty-seven  feet.  Others 
are  found  in  Miami  County,  while  at  Circleville,  Pickaway  County,  no  traces 

Two  forts  have  been  discovered,  one  forming  an  exact  square,  and  the  other 
describing  a  circle.  The  square  is  flanked  by  two  walls,  on  all  sides,  these 
being  divided  by  a  deep  ditch.  The  circle  has  one  wall  and  no  ditch.  This  is 
sixty-nine  rods  in  diameter,  its  walls  being  twenty  feet  high.  The  square  fort 
measures  fifty-five  rods  across,  with  walls  twelve  feet  high.  Twelve  gateways 
lead  into  the  square  fort,  while  the  circle  has  but  one,  which  led  to  the  other,  at 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  159 

the  point  where  the  walls  of  the  two  came  together.  Before  each  of  these 
entrances  were  mounds  of  earth,  from  four  to  five  feet  high  and  nearly  forty 
feet  in  diameter.  Evidently  these  were  designed  for  defenses  for  the  openings, 
in  cases  of  emergency. 

A  short  distance  from  Piketon,  the  turnpike  runs,  for  several  hundred  feet, 
between  two  parallel  artificial  walls  of  earth,  fifteen  feet  high,  and  six  rods 
apart.  In  Scioto  County,  on  both  sides  of  the  Ohio,  are  extensive  ancient 

"  Fort  Ancient  "  is  near  Lebanon  in  Warren  County.  Its  direct  measure- 
ment is  a  mile,  but  in  tracing  its  angles,  retreating  and  salient,  its  length  would 
be  nearly  six  miles.  Its  site  is  a  level  plain,  240  feet  above  the  level  of  the 
river.  The  interior  wall  varies  in  height  to  conform  with  the  nature  of  the 
ground  without — ranging  from  8  to  10  feet.  On  the  plain  it  reaches  100  feet. 
This  fort  has  58  gateways,  through  one  of  which  the  State  road  runs,  passing 
between  two  mounds  12  feet  high.  Northeast  from  these  mounds,  situated  on 
the  plain,  are  two  roads,  about  a  rod  wide  each,  made  upon  an  elevation  about 
three  feet  high.  They  run  parallel  to  each  other  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile, 
when  they  each  form  a  semicircle  around  a  mound,  joining  in  the  circle.  It  is 
probable  this  was  at  some  time  a  military  defense,  or,  on  the  contrary,  it  may 
have  been  a  general  rendezvous  for  games  and  high  holiday  festivities. 

Near  Marietta,  are  the  celebrated  Muskingum  River  works,  being  a  half- 
mile  from  its  juncture  with  the  Ohio.  They  consist  of  mounds  and  walls  of 
earth  in  circular  and  square  forms,  also  tracing  direct  lines. 

The  largest  square  fort  covers  an  area  of  40  acres,  and  is  inclosed  by  a  wall 
of  earth,  6  to  10  feet  in  height,  and  from  25  to  30  feet  at  its  base.  On  each 
side  are  three  gateways.  The  center  gateways  exceed  the  others  in  size,  more 
especially  on  the  side  toward  the  Muskingum.  From  this  outlet  runs  a  covered 
means  of  egress,  between  two  parallel  walls  of  earth,  231  feet  distant  from  each 
other,  measuring  from  the  centers.  The  walls  in  the  interior  are  21  feet  high 
at  the  most  elevated  points,  measuring  42  feet  at  the  base,  grading  on  the  exte- 
rior to  about  five  feet  in  heigth.  This  passage-way  is  360  feet  in  length,  lead- 
ing to  the  low  grounds,  which,  at  the  period  of  its  construction,  probably  reached 
the  river. 

At  the  northwest  corner,  within  the  in  closure,  is  a  plateau  188  feet  long, 
132  feet  broad  and  9  feet  high.  Its  sides  are  perpendicular  and  its  surface 
level.  At  the  center  of  each  side  is  a  graded  pathway  leading  to  the  top,  six 
feet  wide.  Another  elevated  square  is  near  the  south  wall,  150x120  feet  square, 
and  8  feet  high,  similar  to  the  other,  with  the  exception  of  the  graded  walk. 
Outside  and  next  the  wall  to  ascend  to  the  top,  it  has  central  hollow  ways,  10 
feet  wide,  leading  20  feet  toward  the  center,  then  arising  with  a  gradual  slope  to 
the  top.  A  third  elevated  square  is  situated  at  the  southeast  corner,  108x54 
feet  square,  with  ascents  at  the  ends.  This  is  neither  as  high  or  as  perfect  as 
the  others. 

160  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  \ 

Another  ancient  work  is  found  to  the  southeast,  covering  an  area  of  20  acres 
with  a  gateway  in  the  center  of  each  side,  and  others  at  the  corners — each  of 
these  having  the  mound  defense. 

On  the  outside  of  the  smaller  fort,  a  mound  resembling  a  sugar  loaf  was 
formed  in  the  shape  of  a  circle  115  feet  in  diameter,  its  height  being  30  feet. 
A  ditch  surrounds  it,  15  feet  wide  and  4  feet  deep.  These  earthworks  have 
contributed  greatly  to  the  satisfactory  results  of  scientific  researches.  Their 
builders  were  evidently  composed  of  large  bands  that  have  succumbed  to  the 
advance  of  enlightened  humanity.  The  relics  found  consists  of  ornaments, 
utensils  and  implements  of  war.  The  bones  left  in  the  numerous  graves  convey 
an  idea  of  a  stalwart,  vigorous  people,  and  the  conquests  which  swept  them  away 
from  the  face  of  the  country  must  have  been  fierce  and  cruel. 

Other  mounds  and  fortifications  are  found  in  difierent  parts  of  the  State,  of 
which  our  limited  space  will  not  permit  a  description. 

Many  sculptured  rocks  are  found,  and  others  with  plainly  discernible 
tracery  in  emblematical  designs  upon  their  surface.  The  rock  on  which  the 
inscriptions  occur  is  the  grindstone  grit  of  the  Ohio  exports — a  stratum  found 
in  Northern  Ohio.  Arrow-points  of  flint  or  chert  have  been  frequently  found. 
From  all  investigations,  it  is  evident  that  an  extensive  flint  bed  existed  in  Lick- 
ing County,  near  Newark.  The  old  pits  can  now  be  recognized.  They 
extended  over  a  hundred  acres.  They  are  partially  filled  with  water,  and  sur- 
rounded by  piles  of  broken  and  rejected  fragments.  The  flint  is  a  grayish- 
white,  with  cavities  of  a  brilliant  quartz  crystal.  Evidently  these  stones  were 
chipped  into  shape  and  the  material  sorted  on  the  ground.  Only  clear,  homo- 
genous pieces  can  be  wrought  into  arrow-heads  and  spear-points.  Flint  chips 
extend  over  many  acres  of  ground  in  this  vicinity.  Flint  beds  are  also  found 
in  Stark  and  Tuscarawas  Counties.  In  color  it  varies,  being  red,  white,  black 
and  mottled.     The  black  is  found  in  Coshocton  County. 


Ohio,  as  a  State,  is  renowned  as  an  agricultural  section.  Its  variety,  quality 
and  quantity  of  productions  cannot  be  surpassed  by  any  State  in  the  Union.  Its 
commercial  importance  ranks  proudly  in  the  galaxy  of  opulent  and  industrious 
States  composing  this  Union.  Her  natural  resources  are  prolific,  and  all  improve- 
ments which  could  be  instituted  by  the  ingenuity  of  mankind  have  been  added. 

From  a  quarter  to  a  third  of  its  area  is  hilly  and  broken.  About  the  head- 
waters of  the  Muskingum  and  Scioto,  and  between  the  Scioto  and  the  two 
Miami  Rivers,  are  wide  prairies ;  some  of  them  are  elevated  and  dry,  with  fertile 
soil,  although  they  are  frequently  termed  "barrens."  In  other  parts,  they  are 
low  and  marshy,  producing  coarse,  rank  grass,  which  grows  to  a  height  of  five 
feet  in  some  places. 

The  State  is  most  fortunate  in  timber  wealth,  having  large  quantities  of 
black  walnut,  oak  of  difierent  varieties,  maple,  hickory,  birch,  several  kinds  of 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  161 

"beech,  poplar,  sycamore,  papaw,  several  kinds  of  ash,  cherry,  whitewood  and 

The  summers  are  usually  warm,  and  the  winters  are  mild,  considering  the 
latitude  of  the  State.  Near  Lake  Erie,  the  winters  are  severe,  corresponding 
with  sections  in  a  line  with  that  locality.  Snow  falls  in  sufficient  quantities 
in  the  northern  part  to  afford  several  weeks  of  fine  sleighing.  In  the  southern 
portion,  the  snowstorms  are  not  frequent,  and  the  fall  rarely  remains  long  on 
the  ground. 

The  climate  is  generally  healthy,  with  the  exception  of  small  tracts  lying 
near  the  marshes  and  stagnant  waters. 

The  Ohio  River  washes  the  southern  border  of  the  State,  and  is  navigable 
for  steamboats  of  a  large  size,  the  entire  length  of  its  course.  From  Pitts- 
burgh to  its  mouth,  measuring  it  meanderings,  it  is  908  miles  long.  Its  current 
is  gentle,  having  no  falls  except  at  Louisville,  Ky.,  where  the  descent  is  twenty- 
two  and  a  half  feet  in  two  miles.     A  canal  obviates  this  obstruction. 

The  Muskingum  is  the  largest  river  that  flows  entirely  within  the  State.  It 
is  formed  by  the  junction  of  the  Tuscarawas  and  Walhonding  Rivers,  and  enters 
the  Ohio  at  Marietta     One  hundred  miles  of  its  length  is  navigable. 

The  Scioto  is  the  second  river  in  magnitude,  is  about  200  miles  long,  and 
flows  into  the  Ohio  at  Portsmouth.  It  affords  navigation  130  miles  of  its  length. 
The  Great  Miami  is  a  rapid  river,  in  the  western  part  of  the  State,  and  is  100 
miles  long.  The  Little  Miami  is  seventy  miles  in  length,  and  enters  the  Ohio 
.seven  miles  from  Cincinnati. 

The  Maumee  rises  in  Indiana,  flows  through  the  northwestern  part  of  the 
State,  and  enters  Lake  Erie  at  Maumee  Bay.  It  affords  navigation  as  far  as 
Perrysburg,  eighteen  miles  from  the  lake,  and  above  the  rapids,  it  is  again  nav- 

The  Sandusky  rises  in  the  northern  part  of  the  State,  is  eighty  miles  long, 
and  flows  into  Lake  Erie,  via  Sandusky  Bay. 

Lake  Erie  washes  150  miles  of  the  northern  boundary.  The  State  has  sev- 
eral fine  harbors,  the  Maumee  and  Sandusky  Bays  being  the  largest. 

"We  have,  in  tracing  the  record  of  the  earlier  counties,  given  the  educational  inter- 
ests as  exemplified  by  different  institutions.  "VVe  have  also  given  the  canal  system 
of  the  State,  in  previous  pages.  The  Governor  is  elected  every  two  years,  by 
the  people.  The  Senators  are  chosen  biennially,  and  are  apportioned  according 
to  the  male  population  over  twenty-one  years  of  age.  The  Judges  of  the 
Supreme  and  other  courts  are  elected  by  the  joint  ballot  of  the  Legislature,  for 
the  term  of  seven  years. 

During  the  early  settlement  of  Ohio,  perfect  social  equality  existed  among  the 
settlers.  The  line  of  demarkation  that  was  drawn  was  a  separation  of  the  good 
from  the  bad.  Log-rollings  and  cabin-raisings  were  mutual  affairs.  Their 
:sport  usually  consisted  of  shooting,  rowing  and  hunting.  Hunting  shirts  and 
buckskin  pants  were  in  the  fashion,  while  the  women  dressed  in  coarse  material, 

162  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

woven  by  their  own  hands.  A  common  American  cotton  check  was  con- 
sidered a  magnificent  addition  to  one's  toilet.  In  those  times,  however,  the 
material  was  $1  per  yard,  instead  of  the  shilling  of  to-day.  But  five  yards 
was  then  a  large  "pattern,"  instead  of  the  twenty-five  of  1880.  In  cooking 
utensils,  the  pot,  pan  and  frying-pan  constituted  an  elegant  outfit.  A  few  plain 
dishes  were  added  for  table  use.  Stools  and  benches  were  the  rule,  although  a 
few  wealthy  families  indulged  in  splmt-bottom  chairs.  The  cabin  floors  were 
rough,  and  in  many  cases  the  green  sward  formed  the  carpet.  Goods  were  very 
expensive,  and  flour  was  considered  a  great  luxury.  Goods  were  brought  by 
horses  and  mules  from  Detroit,  or  by  wagon  from  Philadelphia  to  Pittsburgh, 
and  then  down  the  Ohio.  Coarse  calicoes  were  $1  per  yard  ;  tea  $2  to  $3  per 
pound ;  cofiee  75  cents  ;  whisky,  from  $1  to  $2  per  gallon,  and  salt,  $5  to  ^6 
per  barrel.  In  those  towns  where  Indian  trade  constituted  a  desirable  interest, 
a  bottle  was  set  at  each  end  of  the  counter — a  gratuitous  offering  to  their  red 


Should  we  group  the  rocks  of  Ohio,  according  to  their  lithological  characters, 
we  should  give  five  distinct  divisions.  They  are  marked  by  difference  in  appear- 
ance, hardness,  color  and  composition : 

1 — Limestone. 

2 — Black  shale. 

3 — Fine-grained  sandstone. 

4 — Conglomerate. 

5 — Coal  series. 

They  are  all  stratified  and  sedimentary.  They  are  nearly  horizontal.  The 
lowest  one  visible,  in  a  physical  as  well  as  a  geological  sense,  is  "  blue  lime- 

The  bed  of  the  Ohio  River  near  Cincinnati  is  133  feet  below  the  level  of 
Lake  Erie.  The  strata  incline  in  all  directions  from  the  southwestern  angle  of 
the  State.  In  Scioto  County  may  be  seen  the  outcropping  edges  of  all  these 
rocks.  They  sink  at  this  point  in  the  direction  south  80J°  east ;  easterly  at  the 
rate  of  37^  feet  per  mile.  The  cliff"  limestone,  the  upper  stratum  of  the  lime- 
stone deposit,  is  600  feet  above  the  river  at  Cincinnati ;  at  West  Union,  in 
Adams  County,  it  is  only  350  feet  above  the  same  level. 

The  finely  grained  sandstone  found  on  the  summit  of  the  hills  east  of  Brush 
Creek  and  west  of  the  Scioto  sinks  to  the  base  of  the  hills,  and  appears  beneath 
the  conglomerate,  near  the  Little  Scioto.  Although  the  rock  formations  are  the 
same  in  all  parts  of  the  State,  in  the  same  order,  their  thickness,  mass  and  dip, 
are  quite  different. 

Chillicothe,  Reynoldsburg,  Mansfield,  Newburg,  Waverly  and  Rockville,  are 
situated  near  the  western  border  of  the  "  fine-grained  limestone."  Its  outcrop 
forms  a  continuous  and  crooked  line  from  the  Ohio  River  to  Lake  Erie.  In  the 
southwest  portion  of  the  State  is  the  "blue  limestone,"  occupying  a  circular 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  163 

space  from  West  Union  via  Dayton,  to  the  State  line.  The  conglomerate  is  to 
the  east  of  the  given  towns,  bending  around  from  Cuyahoga  Falls  to  Burton,  in 
Geauga  County,  and  then  eastward  into  Pennsylvania.  Near  this  outcrop  are 
the  coal-bearing  rocks  which  occupy  the  east  and  southeastern  portions  of  Ohio. 
From  Rockville  to  Chillicothe,  the  course  is  north,  about  10°  east,  and  nearly 
corresponds  with  the  line  of  outcrop  of  the  fine-grained  sandstone  for  an  equal 
distance.  The  dip  at  Rockville,  given  by  Charles  Whittlesey,  is  80|°,  almost 
at  a  right  angle,  and  at  the  rate  of  37  feet  per  mile. 

At  Chillicothe,  the  other  end  of  the  line,  the  general  dip  is  south  70°  east, 
30  feet  to  the  mile,  the  line  curving  eastward  and  the  dip  line  to  the  southward. 
This  is  the  universal  law. 

The  northern  boundary  of  the  great  coal  fields  passes  through  Meadville,  in 
Pennsylvania,  and  turning  south  arrives  at  Portage  Summit,  on  the  summit  of 
the  Alleghanies,  2,500  feet  above  the  ocean  level.  It  then  plunges  rapidly  to 
the  westward.  From  the  Alleghanies  to  the  southwest,  through  Pennsylvania, 
Virginia  and  Tennessee,  sweeps  this  great  coal  basin. 

Much  of  the  county  of  Medina  is  conglomerate  upon  the  surface,  but  the 
streams,  especially  the  South  Branch  of  the  Rocky  River,  set  through  this  sur- 
face stratum,  and  reach  the  fine-grained  sandstone.  This  is  the  case  with 
Rocky,  Chagrin,  Cuyahoga  and  Grand  Rivers — also  Conneaut  and  Ashtabula 
Creeks.  This  sandstone  and  the  shale  extend  up  the  narrow  valleys  of  these 
streams  and  their  tributaries.  Between  these  strata  is  a  mass  of  coarse-grained 
sandstone,  without  pebbles,  which  furnishes  the  grindstones  for  which  Ohio  is 
noted.  In  Lorain  County,  the  coarse  sandstone  grit  nearly  displaces  the  fine- 
grained sandstone  and  red  shale,  thickening  at  Elyria  to  the  black  shale.  South 
of  this  point,  the  grindstone  grit,  red  shale  and  ash-colored  shale  vary  in  thick- 
ness. The  town  of  Chillicothe,  the  village  of  Newburg,  and  a  point  in  the  west 
line  of  Crawford  County,  are  all  situated  on  the  "black  shale." 

Dr.  Locke  gives  the  dip,  at  Montgomery  and  Miami  Counties,  at  north  14°, 
east,  six  feet  to  the  mile;  at  Columbus,  Whitelesey  gives  it,  81°  52'  east,  22 ^^^ 
feet  to  the  mile.  The  fine-grained  sandstone  at  Newburg  is  not  over  eighty 
feet  in  thickness ;  at  Jacktown  and  Reynoldsburg,  500 ;  at  Waverly  250  to 
300  feet,  and  at  Brush  Creek,  Adams  County,  343  feet.  The  black  shale  is 
251  feet  thick  at  Brush  Creek  ;  at  Alum  Creek,  250  to  300  feet  thick  ;  in  Craw- 
ford County,  about  250  feet  thick.  The  conglomerate  in  Jackson  County  is 
200  feet  thick  ;  at  Cuyahoga  Falls,  100  to  120  feet ;  at  Burton,  Geauga  County, 
300  feet.  The  great  limestone  formation  is  divided  into  several  numbers.  At 
Cincinnati,  at  the  bed  of  the  river,  there  is : 

1 — A  blue  limestone  and  slaty  marlite. 

2 — Dun-colored  marl  and  layers  of  lime  rock. 

3 — Blue  marl  and  layers  of  blue  limestone. 

4 — Marl  and  bands  of  limestone,  with  immense  numbers  of  shells  at  the 

164  HISTORY   OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

In  Adams  County,  the  detailed  section  is  thus : 

1 — Blue  limestone  and  marl. 

2 — Blue  marl. 

3 — Flinty  limestone. 

4 — Blue  marl. 

5 — Cliff  limestone. 

The  coal-fields  of  Ohio  are  composed  of  alternate  beds  of  coarse-grained 
sandstone,  clay  shales,  layers  of  ironstone,  thin  beds  of  limestone  and  numer- 
ous strata  of  coal.  The  coal  region  abounds  in  iron.  From  Jacktown  to  Con- 
cord, in  Muskingum  County,  there  are  eight  beds  of  coal,  and  seven  strata  of 
limestone.  The  distance  between  these  two  points  is  forty-two  miles.  From 
Freedom,  in  Portage  County,  to  Poland,  in  Trumbull  County,  a  distance  of 
thirty-five  miles,  there  are  five  distinct  strata.  Among  them  are  distributed 
thin  beds  of  limestone,  and  many  beds  of  iron  ore.  The  greater  mass  of  coal 
and  iron  measures  is  composed  of  sandstone  and  shale.  The  beds  of  sandstone 
are  from  ten  to  twenty  or  eighty  feet  thick.  Of  shale,  five  to  fifty  feet  thick. 
The  strata  of  coal  and  iron  are  comparatively  thin.  A  stratum  of  coal  three 
feet  thick  can  be  worked  to  advantage.  One  four  feet  thick  is  called  a  good 
mine,  few  of  them  averaging  five.  Coal  strata  are  found  from  six  to  ten  and 
eleven  feet.  There  are  four  beds  of  coal,  and  three  of  limestone,  in  Lawrence 
and  Scioto  Counties.  There  are  also  eight  beds  of  ore,  and  new  ones  are  con- 
stantly being  discovered.  The  ore  is  from  four  to  twelve  inches  thick,  occasion- 
ally being  two  feet.  The  calcareous  ore  rests  upon  the  second  bed  of  limestone, 
from  the  bottom,  and  is  very  rich. 

The  most  prominent  fossils  are  trees,  plants  and  stems  of  the  coal-bearing 
rocks,  shells  and  corals  and  crustacese  of  the  limestone,  and  the  timber,  leaves 
and  dirt-beds  of  the  "drift" — the  earthy  covering  of  the  rocks,  which  varies 
from  nothing  to  200  feet.  Bowlders,  or  "  lost  rocks,"  are  strewn  over  the  State. 
They  are  evidently  transported  from  some  remote  section,  being  fragments  of 
primitive  rock,  granite,  gneiss  and  hornblende  rock,  which  do  not  exist  in 
Ohio,  nor  within  400  miles  of  the  State,  in  any  direction.  In  the  Lake  Supe- 
rior region  we  find  similar  specimens. 

The  superficial  deposits  of  Ohio  are  arranged  into  four  geological  formations : 

1 — The  ancient  drift,  resting  upon  the  rocks  of  the  State. 

2 — The  Lake  Erie  marl  and  sand  deposits. 

3 — The  drift  occupying  the  valleys  of  large  streams,  such  as  the  Great  Miami, 
the  Ohio  and  Scioto. 

4 — The  bowlders. 

The  ancient  drift  of  Ohio  is  meager  in  shell  deposits.  It  is  not,  therefore, 
decided  whether  it  be  of  salt-water  origin  or  fresh  water. 

It  has,  at  the  bottom,  blue  clay,  with  gravel-stones  of  primitive  or  sedimen- 
tary rocks,  containing  carbonate  of  lime.  The  yellow  clay  is  found  second. 
Above  that,  sand  and  gravel,  less  stratified,  containing  more  pebbles  of  the 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  165- 

sedimentary  rocks,  such  as  limestone  and  stone,  iron  ore,  coal  and  shale.  The 
lower  layer  contains  logs,  trees,  leaves,  sticks  and  vines. 

The  Lake  Erie  section,  or  "Lake  Erie  deposits,"  may  be  classed  in  the 
following  order : 

1 — From  the  lake  level  upward,  fine,  blue,  marly  sand — forty-five  to  sixty 

2 — Coarse,  gray,  water-washed  sand — ten  to  twenty  feet. 

3 — Coarse  sand  and  gravel,  not  well  stratified,  to  surface — twenty  to  fifty  feet. 

Stratum  first  dissolves  in  water.  It  contains  carbonate  of  lime,  magnesia, 
iron,  alumina,  silex,  sulphur,  and  some  decomposed  leaves,  plants  and  sticks. 
Some  pebbles  are  found.     In  contact  with  the  water,  quicksand  is  formed. 

The  Hickory  Plains,  at  the  forks  of  the  Great  Miami  and  White  Water,  and 
also  between  Kilgore's  Mill  and  New  Richmond,  are  the  results  of  heavy  dilu- 
vial currents. 

In  presenting  these  formations  of  the  State,  we  have  quoted  from  the  experi- 
ence and  conclusions  of  Charles  Whittlesey,  eminent  as  a  geologist,  and  who 
was  a  member  of  the  Ohio  Geological  Corps. 

Ohio's  rank  during  the  war. 

The  patriotism  of  this  State  has  been  stanch,  unswerving  and  bold,  ever 
since  a  first  settlement  laid  its  corner-stone  in  the  great  Western  wilder- 
ness. Its  decisive  measures,  its  earnest  action,  its  noble  constancy,  have  earned 
the  laurels  that  designate  it  "a  watchword  for  the  nation."  In  the  year  1860, 
Ohio  had  a  population  of  2,343,739.  Its  contribution  of  soldiers  to  the  great 
conflict  that  was  soon  to  surge  over  the  land  in  scarlet  terror,  was  apportioned 
310,000  men.  In  less  than  twenty-four  hours  after  the  President's  proclama- 
tion and  call  for  troops,  the  Senate  had  matured  and  carried  a  bill  through, 
appropriating  $1,000,000  for  the  purpose  of  placing  the  State  on  a  war  footing. 
The  influences  of  party  sentiments  were  forgotten,  and  united,  the  State 
unfurled  the  flag  of  patriotism.  Before  the  bombardment  of  old  Fort  Sumter 
has  fairly  ceased  its  echoes,  twenty  companies  were  offered  the  Governor  for 
immediate  service.  When  the  surrender  was  verified,  the  excitement  was 
tumultuous.  Militia  officers  telegraphed  their  willingness  to  receive  prompt 
orders,  all  over  the  State.  The  President  of  Kenyon  College — President 
Andrews — tendered  his  services  by  enlisting  in  the  ranks.  Indeed,  three 
months  before  the  outbreak  of  the  war,  he  had  expressed  his  readiness  to  the 
Governor  to  engage  in  service  should  there  be  occasion.  He  was  the  first  citi- 
zen to  make  this  offer. 

The  Cleveland  Grays,  the  Rover  Guards,  the  State  Fencibles,  the  Dayton 
Light  Guards,  the  Governor's  Guards,  the  Columbus  Videttes  and  the  Guthrie 
Grays — the  best  drilled  and  celebrated  militia  in  the  State — telegraphed  to 
Columbus  for  orders.  Chillicothe,  Portsmouth  and  Circleville  offered  money 
and   troops.       Canton,    Xenia,    Lebanon,    Lancaster,   Springfield,  Cincinnati,, 

166  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

Dayton,  Cleveland,  Toledo  and  other  towns  urged  their  assistance  upon  the  State. 
Columbus  began  to  look  like  a  great  army  field.  The  troops  were  stationed 
wherever  they  could  find  quarters,  and  food  in  sufficient  quantities  was  hard  to 
procure.  The  Governor  soon  established  a  camp  at  Miamiville,  convenient  to 
Cincinnati.  He  intended  to  appoint  Irvin  McDowell,  of  the  staff  of  Lieut. 
Gen.  Scott,  to  the  leading  command,  but  the  friends  of  Capt.  McClellan  became 
enthusiastic  and  appealed  to  the  Governor,  who  decided  to  investigate  his  case. 
Being  satisfied,  he  desired  Capt.  McClellan  to  come  up  to  Columbus.  But  that 
officer  was  busy  and  sent  Capt.  Pope,  of  the  regular  army,  in  his  stead.  This 
gentleman  did  not  suit  Gov.  Dennison.  The  friends  of  McClellan  again  set 
forth  the  high  qualities  of  this  officer,  and  Gov.  Dennison  sent  an  earnest 
request  for  an  interview,  which  was  granted,  and  resulted  in  the  appointment 
of  the  officer  as  Major  General  of  the  Ohio  militia.  Directly  thereafter,  he 
received  an  invitation  to  take  command  of  the  Pennsylvania  troops,  but  Ohio 
could  not  spare  so  valuable  a  leader. 

For  three-years  troops  were  soon  called  out,  and  their  Generals  were  to  be 
appointed  by  the  President.  Gov.  Dennison  advised  at  once  with  the  War 
Department  at  Washington,  and  McClellan  received  his  appointment  as  Major 
General  in  the  regular  army. 

Cincinnati  and  Louisville  became  alarmed  lest  Kentucky  should  espouse  the 
Confederate  cause,  and  those  cities  thus  be  left  insecure  against  the  inroads  of  a 
cruel  foe.  Four  hundred  and  thirty-six  miles  of  Ohio  bordered  Slave  States. 
Kentucky  and  West  Virginia  were  to  be  kept  in  check,  but  the  Governor  pro- 
claimed that  not  only  should  the  border  of  Ohio  be  protected,  but  even  beyond 
that  would  the  State  press  the  enemy.  Marietta  was  garrisoned,  and  other  river 
points  rendered  impregnable.  On  the  20th  of  May,  1861,  official  dispatches 
affirmed  that  troops  were  approaching  Wheeling  under  the  proclamation  of 
Letcher.     Their  intention  was  to  route  the  convention  at  Wheeling. 

Military  orders  were  instantly  given.  Col.  Steedman  and  his  troops  crossed 
at  Marietta  and  crushed  the  disturbance  at  Parkersburg — swept  into  the  country 
along  the  railroad,  built  bridges,  etc.  Col.  Irvine  crossed  at  Wheeling  and 
united  with  a  regiment  of  loyal  Virginians.  At  the  juncture  of  the  two  tracks 
at  Grafton,  the  columns  met,  but  the  rebels  had  retreated  in  mad  haste.  The 
loyal  troops  followed,  and,  at  Philippi,  fought  the  first  little  skirmish  of  the  war. 
The  great  railway  lines  were  secured,  and  the  Wheeling  convention  protected, 
and  West  Virginia  partially  secured  for  the  Union. 

After  preliminary  arrangements,  McClellan's  forces  moved  in  two  columns 
upon  the  enemy  at  Laurel  Hill.  One  remained  in  front,  under  Gen.  Morris, 
while  the  other,  under  his  own  command,  pushed  around  to  Huttonsville,  in 
their  rear.  Gen.  Morris  carried  his  orders  through  promptly,  but  McClellan 
was  late.  Rosecrans  was  left  with  McClellan's  advance  to  fight  the  battle  of 
Rich  Mountain,  unaided.  Garnett  being  alarmed  at  the  defeat  of  his  outpost, 
retreated.     McClellan  was  not  in  time  to  intercept  him,  but  Morris  continued 

HISTORY   OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  167 

the  chase.  Steedman  overtook  the  rear-guard  of  Garnett's  army  at  Carrick's 
Ford,  where  a  sharp  skirmish  ensued,  Garnett  himself  falling.  The  scattered 
portions  of  the  rebel  army  escaped,  and  West  Virginia  was  again  free  from 
armed  rebels — and  was  the  gift  of  Ohio  through  her  State  militia  to  the  nation 
at  the  beginning  of  the  war. 

At  this  period.  Gen.  McClellan  was  called  to  Washington.  Gen.  Rose- 
crans  succeeded  him,  and  the  three-years  troops  left  in  the  field  after  the  dis- 
banding of  the  three-months  men,  barely  sufficed  to  hold  the  country.  He 
telegraphed  Gov.  Dennison  to  supply  him  immediately  with  re-enforcements,  the 
request  being  made  on  the  8th  of  August.  Already  had  the  Confederate  lead- 
ers realized  the  loss  they  had  sustained  in  Western  Virginia,  and  had  dispatched 
their  most  valued  General,  Robert  E.  Lee,  to  regain  the  territory.  Rosecrans 
again  wrote :  "  If  you,  Governor  of  Indiana  and  Governor  of  Michigan,  will 
lend  your  efforts  to  get  me  quickly  50,000  men,  in  addition  to  my  present 
force,  I  think  a  blow  can  be  struck  which  will  save  fighting  the  rifled-cannon 
batteries  at  Manassas.  Lee  is  certainly  at  Cheat  Mountain.  Send  all  troops 
you  can  to  Grafton."  Five  days  thereafter,  all  the  available  troops  in  the 
West  were  dispatched  to  Fremont,  Mo.,  and  the  plans  of  Rosecrans  were 

Heavy  re-enforcements  had  been  sent  to  the  column  in  Kanawha  Valley 
under  Gen.  Cox.  He  became  alarmed,  and  telegraphed  to  Gov.  Dennison. 
Rosecrans  again  appealed  to  Gov.  Dennison,  that  he  might  be  aided  in  march- 
ing across  the  country  against  Floyd  and  Wise  to  Cox's  relief,  "I  want  to 
catch  Floyd  while  Cox  holds  him  in  front." 

The  response  was  immediate  and  effective.  He  was  enabled  to  employ 
twenty-three  Ohio  regiments  in  clearing  his  department  from  rebels,  securing 
the  country  and  guarding  the  exposed  railroads.  With  this  achievement,  the 
direct  relation  of  the  State  administrations  with  the  conduct  and  methods  of 
campaigns  terminated.  The  General  Government  had  settled  down  to  a  sys- 
tem. Ohio  was  busy  organizing  and  equipping  regiments,  caring  for  the  sick 
and  wounded,  and  sustaining  her  home  strength. 

Gov.  Dennison's  staff  officers  were  tendered  better  positions  in  the  national 
service.  Camps  Dennison  and  Chase,  one  at  Cincinnati  and  the  ather  at 
Columbus,  were  controlled  by  the  United  States  authorities.  A  laboratory  was 
established  at  Columbus  for  the  supply  of  ammunition.  During  the  fall  and 
early  winter,  the  Ohio  troops  suffered  in  Western  Virginia.  The  people  of 
their  native  State  responded  with  blankets,  clothing  and  other  supplies. 

In  January,  1862,  David  A.  Tod  entered  upon  the  duties  of  Governor. 
The  first  feature  of  his  administration  was  to  care  for  the  wounded  at  home, 
sent  from  Pittsburg  Landing.  A  regular  system  was  inaugurated  to  supply 
stores  and  clothing  to  the  suffering  at  home  and  in  the  field.  Agencies  were 
established,  and  the  great  and  good  work  was  found  to  be  most  efficacious  in 
alleviating  the  wretchedness  consequent  upon  fearful  battles.     A.  B.  Lyman 


168  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

had  charge  of  aifairs  in  Cincinnati,  and  Royal  Taylor  held  the  same  position 
in  Louisville.  J.  C.  Wetmore  was  stationed  at  Washington,  F.  W,  Bingham 
at  Memphis,  Weston  Flint  at  Cairo  and  St.  Louis.  Thus  the  care  which  Ohia 
extended  over  her  troops  at  home  and  in  the  hattle-field,  furnished  a  practical 
example  to  other  States,  and  was  the  foundation  of  that  commendable  system 
all  over  the  Union.  Stonewall  Jackson's  sudden  advent  in  the  valley  created 
the  greatest  consternation  lest  the  safety  of  the  capital  be  jeopardized,  and  the 
War  Department  called  for  more  troops.  Gov.  Tod  immediately  issued  a 
proclamation,  and  the  people,  never  shrinking,  responded  heartily.  At  Cleve- 
land a  large  meeting  was  held,  and  250  men  enlisted,  including  27  out  of  32. 
students  attending  the  law  school.  Fire  bells  rang  out  the  alarm  at  Zanesville, 
a  meeting  was  convened  at  10  in  the  morning,  and  by  3  in  the  afternoon,  300' 
men  had  enlisted.  Court  was  adjourned  sine  die,  and  the  Judge  announced 
that  he  and  the  lawyers  were  about  to  enter  into  military  ranks.  Only  three 
unmarried  men  between  the  ages  of  eighteen  and  twenty-three  were  left  in  the 
town  of  Putnam.  Five  thousand  volunteers  reported  at  Camp  Chase  within 
two  days  after  the  proclamation. 

Again  in  June,  the  President  called  for  troops,  followed  by  yet  another  call. 
Under  these  calls,  Ohio  was  to  raise  74,000  men.  The  draft  system  was. 
advised  to  hasten  and  facilitate  filling  regiments.  It  has  always  been  a  repul- 
sive measure.  To  save  sections  from  this  proceeding,  enormous  sums  were 
ofiered  to  induce  men  to  volunteer,  and  thus  fill  the  quota. 

Counties,  townships,  towns  and  individuals,  all  made  bids  and  urged  the 
rapid  enlistment  of  troops.  The  result  was,  that  the  regiments  were  filled  rap- 
idly, but  not  in  sufficient  numbers  to  prevent  the  draft.  Twenty  thousand  four 
hundred  and  twenty-seven  men  were  yet  lacking,  and  the  draft  was  ordered, 
September  15.  At  the  close  of  the  year,  Ohio  was  ahead  of  her  calls.  Late 
in  the  fall,  the  prospect  was  disheartening.  The  peninsula  campaign  had  failed. 
The  Army  of  Northern  Virginia  had  been  hurled  back  nearly  to  Washington. 
The  rebels  had  invaded  Maryland  ;  Cincinnati  and  Louisville  were  threatened,, 
and  the  President  had  declared  his  intention  to  abolish  slavery,  as  a  war  meas- 
ure. During  the  first  part  of  1862,  artillery,  stores  and  supplies  were  carried 
away  mysteriously,  from  the  Ohio  border  ;  then  little  squads  ventured  over  the 
river  to  plunder  more  openly,  or  to  burn  a  bridge  or  two.  The  rebel  bands 
came  swooping  down  upon  isolated  supply  trains,  sending  insolent  roundabout 
messages  regarding  their  next  day's  intentions.  Then  came  invasions  of  our 
lines  near  Nashville,  capture  of  squads  of  guards  within  sight  of  camp,  the  seizure 
of  Gallatin.  After  Mitchell  had  entered  Northern  Alabama,  all  manner  of  depre- 
dations were  committed  before  his  very  eyes.  These  were  attributed  to  John 
Morgan's  Kentucky  cavalry.  He  and  his  men,  by  the  middle  of  1862,  were 
as  active  and  dangerous  as  Lee  or  Beauregard  and  their  troops.  Morgan  was  a 
native  of  Alabama,  but  had  lived  in  Kentucky  since  boyhood.  His  father  was 
large  slave-owner,  who  lived  in  the  center  of  the  "Blue  Grass  Country."     His 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  169 

life  had  been  one  of  wild  dissipation,  adventure  and  recklessness,  although  in 
his  own  family  he  had  the  name  of  being  most  considerate.  The  men  who  fol- 
lowed him  were  accustomed  to  a  dare-devil  life.  They  formed  and  independent 
band,  and  dashed  madly  into  the  conflict,  wherever  and  whenever  inclination 
prompted.  Ohio  had  just  raised  troops  to  send  East,  to  assist  in  the  overthrow 
of  Stonewell  Jackson.  She  had  overcome  her  discouragements  over  failures, 
for  the  prospects  were  brightening.  Beauregard  had  evacuated  Corinth  ;  Mem- 
phis had  fallen  ;  Buell  was  moving  toward  Chattanooga ;  Mitchell's  troops  held 
Northern  Tennessee  and  Northern  Alabama ;  Kentucky  was  virtually  in  the 
keeping  of  the  home  guards  and  State  military  board.  And  now,  here  was 
Morgan,  creating  confusion  in  Kentucky  by  his  furious  raids  !  On  the  11th  of 
July,  the  little  post  of  Tompkinsville  fell.  He  issued  a  call  for  the  Kentuckians 
to  rise  in  a  body.  He  marched  toward  Lexington,  and  the  southern  border  of 
Ohio  was  again  in  danger.  Cincinnati  was  greatly  excited.  Aid  was  sent  to 
Lexington  and  home  guards  were  ready  for  duty.  Morgan  was  not  prominent 
for  a  day  or  so,  but  he  was  not  idle.  By  the  9th  of  July,  he  held  possession  of 
Tompkinsville  and  Glasgow ;  by  the  11th,  of  Lebanon.  On  the  13th,  he 
entered  Harraldsburg ;  Monday  morning  he  was  within  fifteen  miles  of  Frank- 
fort. He  had  marched  nearly  400  miles  in  eight  days.  Going  on,  toward 
Lexington,  he  captured  the  telegraph  operator  at  Midway,  and  his  messages 
also  I  He  was  now  aware  of  the  plans  of  the  Union  armies  at  Lexington, 
Louisville,  Cincinnati  and  Frankfort.  In  the  name  of  the  operator,  he  sent 
word  that  Morgan  was  driving  in  the  pickets  at  Frankfort !  Now  that  he 
had  thrown  his  foes  off  guard,  he  rested  his  men  a  couple  of  days.  He 
decided  to  let  Lexington  alone,  and  swept  down  on  Cynthiana,  routing  a  few 
hundred  loyal  Kentucky  cavalrymen,  capturing  the  gun  and  420  prisoners,  and 
nearly  300  horses.  Then  he  was  off  to  Paris ;  he  marched  through  Winchester, 
Richmond,  Crab  Orchard  and  Somerset,  and  again  crossed  the  Cumberland  River. 
He  started  with  900  men  and  returned  with  1,200,  having  captured  and  paroled 
nearly  as  many,  besides  destroying  all  the  Government  arms  and  stores  in  seven- 
teen towns.  The  excitement  continued  in  Cincinnati.  Two  regiments  were 
hastily  formed,  for  emergencies,-  known  as  Cincinnati  Reserves.  Morgan's  raid 
did  not  reach  the  city,  but  it  demonstrated  to  the  rebel  forces  what  might  be 
accomplished  in  the  "  Blue  Grass  "  region.  July  and  August  were  passed  in 
gloom.  Bragg  and  Buell  were  both  watchful,  and  Chattanooga  had  not  been 
taken.  Lexington  was  again  menaced,  a  battle  fought,  and  was  finally  deserted 
because  it  could  not  be  held. 

Louisville  was  now  in  danger.  The  banks  sent  their  specie  away.  Railroad 
companies  added  new  guards. 

September  1,  Gen.  Kirby  Smith  entered  Lexington,  and  dispatched  Heath 
with  about  six  thousand  men  against  Cincinnati  and  Covington.  John  Morgan 
joined  him.  The  rebels  rushed  upon  the  borders  of  Ohio.  The  failure  at  Rich- 
mond only  added  deeper  apprehension.     Soon  Kirby  Smith  and  his  regiments 

170  HISTORY  OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

occupied  a  position  where  only  a  few  unmanned  siege  guns  and  the  Ohio 
prevented  his  entrance  through  Covington  into  the  Queen  City.  The  city  was 
fully  armed,  and  Lew.  Wallace's  arrival  to  take  command  inspired  all  with 
fresh  courage.  And  before  the  people  were  hardly  aware  that  danger  was  so 
near,  the  city  was  proclaimed  under  strict  martial  law.  "  Citizens  for  labor, 
soldiers  for  battle." 

There  was  no  panic,  because  the  leaders  were  confident.  Back  of  Newport 
and  Covington  breastworks,  riflepits  and  redoubts  had  been  hastily  thrown  up, 
and  pickets  were  thrown  out.  From  Cincinnati  to  Covington  extended  a  pon- 
ton bridge.  Volunteers  marched  into  the  city  and  those  already  in  service 
were  sent  to  the  rescue.  Strict  military  law  was  now  modified,  and  the  city 
being  secured,  some  inconsiderate  ones  expressed  themselves  as  being  outraged 
with  "  much  ado  about  nothing."  But  Gen.  Wallacedid  not  cease  his  vigilance. 
And  Smith's  force  began  to  move  up.  One  or  two  skirmishes  ensued.  The 
city  was  again  excited.  September  11  was  one  of  intense  suspense.  But 
Smith  did  not  attack  in  force.  He  was  ordered  to  join  Bragg.  On  the  Mon- 
day following,  the  citizens  of  Cincinnati  returned  to  their  avocations.  In  the 
spring  of  1863,  the  State  was  a  trifle  discouraged.  Her  burdens  had  been 
heavy,  and  she  was  weary.  Vicksburg  was  yet  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy. 
Rosecrans  had  not  moved  since  his  victory  at  Stone  River.  There  had  been 
fearful  slaughter  about  Fredericksburg. 

But  during  July,  1863,  Ohio  was  aroused  again  by  Bragg's  command  to 
Morgan,  to  raid  Kentucky  and  capture  Louisville.  On  the  3d  of  July,  he  was 
in  a  position  to  invade  Ohio,  Indiana  and  Kentucky.  He  continued  his  depre- 
dations, bewildering  the  militia  with  his  movements.  His  avowed  intention 
was  to  burn  Indianapolis  and  "  take  Cincinnati  alive."  Morgan's  purposes 
were  never  clear.  It  was  his  audacious  and  sudden  dashes,  here  and  there, 
which  gave  him  success.  Before  Cincinnati  was  aware,  he  was  at  Harrison — 
13th  of  July.  He  expected  to  meet  the  forces  of  Burnside  and  Judah,  and  to 
cut  his  way  through.  His  plans  here,  as  everywhere,  were  indefinable,  and  he 
succeeded  in  deceiving  everybody.  While  printers  in  Cincinnati  were  setting 
up  "  reports  "  as  to  his  whereabouts,  he  was  actually  marching  through  the  sub- 
urbs, near  troops  enough  to  devour  them,  and  yet  not  encountered  by  a  single 
picket !  They  fed  their  horses  within  sight  of  Camp  Dennison.  At  4 
o'clock  that  day,  they  were  within  twenty-eight  miles  of  Cincinnati — having 
marched  more  than  ninety  miles  in  thirty-five  hours. 

The  greatest  chagrin  was  expressed,  that  Morgan  had  so  easily  eluded  the 
great  military  forces.  A  sudden  dash  was  made  to  follow  him.  There  was  a 
universal  bolting  of  doors,  burying  of  valuables,  hiding  of  horses,  etc.,  all  along 
the  route  of  the  mad  cavalryman  and  his  2,000  mounted  men.  They  plundered 
beyond  all  comparison.  They  made  a  principle  of  it.  On  the  14th  of  July, 
he  was  feeding  his  horses  near  Dennison  ;  he  reached  the  ford  at  Bufiington 
Island  on  the  evening  of  the  18th  ;  he  had  encountered  several  little  skirmishes, 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  171 

but  he  had  marched  through  at  his  own  will,  mostly ;  all  the  troops  of  Kentucky 
had  been  outwitted.  The  Indiana  forces  had  been  laughed  to  scorn.  The 
50,000  Ohio  militia  had  been  as  straws  in  his  way.  The  intrepid  band  would 
soon  be  upon  friendly  soil,  leaving  a  blackened  trail  behind.  But  Judah  was 
up  and  marching  after  him,  Hobson  followed  and  Col.  Runkle  was  north  of 
him.  The  local  militia  in  his  advance  began  to  impede  the  way.  Near  Pome- 
roy,  a  stand  was  made.  Morgan  found  militia  posted  everywhere,  but  he  suc- 
ceeded in  running  the  gantlet,  so  far  as  to  reach  Chester.  He  should  have 
hastened  to  cross  the  ford.  Fortunately,  he  paused  to  breathe  his  horses  and 
secure  a  guide.  The  hour  and  a  half  thus  lost  was  the  first  mistake  Morgan  is 
known  to  have  made  in  his  military  career.  They  reached  Portland,  and  only 
a  little  earthwork,  guarded  by  about  300  men,  stood  between  him  and  safety. 
His  men  were  exhausted,  and  he  feared  to  lead  them  to  a  night  attack  upon  a 
position  not  understood  perfectly ;  he  would  not  abandon  his  wagon  train,  nor 
his  wounded ;  he  would  save  or  lose  all.  As  Morgan  was  preparing  next 
morning,  having  found  the  earthworks  deserted  through  the  night,  Judah  came 
up.  He  repulsed  the  attack  at  first,  capturing  Judah's  Adjutant  General,  and 
ordering  him  to  hold  the  force  on  his  front  in  check.  He  was  not  able  to  join 
his  own  company,  until  it  was  in  full  retreat.  Here  Lieut.  O'Neil,  of  the  Fifth 
Indiana,  made  an  impulsive  charge,  the  lines  were  reformed,  and  up  the  Chester 
road  were  Hobson's  gallant  cavalrymen,  who  had  been  galloping  over  three 
States  to  capture  this  very  Morgan  !  And  now  the  tin-clad  gunboats  steamed 
up  and  opened  fire.  The  route  was  complete,  but  Morgan  escaped  with  1,200 
men !  Seven  hundred  men  were  taken  prisoners,  among  them  Morgan's  brother, 
Cols.  Ward,  Duke  and  Hufiman.  The  prisoners  were  brought  to  Cincinnati, 
while  the  troops  went  after  the  fugitive.  He  was  surrounded  by  dangers  ;  his 
men  were  exhausted,  hunted  down  ;  skirmishes  and  thrilling  escapes  marked  a 
series  of  methods  to  escape — his  wonderful  sagacity  absolutely  brilliant  to  the 
very  last — which  was  his  capture,  on  the  26th,  with  346  prisoners  and 
400  horses  and  arms.  It  may  be  added,  that  after  several  months  of  con- 
finement, Morgan  and  six  prisoners  escaped,  on  the  27th  of  November.  Again 
was  he  free  to  raid  in  the  "  Blue  Grass  "  country. 

John  Brough  succeeded  Gov.  Tod  January  11,  1864.  His  first  prominent 
work  was  with  the  Sanitary  Commission.  In  February,  of  the  same  year,  the 
President  called  for  more  troops.  The  quota  of  Ohio  was  51,465  men.  The 
call  of  March  added  20,995.  And  in  July  was  a  third  demand  for  50,792.  In 
December,  the  State  was  ordered  to  raise  26,027.  The  critical  period  of  the 
war  was  evidently  approaching.  Gov.  Brough  instituted  a  reformation  in  the 
"promotion  system  "  of  the  Ohio  troops.  He  was,  in  many  cases,  severe  in  his 
measures.  He  ignored  "  local  great  men  "  and  refused  distinction  as  a  bribe. 
The  consequence  was  that  he  had  many  friends  and  some  enemies.  The  acute- 
ness  of  his  policy  was  so  strong,  and  his  policy  so  just,  that,  after  all  his  severe 
administration,  he  was  second  to  no  statesman  in  the  nation  during  the  struggle. 

172  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

Ohio  during  the  war  was  most  active  in  her  relief  and  aid  societies.  The  most 
noted  and  extensive  organization  was  the  Cincinnati  Branch  of  the  United 
States  Sanitary  Commission.  The  most  efficient  organization  was  the  Soldiers' 
Aid  Society  of  Northern  Ohio. 

When  the  happy  tidings  swept  over  the  land  that  peace  was  proclaimed,  an 
echo  of  thanksgiving  followed  the  proclamation.  The  brave  sons  of  Ohio 
returned  to  their  own  soil — those  who  escaped  the  carnage.  But  'mid  the 
rejoicing  there  was  deepest  sadness,  for  a  fragment  only  remained  of  that  brave 
army  which  had  set  out  sturdily  inspired  with  patriotism. 


George  Briton  McClellan,  the  first  General  appointed  in  Ohio,  was  born 
December  3,  1826,  in  Philadelphia.  His  father  was  a  physician  of  high  stand- 
ing and  Scottish  descent.  Young  George  was  in  school  in  Philadelphia,  and 
entered  West  Point  at  the  age  of  sixteen.  At  the  age  of  twenty,  he  was  a  bre- 
vet Second  Lieutenant,  tracing  lines  of  investment  before  Vera  Cruz,  under  the 
supervision  of  Capt.  R.  E.  Lee,  First  Lieut.  P.  G.  T.  Beauregard,  Second  Lieut. 
G.  W.  Smith.  At  the  close  of  the  Mexican  war,  old  Col.  Totten  reported  in 
favor  of  them  all  to  Winfield  Scott.  He  had  charge  of  an  exploring  expedition 
to  the  mountains  of  Oregon  and  Washington,  beginning  with  the  Cascade  Range. 
This  was  one  of  a  series  of  Pacific  Railway  explorations.  Returning  to  Wash- 
ington, he  was  detailed  to  visit  the  West  Indies  and  secretly  select  a  coaling  sta- 
tion for  the  United  States  Navy.  He  was  dispatched  by  Jefferson  Davis, 
Secretary  of  War,  to  Europe,  with  instructions  to  take  full  reports  of  the  organ- 
ization of  military  forces  connected  with  the  Crimean  war.  This  work  elicited 
entire  satisfaction.  He  returned  in  January,  1857,  resigned  as  regular  army 
officer,  and  was  soon  installed  as  engineer  of  Illinois  Central  Railroad.  In  1860, 
he  was  President  of  the  Ohio  &  Mississippi.  He  removed  to  Cincinnati,  where 
he  was  at  the  opening  of  the  war. 

William  Starke  Rosecrans  was  born  September  6, 1819,  in  Delaware  County, 
Ohio.  His  people  were  from  Amsterdam.  He  was  educated  at  West  Point. 
When  the  war  opened,  he  espoused  the  cause  of  the  Union  with  enthusiastic 
zeal,  and  was  appointed  by  McClellan  on  his  staff"  as  Engineer.  June  9,  he 
was  Chief  Engineer  of  the  State  under  special  law.  Soon  thereafter,  he  was 
Colonel  of  the  Twenty-third  Ohio,  and  assigned  to  the  command  of  Camp 
Chase,  Columbus.  On  May  16,  his  commission  was  out  as  Brigadier  General 
in  the  United  States  Army.  This  reached  him  and  he  was  speedily  sum- 
moned to  active  service,  under  Gen.  McClellan.  After  the  battle  of  Rich  Moun- 
tain, he  was  promoted  to  the  head  of  the  department. 

In  April,  1862,  he  was  succeeded  by  Fremont,  and  ordered  to  Wash- 
ington to  engage  in  immediate  service  for  the  Secretary  of  War.  About  the 
15th  of  May,  he  was  ordered  to  Gen.  Halleck,  before  Corinth.  He  was 
relieved  from  his  command  December  9,  1864. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  173 

Ulysses  S.  Grant,  whose  history  we  cannot  attempt  to  give  in  these  pages, 
was  born  on  the  banks  of  the  Ohio,  at  Point  Pleasant,  Clermont  Co.,  Ohio, 
April  27,  1822.     He  entered  West  Point  in  1839. 

"  That  the  son  of  a  tanner,  poor  and  unpretending,  without  influential  friends 
until  his  performance  had  won  them,  ill-used  to  the  world  and  its  ways,  should 
rise — not  suddenly,  in  the  first  blind  worship  of  helpless  ignorance  which  made 
any  one  who  understood  regimental  tactics  illustrious  in  advance  for  what  he 
was  going  to  do,  not  at  all  for  what  he  had  done — but  slowly,  grade  by  grade, 
through  all  the  vicissitudes  of  constant  service  and  mingled  blunders  and  suc- 
cess, till,  at  the  end  of  four  years'  war  he  stood  at  the  head  of  our  armies, 
orowned  by  popular  acclaim  our  greatest  soldier,  is  a  satisfactory  answer  to 
criticism  and  a  sufiicient  vindication  of  greatness.     Success  succeeds." 

"  We  may  reason  on  the  man's  career ;  we  may  prove  that  at  few  stages  has 
he  shown  personal  evidence  of  marked  ability ;  we  may  demonstrate  his  mis- 
takes ;  we  may  swell  the  praises  of  his  subordinates.  But  after  all,  the  career 
stands  wonderful,  unique,  worthy  of  study  so  long  as  the  nation  honors  her 
henefactors,  or  the  State  cherishes  the  good  fame  of  the  sons  who  contributed 
most  to  her  honor." 

Lieut.  Gen.  William  Tecumseh  Sherman  was  another  Ohio  contribution  to 
the  great  Union  war.  He  was  born  at  Lancaster  February  8,  1820.  He 
entered  West  Point  in  June,  1836.  His  "  march  to  the  sea  "  has  fully  brought 
out  the  details  of  his  life,  since  they  were  rendered  interesting  to  all,  and  we 
refrain  from  repeating  the  well-known  story. 

Philip  H.  Sheridan  was  born  on  the  6th  of  March,  1831,  in  Somerset, 
Perry  Co.,  Ohio.  He  entered  West  Point  in  1848.  During  the  war,  his 
career  was  brilliant.  His  presence  meant  victory.  Troops  fighting  under  his 
command  were  inspired.  Gen.  Rosecrans  said  of  him,  "He  fights,  he  fights." 
A  staff  officer  once  said,  "He  is  an  emphatic  human  syllable." 

Maj.  Gen.  James  B.  McPherson  was  born  in  Sandusky  County,  town  of 
Clyde,  November  14,  1828. 

Maj.  Gen.  Q.  A.  Gillmore  was  born  February  28,  1825,  at  Black  River, 
Lorain  Co.,  Ohio. 

Maj.  Gen.  Irvin  McDowell  was  born  at  Franklinton,  Ohio,  October  15, 

Maj.  Gen.  Don  Carlos  Buell  was  born  near  Marietta  on  the  23d  of  March, 
1818.  His  grandfather  on  the  maternal  side  was  one  of  the  first  settlers  of 

Maj.  Gen.  0.  M.  Mitchell  was  a  native  of  Kentucky,  but  a  resident  of 
Ohio  from  the  age  of  four  years. 

Maj.  Gen.  Robert  C.  Schenck  was  born  October  4,  1809,  in  Franklin, 
Warren  Co.,  Ohio. 

Maj.  Gen.  James  A.'  Garfield,  was  born  in  Orange,  Cuyahoga  Co.,  Ohio, 
November  19,  1881. 

174  ISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO, 

Maj.  Gen.  Jacob  D.  Cox  was  born  in  Canada  in  1828,  and  removed  to 
Ohio  in  1846. 

Maj.  Gen,  James  B.  Steedman  was  born  in  Pennsylvania  July  30,  1818, 
and  removed  to  Toledo  in  1861. 

Maj.  Gen.  David  S.  Stanley  was  born  in  Wayne  County,  Ohio,  June  1, 

Maj.  Gen.  George  Crook  was  born  in  Montgomery  County,  Ohio,  Septem- 
ber 8,  1828. 

Maj.  Gen.  Mortimer  D.  Leggett  was  born  in  New  York  April  19,  1831, 
and  emigrated  to  Ohio,  in  1847. 

Brevet  Maj.  Gen.  John  C.  Tidball  was  born  in  Virginia,  but  removed  while 
a  mere  lad  to  Ohio  with  his  parents. 

Brevet  Maj.  Gen.  John  W.  Fuller  was  born  in  England  in  1827.  He 
removed  to  Toledo  in  1858. 

Brevet  Maj.  Gen.  Manning  F.  Force  was  born  in  Washington,  D.  C,  on 
the  17th  of  December,  1824.     He  became  a  citizen  of  Cincinnati. 

Brevet  Maj.  Gen.  Henry  B.  Banning  was  born  in  Knox  County,  Ohio, 
November  10,  1834. 

We  add  the  names  of  Brevet  Maj.  Gens.  Erastus  B.  Tyler,  Thomas  H. 
Ewing,  Charles  R.  Woods,  August  V.  Kautz,  Rutherford  B.  Hayes,  Charles 
C.  Walcutt,  Kenner  Garrard,  Hugh  Ewing,  Samuel  Beatty,  James  S.  Robinson, 
Joseph  W.  Keifer,  Eli  Long,  William  B.  Woods,  John  W.  Sprague,  Benjamin 
P.  Runkle,  August  Willich,  Charles  Griffin,  Henry  J.  Hunt,  B.  W.  Brice. 

Brig.  Gens.  Robert  L.  McCook,  William  H.  Lytle,  William  Leroy 
Smith,  C.  P.  Buckingham,  Ferdinand  Van  Derveer,  George  P.  Este,  Joel  A. 
Dewey,  Benjamin  F.  Potts,  Jacob  Ammen,  Daniel  McCook,  J.  W.  Forsyth, 
Ralph  P.  Buckland,  William  H.  Powell,  John  G.  Mitchell,  Eliakim  P.  Scam- 
mon,  Charles  G  Harker,  J.  W.  Reilly,  Joshua  W.  Sill,  N.  C.  McLean,  Will- 
iam T.  H.  Brooks,  George  W.  Morgan,  John  Beatty,  William  W.  Burns,  John 
S.  Mason,  S.  S.  Carroll,  Henry  B.  Carrington,  M.  S.  Wade,  John  P.  Slough, 
T.  K.  Smith. 

Brevet  Brig.  Gens.  C.  B.  Ludlow,  Andrew  Hickenlooper,  B.  D. 
Fearing,  Henry  F.  Devol,  Israel  Garrard,  Daniel  McCoy,  W,  P.  Richardson, 
G.  F.  Wiles,  Thomas  M.  Vincent,  J.  S.  Jones,  Stephen  B.  Yeoman,  F.  W. 
Moore,  Thomas  F.  Wilder,  Isaac  Sherwood,  C.  H.  Grosvenor,  Moses  E. 
Walker,  R.  N.  Adams,  E.  B.  Eggleston,  I.  M.  Kirby. 

We  find  numerous  other  names  of  Brevet  Brigadier  Generals,  mostly  of  late 
appointments,  and  not  exercising  commands  in  accordance  with  their  brevet 
rank,  which  we  omit  quoting  through  lack  of  space.  They  are  the  names  of 
men  of  rare  abilities,  and  in  many  cases  of  brilliant  achievements. 

In  looking  over  the  "War  Record  of  Ohio,"  we  find  the  State  a  great 
leader  in  men  of  valor  and  heroic  deeds.  It  was  the  prolific  field  of  military 

HISTORY   OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  175 

Ohio  was  draped  with  the  garb  of  mourning  at  the  close  of  the  war.  Her 
human  sacrifice  in  behalf  of  the  nation  had  been  bitter.  There  were  tears  and 
heart-aches  all  over  the  land.  Her  ranks  were  swept  by  a  murderous  fire,  from 
which  they  never  flinched,  and  many  ofiicers  fell. 

Col.  John  H.  Patrick  will  be  remembered  as  opening  the  battle  of  Lookout 
Mountain.  He  fell  mortally  wounded,  during  the  Atlanta  campaign,  May 
15,  1862,  while  actively  engaged.  He  was  struck  by  a  canister  shot,  and 
expired  half  a  hour  thereafter. 

Col.  John  T.  Toland,  in  July,  1863,  was  placed  in  command  of  a  mounted 
brigade,  including  his  regiment,  and  was  instructed  to  destroy  the  Virginia  & 
Tennessee  Railroad.  He  reached  Wytheville,  Va.,  on  the  afternoon  of  the 
18th  of  July.  The  rebels  were  safely  intrenched  in  the  house,  and  poured  a 
galling  fire  into  the  national  troops.  Col.  Toland  was  on  horseback,  at  the 
head  of  his  command.  A  sharpshooter  sent  a  bullet  with  fatal  certainty,  and 
he  fell  on  the  neck  of  his  horse,  but  was  instantly  caught  by  his  Orderly 
Sergeant,  who  heard  the  fervent  words  :  "  My  horse  and  my  sword  to  my 

Lieut.  Col.  Barton  S.  Kyle  accompanied  his  regiment  to  the  battle  of  Pitts- 
burg Landing.  The  regiment  was  forced  back,  though  resisting  bravely. 
Lieut.  Col.  Kyle  was  at  his  post  of  duty,  encouraging  his  men,  when  he  received 
a  bullet  in  his  right  breast.     He  survived  five  hours. 

Col.  William  G.  Jones  was  engaged  in  the  battle  of  Chickamauga,  June, 
1863.  His  regiment,  the  Thirty-sixth  Ohio,  was  included  in  Turchin's  Brigade 
of  the  Fourteenth  Corps.  He  wrote  in  his  pocket  memoranda  :  "  Off  to  the 
left ;  merciful  Father,  have  mercy  on  me  and  my  regiment,  and  protect  us  from 
injury  and  death  " — at  12  o'clock.  At  5  that  afternoon,  he  was  fatally  wounded 
and  expired  at  7  that  same  evening,  on  the  battle-field  His  remains  were 
taken  by  the  rebels,  but  in  December,  1863,  they  were  exhumed  and  interred 
in  Spring  Grove  Cemetery,  Cincinnati. 

Col.  Fred.  C.  Jones  held  command  of  the  Tenth  Brigade,  in  October,  1862, 
marching  from  Wild  Cat,  Ky.,  to  Nashville,  through  a  perpetual  skirmish, 
During  the  battle  of  Stone  River,  Col.  Jones'  regiment,  the  Twenty-fourth,  was 
on  the  front  and  left  of  the  line.  During  the  afternoon,  when  the  rebel  assault 
upon  the  left  became  furious.  Col.  Jones  ordered  his  men  to  lie  down  and  hold 
fire,  which  was  obeyed.  They  rose  to  pour  a  deadly  volley  into  the  rebel  ranks, 
and  rush  forward  in  a  fierce  charge.  The  capture  of  an  entire  rebel  regiment  was 
thus  effected,  but  Col.  Jones  was  shot  in  the  right  side.  He  was  carried  to  the 
rear.  "  I  know  it ;  I  am  dying  now  ;  pay  no  attention  to  me,  but  look  after 
my  wounded  men."  He  survived  about  ten  hours.  His  remains  are  buried  in 
Spring  Grove,  Cincinnati. 

Col.  Lorin  Andrews  went  with  his  command  to  Western  Virginia,  where 
he  succumbed  to  exposure  and  severe  duty.  He  was  removed  to  his  home, 
Gambler,  Ohio,  where  he  died  surrounded  by  friends  September  18,  1861. 

17 G  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO 

Col.  Minor  Milliken  was  sent  to  repel  the  attacks  of  the  rebels  at  the  rear. 
He  led  a  superb  cavalry  charge  against  the  enemy,  vastly  superior  in  numbers, 
and  was  cut  off  with  a  small  portion  of  his  regiment.  He  disdained  to  sur-  . 
render,  and  ordered  his  men  to  cut  their  way  out.  A  hand-to-hand  conflict 
ensued.  Col.  Milliken,  being  an  expert  swordsman,  was  able  to  protect  himself 
with  his  saber.  While  parrying  the  strokes  of  his  assailant,  another  shot  him. 
The  regiment,  again  charging,  recovered  his  body,  stripped  of  sword,  purse  and 

Col.  George  P.  Webster,  with  his  regiment,  the  Ninety-eighth,  left  Steu- 
benville  for  Covington,  Ky.,  August  23,  1862,  marching  from  that  point  to  Lex- 
ington and  Louisville.  He  was  placed  at  the  command  of  the  Thirty-fourth 
Brigade,  Jackson's  division,  Cooke's  corps.  He  fell  in  the  battle  of  Perryville, 
and  died  on  the  field  of  battle. 

Col.  Leander  Stem  was  appointed  Colonel  of  the  One  Hundred  and  First 
Ohio  Infantry  August  30,  1862.  His  premonitions  that  he  should  fall  during 
his  first  regular  engagement  proved  too  true.  As  the  army  was  advancing  on 
Murfreesboro,  the  engagement  of  Knob  Gap  occurred,  when  Col.  Stem's  regi- 
ment charged  and  took  a  rebel  battery,  with  several  prisoners.  The  army 
closed  around  Murfreesboro,  and  on  the  evening  of  the  30th,  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  First  was  engaged  in  demonstrations  against  the  enemy.  Next 
morning,  the  battle  of  Stone  River  began  in  earnest.  When  Col.  Stem's  regi- 
ment began  to  waver,  he  called  out:  "  Stand  by  the  flag  now,  for  the  good 
old  State  of  Ohio  !  "  and  instantly  fell,  fatally  wounded. 

Lieut.  Col.  Jonas  D.  Elliott  held  his  position  in  May,  1863.  During  the 
summer  of  1864,  he  commanded  the  left  wing  of  the  regiment  at  Dodsonville, 
Ala.;  in  September,  he  was  sent  after  Wheeler,  and  was  ordered  into  camp  at 
Decatur.  On  the  23d,  he  was  dispatched  to  Athens,  to  participate  in  the  attack 
of  Gen.  Forrest,  of  the  rebels.  Col.  Elliott  was  sent  out,  with  300  men,  and 
being  surrounded  by  Gen.  Forrest,  with  vastly  superior  numbers,  a  forced  resist- 
ance enabled  them  to  sustain  their  own  ground,  until  a  fresh  brigade  of  rebels 
arrived,  under  Gen,  Warren.  This  officer  instructed  one  of  his  men  to  shoot 
Lieut.  Col.  Elliott,  and  a  moment  later  he  fell.     He  lingered  nineteen  days. 

Col.  Joseph  L.  Kirby  Smith  took  command  of  the  Forty-third  Ohio  Regi- 
ment.    He  fell  at  the  battle  of  Corinth,  under  Rosecrans. 

Lieut.  Col.  James  W.  Shane  fell,  June  27,  1864,  in  an  assault  upon  the 
enemy's  works  at  Kenesaw.     He  survived  but  forty  minutes. 

Col.  Augustus  H.  Coleman  displayed  the  abilities  of  a  successful  commander. 
He  was  in  the  first  charge  on  the  bridge  across  Antietaf  Creek.  He  was 
fatally  wounded.     His  last  words  were  inquiries  regarding  his  men. 

Col.  J.  W.  Lowe  commanded  the  Twelfth  Ohio,  and  was  ordered  to  assist 
the  Tenth  in  the  battle  of  Carnifex  Ferry.  Cheering  his  men,  in  the  thickest 
of  the  fight,  a  rifle  ball  pierced  his  forehead,  and  he  fell  dead — the  first  field 
officer  from  Ohio  killed  in  battle  in  the  war  for  the  Union. 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  177 

Lieut.  Col.  Moses  F.  Wooster  was  engaged  with  his  regiment,  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  First  Ohio,  at  Perryville.  He  was  mortally  wounded  on  the  31st 
of  December,  1862,  in  the  grand  effort  to  stem  the  tide  of  defeat  at  Stone 

The  list  of  staff  officers  we  refrain  from  giving,  through  lack  of  space. 

At  the  opening  of  the  war,  William  Dennison  was  Governor  of  Ohio.  David 
Tod  succeeded  him.     John  Brough  was  the  third  War  Governor. 

Secretary  Edwin  M.  Stanton  was  one  of  the  most  popular  war  Ministers. 
He  was  born  in  Steubenville,  Ohio,  in  1815  ;  he  was  engaged  in  the  United 
States  Circuit  Court,  in  1860,  in  a  leading  law  suit,  at  Cincinnati,  known  as  the 
Manny  and  McCormick  reaper  trial ;  on  the  20th  of  January,  1862,  he  was 
appointed  Secretary  of  War  by  Mr.  Lincoln. 

Ex-Secretary  Salmon  P.  Chase's  public  services  in  Ohio  have  already  been 
mentioned  in  these  pages.  In  1861,  he  was  appointed  Secretary  of  the  Treas- 
ury, in  Mr.  Lincoln's  cabinet. 

United  States  Senator  B.  F.  Wade  made  his  reputation  in  Ohio.  This 
Senator  of  the  State  stood  at  the  head  of  the  Committee  on  the  Conduct  of  the 
War  throughout  its  duration. 

United  States  Senator  John  Sherman  was  a  leading  member  of  the  Finance 
•Committee,  during  the  war.     For  some  time  he  was  its  Chairman. 

Jay  Cooke  was  the  financial  agent  of  the  Government,  furnishing  money  for 
the  payment  of  the  troops.     He  was  born  in  Portland,  Huron  Co.,  Ohio. 

In  our  brief  review  of  the  war  record  of  Ohio,  we  have  omitted  a  vast 
amount  of  detail  information  that  would  prove  interesting  to  our  readers.  We 
believe  we  have  been  accurate  in  whatever  we  have  given,  taking  as  our  authority, 
that  accepted  "encyclopedia"  of  Ohio  war  facts — Whitelaw  Reid,  who  has  pub- 
lished a  valuable  volume  on  the  subject. 


It  may  be  well  in  glancing  over  the  achievements  of  Ohio,  her  momentous 
labors  and  grand  successes,  to  refer  to  the  Ordinance  of  1787,  more  minutely 
than  we  have  done,  in  relation  to  many  events,  since  its  inherent  principles  are 
not  only  perpetuated  in  the  laws  of  the  entire  Northwest,  but  have  since  been 
woven  into  the  general  Constitution  of  the  L^nited  States.  It  made  permanent 
the  standard  and  character  of  immigration,  social  culture  and  political  and  edu- 
cational institutions.  It  was  thoroughly  antislavery  and  denounced  involuntary 
servitude,  which  was  sanctioned  in  every  other  State  at  that  time,  with  the 
exception  of  Massachusetts.  It  protected  religion  and  property.  As  late  as 
1862,  Gen.  William  Henry  Harrison,  Governor  of  Indiana,  called  a  convention 
for  the  purpose  of  considering  the  slavery  question,  and  the  feasibility  of  intro- 
ducing the  system  in  the  new  States  and  Territories  being  formed.  There 
was  at  this  time  a  spirited  contest,  and  Illinois,  Indiana  and  possibly  Ohio, 
barely  escaped  a  decision  that  a  full  support  should  be  given  its  introduction 

178  HISTORY   OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

into  these  States.  Its  adoption  was  based  upon  certain  specifications  and 
limits  of  time,  which  upon  a  deeper  consideration  was  deemed  perplexing  and 

An  animated  discussion  arose  not  long  since,  regarding  the  correct  author- 
ship of  this  important  ordinance,  and  its  chief  worker  in  gaining  its  sanction 
by  Congress. 

Mr.  Webster  ascribed  its  authorship  to  Mathew  Dane,  of  Massachusetts, 
which  statement  was  immediately  refuted  by  Mr.  Benton,  of  Mississippi,  who 
laid  claim  to  it  as  the  birthright  of  Thomas  Jefferson,  of  Virginia. 

It  has  been  almost  impossible  to  obtain  accurate  reports  of  the  actions  of  the 
old  Continental  Congress,  from  the  fact  that  its  meetings  were  held  in  secret, 
and  any  reports  either  narrated  or  shown  in  schedules  or  lists,  were  deemed  a 
striking  lack  of  trust  on  the  part  of  the  person  who  furnished  the  information. 
It  was  sufl&cient  that  its  acts  and  conclusions  be  proclaimed  without  any  prelude 
or  reasoning  process.  Hence  it  has  been  difficult  to  obtain  early  Congressional 
documents.  But  it  has  been  conclusively  proven  that  the  great  motive  power 
in  gaining  the  approbation  of  the  Ordinance  of  1787,  Avas  neither  Dane  nor 
Jefferson,  but  Dr.  Cutler. 

He  arrived  at  New  York,  July  5  of  that  year,  after  a  journey  from  Ipswich, 
Mass.,  in  his  sulky.  He  obtained  lodgings  at  the  "Plow  and  Harrow,"  and 
saw  that  his  good  horse  was  properly  cared  for  and  fed  at  the  same  place. 
Congress  was  then  in  session,  and  he  had  come  on  a  mission  for  the  Ohio  Com- 
pany, to  negotiate  their  grant  and  its  privileges  in  the  new  Territory  of  Ohio. 
He  remained  in  New  York  three  weeks,  constantly  engaged  in  the  work  vital  to 
the  interests  of  the  future  great  State.  But  he  secured  the  installment  of  the 
principles  deemed  the  corner-stone  of  a  future  powerful  State  constitution.  Mr. 
Poole,  Librarian  of  the  Chicago  Public  Library,  searched  assiduously  for  con- 
clusive proof  of  Dr.  Cutler's  right  to  this  honor,  and  in  the  North  American 
Review,  Vol.  122,  this  is  emphatically  set  forth  with  substantiating  proof  under 
his  signature. 

Other  facts  have  been  discussed  and  proven  at  a  very  recent  date,  relative 
to  the  State  of  Ohio,  which  heretofore  have  been  omitted,  and  nearly  lost  from 
the  historic  thread  which  unites  the  present  with  the  past. 

The  first  settlement  of  the  lands  of  the  Northwest  is  necessarily  surrounded 
with  interest.  But  those  were  exciting,  troublesome  times,  and  a  few  links 
were  passed  over  lightly.  However,  the  years  are  not  so  far  removed  in  the 
past  but  the  line  may  be  traced. 

Mr.  Francis  W.  Miller,  of  Cincinnati,  has  supplied  some  missing  chapters. 
The  earliest  documentary  trace  extant,  regarding  the  southern  settlement  at 
Cincinnati,  is  an  agreement  of  partnership  between  Denman,  Filson  and  Pat- 
terson, in  the  fractional  section  of  land  to  which  the  city  of  Cincinnati  was 
originally  limited.  It  bears  the  date  August  25,  1788.  This  was  entered  ou 
the  records  of  Hamilton  County,  Ohio,  October  6,  1803. 

HISTORY   OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  179 

A  letter  from  Jonathan  Dayton  to  the  Hon.  Judge  Symmes,  dated  Septem- 
"ber  26,  1789,  says:  "You  have  been  selling  your  lands,  I  am  told,  for  two 
shillings  specie,  the  acre.  The  price  at  this  moment  is,  and  seems  to  be,  and 
undoubtedly  is,  a  good  one ;  but  as  much  cannot  be  said  of  it  when  you  find 
hereafter  that  in  consequence  of  the  rise  of  certificates,  another  acre,  in  another 
payment,  may  cost  you  in  specie  two  shillings  and  sixpence." 

A  letter  from  John  C.  Symmes  to  Capt.  Dayton,  dated  April  30,  1790, 
says:  "The  land  in  the  reserved  township  is  held  at  much  too  high  a  price. 
Not  a  foot  of  land  beyond  the  five-acre  lots  will  sell.  Five  shillings,  specie, 
or  two  dollars  in  certificates,  is  the  utmost  they  will  bring,  and  they  will  rarely 
sell  at  that." 

This  state  of  affairs  was  in  a  large  degree  brought  about  by  the  breaking-up 
of  North  Bend  and  a  removal  of  the  town  to  Fort  Washington,  or  Cincinnati, 
later.  A  search  through  the  old  letters  and  other  preserved  documents  prove 
that  North  Bend  was  at  one  time  the  beginning  of  the  great  city  on  the  Ohio, 
rather  than  Cincinnati.  Judge  Symmes  wrote.  May  18,  1789:  "  I  have  not  as 
yet  been  able  to  make  a  decisive  choice  of  a  plat  for  the  city,  though  I  have 
found  two  pieces  of  ground,  both  eligible,  but  not  upon  the  present  plan  of  a 
regular  square.  It  is  a  question  of  no  little  moment  and  difiiculty  to  deter- 
mine which  of  these  spots  is  preferable,  in  point  of  local  situation.  I  know 
that  at  first  thought  men  will  decide  in  favor  of  that  on  the  Ohio,  from  the 
supposition  that  the  Ohio  will  command  more  trade  and  business  than  the 
Miami.  *  *  *  ;g^^  ^^  ^^  ^^^e  built  on  the  Miami,  the  settlers 
throughout  the  purchase  would  find  it  very  convenient." 

Another  of  the  earliest  selections  of  town  sites  was  adjacent  to  the  most 
southerly  point  of  what  is  now  Delhi  Township.  To  this  the  name  of  South 
Bend  was  given.  Judge  Symmes  reports  November  4,  1790,  of  this  place, 
over  forty  framed  and  hewed-log  two-story  houses,  since  the  preceding  spring. 
Ensign  Luce  is  said  to  have  taken  his  troops  to  Bend,  but  decided  to 
remove  to  Cincinnati,  on  account  of  the  object  of  his  affections  having  settled 
there — the  wife  of  a  settler.  But  this  story  is  refuted  by  contradictory  evi- 
dence from  Judge  Symmes'  letters,  which  illustrate  the  fact  that  the  post  of 
North  Bend  was  abandoned  by  Ensign  Luce  and  his  men  in  consequence  of  a 
panic,  caused  by  Indian  attacks.  The  removal  of  the  troops  caused  a  general 
decline  of  the  town.  Again,  history  and  letters  from  the  same  eminent  Judge, 
assert  that  Fort  Washington  was  completed  and  garrisoned  by  Maj.  Doughty 
before  the  close  of  that  same  year,  and  was  begun  by  him  during  the  summer, 
that  Ensign  Luce  must  have  still  been  at  his  post  at  the  bend  at  that  time.  It 
has  been,  therefore,  recently  accepted  that  the  traditional  "black  eyes"  and 
the  "Indian  panic,"  had  nothing  to  do  with  the  founding  of  Cincinnati,  and 
that  the  advantages  of  the  position  gained  the  victory. 

Cincinnati  has  advanced,  not  only  in  prosperity  and  culture,  but  in  national 
significance.     Our  readers  must  have  observed,  in  perusing  these  pages,  that 

180  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

from  this  city  and  the  State  which  it  represents,  have  emanated  some  of  the 
superior  intellects  which  have  used  their  wise  faculties  and  talents,  tempered  by 
a  wise  judgment,  in  behalf  of  the  American  Union. 

The  originality  of  the  Senecas  and  Wyandots  have  been  debated  at  some 
length,  while  others  have  called  the  tribes  the  same,  having  two  branches.  We 
have  searched  the  earlier  records  and  have  found  an  authenticated  account  of 
these  two  tribes. 

The  Indian  tribes  of  Ohio  were  originally  bold,  fierce  and  stalwart.  The 
country  watered  by  the  Sandusky  and  its  tributaries  was  frequented  by  the 
Wyandot  tribe,  who  came  from  the  north  side  of  the  St.  Lawrence  River.  The 
Senecas  were  blood  relatives  of  this  tribe.  Both  tribes  were  numbered  by  the 
thousands.  A  war  originated  between  them,  in  this  manner :  A  Wyandot 
chief  desired  to  wed  the  object  of  his  afi'ections,  who  laughed  him  to  scorn, 
because  he  had  taken  no  scalps,  and  was  no  warrior  "  to  speak  of."  To  change 
her  opinion,  he  led  out  a  party,  and  falling  upon  a  number  of  Senecas,  slaugh- 
tered them  mercilessly,  that  he  might  hasten  to  the  side  of  his  dusky  belle,  with 
his  trophies.  This  act  inaugurated  hostilities,  which  extended  through  a  century. 
The  Wyandots  began  to  fear  extermination,  and,  gathering  their  entire  effects^ 
the  natives  escaped  to  Green  Bay,  and  settled  in  several  villages.  But  the  Sen- 
ecas made  up  a  war  party  and  followed  them,  killing  many  Wyandots  and  burn- 
ing some  of  their  villages.  They  then  returned  to  Canada.  Soon  thereafter, 
they  secured  fire-arms  from  the  French.  Again  they  followed  the  Wyandots, 
firing  their  guns  into  their  huts,  and  frightening  them  severely.  They  did  not 
succeed  as  well  as  they  expected.  But  the  third  party  nearly  exterminated  the 
villages,  because  the  young  warriors  Avere  nearly  all  gone  to  war  with  the  Foxes. 
The  few  at  home  escaping,  promised  to  return  with  the  Senecas,  but  desired 
two  days  for  preparation.  The  Wyandots  sent  word  to  the  two  villages  left 
undisturbed,  and  held  a  consultation.  They  decided  to  go  as  near  the  Senecas 
as  possible,  unobserved,  and  discover  their  real  motive.  They  found  them  feast- 
ing on  two  roasted  Wyandots,  shouting  over  their  victory.  They  danced  nearly 
all  night,  and  then  fell  asleep.  A  little  before  daylight,  the  Wyandots  fell  on 
them,  leaving  not  one  to  carry  back  the  news. 

The  Wyandots  then  procured  guns,  and  began  to  grow  formidable.  They 
set  out  to  return  to  their  own  country,  and  proceeded  on  their  way  as  far  as 
Detroit,  where  they  met  a  party  of  Senecas,  on  the  lake.  A  fierce  conflict 
ensued,  and  the  Wyandots  beheld  the  Senecas  fall,  to  the  last  man,  suffering 
fearful  carnage  themselves.  They  soon  settled  in  this  part  of  the  world,  their 
principal  village  being  on  the  Sandusky.  Northwestern  Ohio  was  particularly 
dangerous  with  new  Indian  tribes,  and  the  Wyandots  were  cruelly  aggressive. 
The  death  of  their  chief,  and  their  total  defeat  by  Harrison,  destroyed  their 
power  forever. 

On  the  29th  of  September,  1817,  a  treaty  was  held,  at  the  foot  of  the  rapids 
of  the  Miami  of   Lake  Erie,  between  Lewis  Cass  and   Duncan  McArthur, 

HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO.  181 

Commissioners  of  the  United  States,  and  the  sachems,  chiefs  and  warriors  of  the 
Wyandot,  Seneca,  Delaware,  Shawnee,  Potawattomie,  Ottawa  and  Chippewa 
nations.     All  their  lands  in  Ohio  were  ceded  to  the  United  States  forever. 

There  was  really  not  a  Seneca  in  the  Seneca  nation.  They  were  chiefly 
Cayugas,  Mohawks,  Onondagas,  Tuscarawas,  Wyandots  and  Oneidas.  But  the 
Mingoes  were  originally  Cayugas,  and  their  chief  was  the  celebrated  Logan. 
After  the  murder  of  his  family  by  the  whites,  the  Mingoes  were  scattered  over 
the  territory  northwest  of  the  Ohio. 

The  notorious  Simon  Girty  was  adopted  by  the  Senecas.  Girty's  name  was 
a  terror  and  fiendish  horror  for  many  years.  He  not  only  led  the  Indians  in 
their  atrocities,  but  he  added  barbarism  to  their  native  wickedness. 


When  peace  was  proclaimed,  after  the  surrender  of  Gen.  Robert  E.  Lee  to 
Gen.  U.  S.  Grant,  the  volunteer  troops  disbanded,  and  a  return  to  home  indus- 
tries instituted,  Ohio,  like  many  other  States,  gave  direct  attention  to  the  inter- 
ests of  returned  soldiers.  The  thrift  of  the  State  was  augmented  by  a  spasmodic, 
and  thereafter  recognized  as  a  fictitious,  demand  for  products,  commercial  and 
industrial  pursuits  redoubled  their  forces.  But  the  great  wave  of  stagnation 
swept  over  this  fair  land — the  re-action  of  a  war  excitement.  Laborers  were 
many,  but  wages  were  inadequate.  Deeper  and  deeper  settled  this  lethargy — 
called  by  many  "hard  times" — until  the  wheels  of  commercial  life  revolved 
slowly,  and  from  the  workshops  and  the  factories  went  up  the  echoes  of  priva- 
tion and  distress.  There  was  no  famine,  no  fever,  no  epidemic,  it  was  simply 
exhaustion.  In  the  larger  cities  there  was  much  suffering.  Idle  people  loitered 
about,  barely  seeking  employment,  the  task  seeming  worse  than  hopeless. 

During  the  years  1870,  1871  and  1872,  the  stringent  measures  brought 
about  by  the  depressed  state  of  business  retarded  any  material  advancement  in 
general  matters.  The  years  1873-74  were  marked  by  a  preceptible  improve- 
ment, and  a  few  factories  were  established,  while  larger  numbers  were  employed 
in  those  already  founded.  The  year  1875  was  under  the  direction  of  a  Demo- 
cratic Legislature.  It  was  marked  in  many  respects  by  a  "reverse  motion  "  in 
many  laws  and  regulations. 

The  Legislature  which  convened  in  1876,  January  3,  was  Republican  in  the 
main.  It  repealed  the  "  Geghan  Law  "  passed  by  the  preceding  body.  At 
the  time  of  its  adoption,  there  was  the  most  intense  feeling  throughout  the  State, 
the  charge  being  made  that  it  was  in  the  interests  of  the  Catholics.  Among 
the  general  enactments  were  laws  re-organizing  the  government  of  the  State  insti- 
tutions, which  the  previous  Legislature  had  ordered  according  to  their  own  belief 
to  follow  new  doctrines.  The  oflBce  of  Comptroller  of  the  Treasury  was  abolished. 
The  powers  of  municipal  corporations  to  levy  taxes  was  limited,  and  their 
authority  to  incur  debts  was  limited.  Furthermore,  this  body  prohibited  any 
municipal  appropriations,  unless  the  actual  money  was  in  the  Treasury  to  meet 

182  HISTORY    OF    THE    STATE    OF    OHIO. 

the  same  in  full.     A  law  was  passed  for  the  protection  of  children  under  fourteen 
years  of  age,  exhibited  in  public  shows. 

The  temperance  cause  received  more  vigorous  and  solid  support  than  was 
ever  rendered  by  the "  State  previously.  A  common-sense,  highly  moral  and 
exalted  platform  was  formed  and  supported  by  many  leading  men. 

This  year  witnessed  the  serious  "strikes"  among  the  miners  in  Stark  and 
Wayne  Counties.  The  consequences  were  painful — distress,  riots  and  distruc- 
tion  of  property. 

The  State  Mine  Inspector  reported  300  coal  mines  in  the  State,  with  only 
twenty-five  in  operation.  Not  over  3,000,000  tons  of  coal  were  raised  during 
the  year,  owing  to  the  dullness  of  the  times. 

The  State  charities  reported  the  aggregate  number  under  public  care  to  be 
29,508.  The  taxation  for  the  maintenance  of  these  classes  was  one  and  one 
six-hundredth  of  a  mill  on  each  dollar  of  taxable  property. 

The  reports  given  of  the  year  1877  indicated  a  revival  of  business  interests 
and  prosperity.  The  State  produced  of  wheat,  27,306,566  bushels ;  rye, 
914,106  bushels;  buckwheat,  225,822  bushels;  oats,  29,325,611;  barley, 
1,629,817  bushels ;  corn,  101,884,305  bushels  ;  timothy,  tons  of  hay,  2,160,334 ; 
clover,  tons  of  hay,  286,265;  flax,  pounds  of  fiber,  7,343,294;  potatoes, 
,10,504,278  bushels;  sweet  potatoes,  126,354^  bushels;  tobacco,  24,214,950 
pounds;  sorghum,  sugar,  7,507^  pounds;  syrup,  1,180,255  gallons;  maple 
sugar,  1,625,215  pounds ;  maple  syrup,  324,036  gallons ;  honey,  1,534,902 

The  growth  of  manufacturing  industries,  the  remarkable  annual  increase 
in  stock  and  in  agricultural  products  since  1877,  leave  no  room  to  doubt  the 
rapid  advancement  of  Ohio  in  general  wealth. 

I  wild  me 





ft.  im 

u  doQbt  tbe 





:Bizr  :r.  o.  BiRO'wisr.* 


Primitive  Appearance  of  the  Country— The  Claims  of  Virginia  and  Con- 
necticut—The Connecticut  Western  Reserve— Donation  of  Fire 
Lands,  and  Sale  of  the  Balance  to  the  Connecticut  Land  Company- 
Indian  Titles  Extinguished— Ordinance  of  1787— Arrival  of  the  First 
Surveying  Corps  at  Conneaut— The  Reserve  Surveyed  into  Townships 
— Trials  and  Sufferings  of  the  Surveyors— Erection  of  Jefferson  and 
Trumbull  Counties— Organization  of  Franklin  Township— Portage 
County  Erected,  and  Selection  of  its  Seat  of  Justice— First  Election, 
AND  Organization  of  the  County— Minutes  of  the  First  Meeting  of 
THE  Commissioners— Original  Townships— Tax  Levies  and  Collectors 
OF  1808— First  Year's  Receipts  and  Expenditures— Changes  in  the 
Western  Boundary  Line— Present  Boundaries— Origin  of  the  Name  of 
THE  County— The  Portage  Path — Areas  and  Townships — Population 

WHAT  is  now  known  as  Portage  County  was,  at  the  time  of  the  com- 
ing of  the  white  men,  one  vast,  unbroken  forest.  The  soil,  by  the 
annual  accumulations  of  leaves  and  abundant  growths  of  forest  vegetation, 
was  luxuriant,  and  the  trees  stood  close,  and  were  of  gigantic  size.  The 
streams  and  small  lakes  swarmed  with  fish,  and  the  forest  abounded  with 
game.  Where  now  are  towns  and  hamlets  filled  with  busy  populations  intent 
upon  the  accumulation  of  wealth,  the  mastery  of  knowledge,  and  the  pursuits 
of  pleasure,  the  deer  browsed  and  the  pheasant  drummed  his  monotonous  note. 
Where  now  stands  the  glowing  furnace  from  which,  day  and  night,  tongues  of 
flame  are  bursting,  and  where  the  busy  water-wheel  now  furnishes  power  for  num- 
erous mills  and  factories,  half  naked,  dusky  warriors  fashioned  their  spears  with 
rude  implements  of  stoxie,  and  made  themselves  hooks  out  of  the  bones  of  ani- 
mals, for  alluring  the  tinny  tribe.  Where  now  are  fertile  fields,  upon  which  the 
thrifty  farmer  turns  his  furrow,  which  his  neighbor  takes  up  and  runs  on  until 
it  reaches  from  one  end  of  the  broad  State  to  the  other,  and  where  are  flocks 
and  herds  rejoicing  in  rich  meadows,  gladdened  by  abundant  streams  and 
fountains,  or  reposing  at  the  heated  noon-tide  beneath  ample  shade,  not  a 
blow  had  been  struck  against  the  giants  of  the  forest,  the  soil  rested  in  virgin 
purity,  the  streams  glided  on  in  majesty,  unvexed  by  wheel  and  unchoked  by 
device  of  man. 

Where  now  the  long  train  rushes  on  with  the  speed  of  the  wind  over  plain 
and  mead,  across  brook  and  river,  awakening  the  echoes  of  the  hills  the  long 
day  through,  and  at  the  midnight  hour  screaming  out  its  shrill   whistle  in 

♦Chapters  I  to  XIII  inclusive. 


fiery  defiance,  the  wild  native,  issuing  from  his  rude  hut,  trotted  on  in  his 
forest  path,  pointed  his  bark  canoe  across  the  deep  stream,  knowing  the  prog- 
ress of  time  only  by  the  rising  and  setting  sun,  troiibled  by  no  meridians 
for  its  index,  starting  on  his  way  when  his  nap  was  ended,  and  stopping  for 
rest  when  a  spot  was  reached  that  pleased  his  fancy.  Where  now  a  swarthy 
population  toils  ceaselessly  deep  down  in  the  bowels  of  the  earth,  shut  out  from 
the  light  of  day  in  digging  the  material  that  feeds  the  tires  upon  the  forge,  and' 
gives  genial  warmth  to  the  poor  man's  happy  home,  and  to  the  lovers  as  they 
chat  merrily  in  the  luxurious  drawing-room,  not  a  mine  had  been  opened, 
and  the  vast  beds  of  the  black  diamond  rested  unsunned  beneath  the  superin- 
cumbent strata  where  they  had  been  fashioned  by  the  Creator's  hand.  Civili- 
zation had  not  yet  come  to  disturb  the  equanimity  of  the  red  man  as  he 
smoked  the  pipe  of  peace  at  the  council  fire,  and  many  a  bitter  struggle  was  to 
ensue  before  he  would  surrender  to  his  white  foe  his  goodly  heritage  by  the 
forest  stream  and  deep  flowing  river,  and  seek  for  himself  new  hunting-grounds 
in  less  favored  regions. 

The  first  authentic  record  we  find  of  the  white  man's  claim  to  this  portion 
of  the  red  man's  domain  is  the  Virginia  title  to  the  great  Northwest  Territory, 
acquired  through  its  several  charters  granted  by  James  I  in  1606,  1609  and 
1611,  without  any  recognition  of  the  original  owners  and  occupants  of  the 
soil.  That  colony  first  attempted  to  exercise  au.thority  over  its  extensive 
dominions  lying  northwest  of  the  Ohio  River,  when,  in  1769,  the  House  of 
Burgesses  passed  the  following  act; 

Whereas,  The  people  situated  on  the  Mississippi,  in  the  said  County  of  Botetourt, 
will  be  very  remote  from  the  Court  House  and  must  necessarily  become  a  separate  county 
as  soon  as  their  numbers  are  sulEcient,  which  probably  will  happen  in  a  short  time,  be  it 
therefore  enacted  by  the  authority  aforesaid,  that  the  inhabitants  of  that  part  of  the  said 
County  of  Botetourt  which  lies  on  the  said  waters,  shall  be  exempted  from  the  payment 
of  any  levies  to  be  laid  by  the  said  County  Court  for  the  purpose  of  building  a  Court 
House  and  prison  for  said  county. 

Civil  government  between  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi  Rivers  existed  only  in 
name  until  1778,  when,  after  the  conquest  of  the  country  by  Gen.  George 
Rogers  Clark,  the  Virginia  Legislature  organized  the  County  of  Illinois, 
embracing  within  its  limits  all  of  the  lands  lying  west  of  the  Ohio  River  to 
which  Virginia  had  any  claim.  Col.  John  Todd  received  appointment  from 
the  Governor  of  Virginia  as  Civil  Commandant  and  Lieutenant  of  the 
county.  He  served  until  his  death,  at  the  battle  of  Blue  Licks  in  1782,  and 
Timothy  de  Montbrun  was  his  successor.  In  1783  the  General  Assembly  of 
Virginia  passed  an  act  authorizing  her  delegates  in  Congress  to  convey  to  the 
United  States  all  the  rights  of  Virginia  to  the  territory  northwest  of  the  Ohio 
River.  Pursuant  to  this  act,  Thomas  Jefferson,  Samuel  Hardy,  Arthur  Lee 
and  James  Monroe,  the  Virginia  delegates,  ceded  to  the  general  Government, 
on  the  1st  of  March,  1784,  all  right,  title  and  claim  of  soil  and  jurisdiction 
to  said  tei'ritory  previously  held  by  Virginia.  The  deed  of  cession  was 
accepted  by  Congress  on  the  same  day,  and  the  United  States  thus  secured  the 
title  of  that  State  to  the  soil  of  Ohio. 

Another  claim,  however,  still  remained  to  be  satisfied,  which  was  more 
closely  connected  with  the  portion  of  Ohio  known  as  the  Western  Reserve  than 
the  preceding  one.  "  This  claim  reaches  back  to  the  founding  of  Connecticut, 
the  original  charter  of  which  was  granted  by  Charles  II  in  1662.  It  defined 
the  limits  of  the  grant  to  be  "  from  the  south  line  of  Massachusetts  on  the 
north  to  Long  Island  Sound  on  the  south,  and  from  the  Narragansett  River  on 
the  east  to  the  Pacific  Ocean   on  the    west,"  which    embraced   all  the  country 


lying  between  the  41st  and  42d  degrees  north  latitude.  These  boundaries 
included  not  only  what  is  now  Connecticut,  but  also  portions  of  New  York  and 
New  Jersey,  nearly  half  of  Pennsylvania,  the  northern  parts  of  Ohio,  Indiana 
and  Illinois,  and  a  strip  oflf  the  southern  part  of  Michigan,  besides  portions  of 
Iowa,  Nebraska,  Colorado,  Wyoming,  Utah,  Nevada  and  California.  There 
was  a  clause,  however,  in  the  charter,  which  excepted  from  it  such  territory  as 
was  then  occupijed  by  prior  settlers. 

A  dispute  soon  arose  between  New  York  and  Connecticut  as  to  their  bound- 
aries, when  the  King,  in  1664,  appointed  Commissioners  to  settle  it.  They 
decided  that  the  Maronee  Kiver  should  be  the  western  boundary  of  Connecti- 
cut. With  this  decision  against  her,  Connecticut  neglected  for  nearly  a  century 
to  assert  her  claim  to  any  territory  west  of  New  York.  In  1681  a  charter  was 
granted  to  William  Penn  of  the  territory  embraced  in  the  limits  of  Pennsyl- 
vania. This,  of  course,  embraced  a  large  part  of  the  territory  included  in  the 
charter  of  Connecticut,  and  bitter  quarrels  now  sprung  up  between  the  two 
colonies  as  to  their  respective  rights.  In  1753  a  company  was  formed  in  Con- 
necticut to  plant  a  colony  on  the  Susquehanna  River,  on  lands  they  claimed  as 
included  in  her  Charter.  A  purchase  was  made  of  the  sachems  of  the  Six 
Nations  by  this  company  in  1754,  at  Wyoming,  and  in  1774  a  township  was 
formed  there,  called  Westmoreland,  which  sent  a  Representative  to  the  Legis- 
lature of  Connecticut.  Pennsylvania  and  Connecticut  both  sold  the  same  lands, 
and  both  agreed  to  give  possession,  which  caused  constant  quarrels,  and  resort 
was  often  had  to  arms  to  expel  those  in  possession.  In  1770  the  Legislature 
of  Connecticut  sent  to  England  certain  questions  respecting  her  title  to  the 
lands  west  of  New  York.  The  answers  were  favorable  to  her  claims,  and  she 
determined  to  enforce  them,  but  the  Revolutionary  war  coming  on  suspended 
the  controversy. 

In  1781  the  two  States  appointed  Commissioners  to  determine  the  dispute, 
and  an  act  of  Congress  was  passed  granting  to  these  Commissioners  full  power 
to  act  in  the  tinal  settlement  of  the  conflicting  claims.  The  Commissioners  met 
at  Trenton,  N.  J.,  in  1782,  and  after  a  full  hearing  decided  that  Connecticut  had 
no  right  to  the  lands  in  dispute,  but  that  they  belonged  to  Pennsylvania.  The 
State  of  Connecticut  acquiesced  in  the  decision,  but  still  claimed  all  the  lands 
lying  west  of  Pennsylvania,  extending  to  the  Mississippi  River.  To  avoid  all 
future  trouble,  Connecticut,  in  1786,  ceded  all  her  lands  west  of  Pennsylvania 
to  Congress,  excepting  only  120  miles  from  the  Pennsylvania  line  west,  and 
north  of  latitude  41°,  over  which,  however,  the  United  States  retained  full 
jurisdiction.     This  cession  was  accepted,  and  the  controversy  finally  settled. 

The  territory  thus  confirmed  to  Connecticut  has  since  been  known  as  the 
Western  Reserve,  and  lies  between  Lake  Erie  on  the  north,  Pennsylvania  on 
the  east,  the  parallel  of  the  41st  degree  north  latitude  on  the  south,  and  the 
eastern  line  of  Seneca  and  Sandusky  Counties  on  the  west.  It  extends  120 
miles  from  east  to  west,  and  averages  about  fifty  miles  from  north  to  south, 
although  on  the  Pennsylvania  line  its  width  is  sixty-eight  miles.  The  Reserve 
contains  about  3,800,000  acres,  and  is  surveyed  into  townships,  each  five 
miles  square.  Half  a  million  acres  from  off  the  west  end  of  the  Reserve  were 
granted  by  Connecticut  in  1792  to  the  residents  of  Greenwich,  New  London, 
Norwalk,  Fairfield,  Danbury,  New  Haven,  and  other  villages  of  that  State, 
whose  property  was  burned  by  the  English  during  the  Revolutionary  war. 
This  grant  is  called  the  Fire  Lands,  because  of  being  donated  to  compensate 
for  the  property  destroyed  by  fire,  and  includes  the  five  western  ranges  of 
townships  in  the  Reserve.  Excepting  one  township  in  Ashland  County,  and  a 
small  strip  at  the  eastern   end  of   Ottawa,  the  Fire  Lands  are  embraced  in 


Huron  find  Erie  Counties.  The  entire  Western  Reserve  embraces  the  present 
counties  of  Ashtabula,  Cuyahoga,  Erie,  Geauga,  Huron,  Lake,  Lorain,  Medi- 
na, Portage  and  Trumbull;  also  the  greater  portion  of  Mahoning  and  Sum- 
mit, and  very  limited  portions  of  Ashland  and  Ottaw^a. 

After  the  donation  of  the  Fire  Lands,  the  remaining  3,300,000  acres  were 
put  upon  the  market,  and  in  1795  sold  by  the  State  to  the  Connecticut  Land 
Company  for  $1,200,000.  This  money  was  invested  as  a  permanent  fund, 
called  the  Connecticut  School  Fund,  the  interest  of  which  goes  toward  the 
support  of  common  schools  in  that  State.  The  land  company  divided  the 
amount  into  400  shares  of  $3,000  each,  on  payment  of  which  a  certificate  was 
issued  entitling  the  holder  to  one  four-hundredth  part  of  the  lands  purchased. 
The  company  conveyed  it  by  deed  of  trust  to  Jonathan  Bran,  John  Caldwell 
and  John  Mayan,  to  hold  and  sell  for  the  proprietors.  The  certificates  were 
all  numbered,  and  then  the  proprietors  drew  for  their  land,  similar  to  draw- 
ing a  lottery. 

Before  the  whites,  however,  could  take  peaceable  possession  of  their  lands 
lying  in  the  Western  Reserve,  a  title  from  the  Indians  was  necessary,  and  this 
was  finally  accomplished.  Through  the  treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix,  consummated 
with  the  Six  Nations  October  22,  1784,  the  indefinite  claim  of  that  confederacy 
to  the  soil  of  Ohio  was  extinguished.  This  was  followed  in  January,  1785, 
by  the  treaty  of  Fort  Mcintosh,  by  which  the  Delawai-es,  Wyandots,  Ottawas 
and  Chippewas  relinquished  all  claim  to  the  territory  lying  east  of  the  Cuya- 
hoga River,  Portage  Path  and  Tuscarawas  River,  and  south  of  a  line  running 
southwest  from  Fort  Laurens,  on  the  Tuscarawas  (the  town  of  Bolivar),  to  the 
portage  between  the  Big  Miami  and  Maumee  Rivers,  near  the  western  bound- 
ary of  the  State.  A  similar  relinquishment  was  effected  with  the  Shawnees 
by  the  treaty  of  Fort  Finney,  January  31,  1786.  The  treaty  of  Fort  Har- 
mar,  January  9,  1789,  and  that  of  Greenville,  August  3,  1795,  re-established 
and  extended  the  southern  boundary  line  through  Ohio  laid  down  by  the 
treaty  of  Fort  Mcintosh.  All  of  the  Western  Reserve  lying  west  of  the  Cuya- 
hoga River  and  the  Portage  Path  was  secured  by  a  treaty  made  at  Fort  Industry 
(Toledo),  July  4,  1805,  and  thus  the  last  vestige  of  Indian  title  to  the  lands  in 
the  Reserve  was  forever  extinguished. 

When  the  United  States  had  obtained  possession  of  the  country  north  and 
west  of  the  Ohio  River,  Congress  took  the  great  step  which  resulted  in  the 
establishment  of  a  wise  and  salutary  civil  government.  On  the  13th  of  July, 
1787,  after  a  prolonged  discussion  of  the  principles  and  issues  involved,  there 
was  issued  "An  Ordinance  for  the  Government  of  the  Territory  of  the  United 
States  Northwest  of  the  River  Ohio, "  which  has  since  been  known  as  "the 
ordinance  of  1787,"  or  the  "ordinance  of  freedom."  By  this  great  and  states- 
manlike ordinance,  provision  was  made  for  successive  forms  of  territorial  gov- 
ernment, adapted  to  successive  steps  of  advancement  in  the  settlement  and 
development  of  the  Western  country.  "  This  remarkable  instrument," 
says  Chief  Justice  Chase,  "  was  the  last  gift  of  the  Congress  of  the  old  con- 
federation to  the  country,  and  it  was  a  fit  consummation  of  their  glorious 
labors."  Up  to  this  time  the  Government,  to  avoid  infringements  upon 
the  rights  of  the  Indians,  had  discouraged  and  prevented  the  settlement  of  the 
lands  northwest  of  the  Ohio,  but  on  the  passage  of  the  ordinance  emigration 
was  fostered  and  encouraged  in  every  way,  and  when  the  settlers  went  into  the 
wilderness  they  found  the  law  already  there.  "It  was  impressed  upon  the 
soil  itself,  while  it  yet  bore  up  nothing  but  the  forest." 

In  June,  1796,  the  Connecticut  Land  Company  sent  out  a  surveying  party 
to  divide  the   Reserve  into  townships.      It  was  under  the  charge  of    Moses 


Cleveland,  from  whom  the  city  of  Cleveland  takes  its  name.  On  the  4th  of 
July  the  pai'ty  arrived  at  the  site  of  Conneaut,  Ashtabula  County,  where  they 
celebrated  our  great  national  holiday,  being  the  first  celebration  on  the 
Reserve.  The  expedition  consisted  of  forty-five  men,  two  women  and  one 
child.  The  work  was  begun  and  vigorously  prosecuted  during  the  summer 
and  fall  of  1796,  and  the  following  spring  a  second  expedition  came  out  to 
finish  the  survey.  Wareham  Shepherd,  the  last  survivor  of  that  surveying 
corps,  and  Amzi  Atwater,  who  subsequently  became  Associate  Judge  of  Por- 
tage County,  were  leading  members  of  this  party.  When  surveying  at  the 
northeast  corner  of  Palmyra  Township,  Portage  County,  July  5,  1797,  Shep- 
herd was  taken  sick  with  dysentery,  and  Miner  Bickweil,  one  of  their  assist- 
ants, with  a  violent  fever.  They  kept  on,  however,  till  they  got  the  line  run 
between  Braceville  Township,  Trumbull  County,  and  Windham  Township,  in 
this  county,  when  Bickweil  became  too  sick  to  proceed  further.  Here  was  a 
trying  time.  In  a  wilderness,  without  medicine,  and  without  skill  to  use  it 
if  they  had  it,  and  with  no  guide  but  their  compass — under  such  difficulties 
the  bravest  heart  might  well  grow  discouraged.  But  "necessity  is  the  mother 
of  invention,"  and  Atwater  cut  two  poles  and  fastened  bark  to  them  so  they 
would  hang  beside  a  horse  like  the  shafts  of  a  wagou — one  horse  following 
the  other  so  far  apart  that  the  sick  man  could  lie  lengthwise  between  them. 
With  bark  and  blankets  they  made  his  bed  as  comfortable  as  possible,  and  by 
twisted  bark  ropes  fastened  it  to  their  pack  saddles. 

Shepherd  becoming  somewhat  better,  Atwater  left  him  with  one  assistant 
to  run  the  east  line  of  Range  0  to  the  lake  as  best  he  could,  and  started 
for  Cleveland  with  the  sick  man.  They  returned  back  to  the  northeast  cor- 
ner of  Palmyra  Township,  and  then  started  west  on  the  line  between  Palmp'a 
and  Paris.  In  this  litter  Atwater  carried  Bickweil  five  days — and  a  distance 
of  fifty  miles.  He  had  a  high  fever  all  the  time,  and  his  reason  but  a  part  of 
the  time.  On  the  fifth  day  they  arrived  at  the  south  line  of  Independence, 
Cuyahoga  County,  on  the  25th  of  July,  1797,  and  Bickweil  died  about  two 
hours  after  their  arrival.  He  was  buried  near  the  luver,  on  the  south  line  of 
that  town,  on  the  farm  subsequently  owned  by  Squire  Frazer.  He  was  the  sec- 
ond white  person  that  died  on  the  Reserve,  David  Eldridge,  one  of  the  party, 
being  drowned  the  May  previous  in  swimming  Grand  River.  Upon  Atwater's 
return  he  found  Shepherd  at  the  northeast  corner  of  Nelson  Township, 
and  they  then  ran  the  east  line  of  Range  6  northward  to  the  lake.  This  fin- 
ished the  township  lines  of  the  Reserve,  the  eastern  line  of  Portage  County 
being  the  last  one  surveyed.  The  men  were  nearly  all  worn  out,  and  sickness 
prevailed  to  an  alarming  extent.  Peleg  Washburn  and  William  Andrews,  two 
of  the  company,  died  in  Cleveland,  in  August,  and  nearly  every  man  was  sick. 
A  man  by  the  name  of  Tinker,  the  principal  boatman,  and  from  whom  Tin- 
ker's Creek  took  its  name,  in  going  down  the  lake  in  the  fall  was  drowned, 
together  with  two  others,  by  the  capsizing  of  their  boat.  One  or  two  boat- 
loads of  sick  were  sent  off  early  in  the  fall,  and  the  last  of  the  surveying 
party  left  the  Reserve  the  fore  part  of  November,  1797,  a  sorry,  sickly-looking 
set  of  beings,  the  very  reverse  of  what  they  were  in  the  spring. 

Such  were  the  sufferings  and  trials  of  those  hardy  bands  of  surveyors  who 
prepared  the  way  for  the  coming  of  the  pioneers,  and  whose  descendants,  while 
enjoying  the  blessings  of  the  present,  can  scarcely  realize  that  only  eighty- 
eight  years  ago  such  was  the  conditioD  of  this  beautiful  country.  So  suddenly 
and  so  strangely  has  the  genius  of  change  and  alteration  waved  its  charmed 
wand  over  the  land,  that  the  unwritten  history  of  those  early  days  is  recalled 
as  one  remembers  a  fading  dream.     We  are  living  in  an  age  of    invention  and 


machinery.  These  have  lai'gely  destroyed  the  romance  of  frontier  life,  and 
much  of  the  strange,  eventful  realities  of  the  past  are  rapidly  becoming  myth- 
ical, and  the  narratives  of  the  generation  that  settled  the  Western  Reserve, 
abounding  in  rich  treasure  of  incidents  and  character,  are  being  swallowed  up 
and  forgotten  in  the  surging,  eventful  present. 

At  the  time  the  iirst  settlement  was  made  within  the  present  limits  of  Por- 
tage County,  it  formed  a  part  of  Jefferson,  erected  July  29,  1797,  and  which 
then  embraced  all  of  the  territory  inside  the  following  boundaries,  with  the 
seat  of  justice  at  Steubenville: 

Beginning  upon  the  bank  of  the  Ohio  River,  where  the  western  boundary  of  Pennsyl- 
vania crosses  it,  and  down  the  said  river  to  the  southern  boundary  of  the  fourth  township 
in  the  third  range  (of  those  seven  ranges  of  townships  that  were  surveyed  in  conformity  to 
the  ordinance  of  Congress  of  the  20th  of  May,  1785),  and  with  the  said  southern  boundary 
west,  to  the  southwest  corner  of  the  sixth  township  of  the  fifth  range;  thence  north  along 
the  western  boundary  of  the  said  fifth  range  to  the  termination  thereof;  thence  due  west 
to  the  Muskingum  River,  and  up  the  Muskingum  and  Tuscarawas  Rivers  to  and  with  the 
Portage,  between  the  latter  and  the  Cuyahoga  River;  thence  down  the  Cuyahoga  to  Lake 
Erie;  thence  easterly  along  the  shore  of  the  lake  to  the  western  boundar}^  of  Pennsylva- 
nia, and  south  with  the  same  to  the  place  of  beginning. 

Three  years  passed  by,  and  on  the  10th  of  July,  1800,  Trumbull  County 
was  erected,  partly  from  territory  previously  embraced  in  Jefferson,  and 
included  all  of  the  lands  constituting  the  Western  Reserve.  Its  official  bound- 
aries were  established  as  follows: 

Beginning  at  the  completion  of  the  41st°  of  north  latitude,  120  miles  west  of  the  western 
boundary  of  Pennsylvania.'and  running  from  thence  by  aline  to  be  drawn  north,  parallel  to 
and  120  miles  west  of  the  said  west  line  of  Pennsylvania,  and  to  continue  north  until  it  comes 
to  42°,  2'  north  latitude;  thence  with  a  line  to  be  drawn  east  until  it  intersects  the  said  west- 
ern boundary  of  Pennsylvania;  thence  with  the  said  western  boundary  of  Pennsylvania 
south,  to  the  completion  of  the  41st°  of  north  latitude;  and  from  thence  west  to  the  place 
of  beginning. 

In  1802  all  the  territory  now  embraced  in  Portage  County,  besides  a  portion 
of  that  in  Trumbull  and  Summit,  was  organized  under  the  name  of  Franklin 
Township;  but  soon  afterward  other  townships  were  cut  off  from  Franklin, 
and  when  Portage  County  was  erected  it  contained  six  townships  in  good  run- 
ning order.  It  remained  a  portion  of  Trumbull  until  the  10th  of  February, 
1807,  on  which  date  the  Legislature  passed  the  following  act,  to  take  effect 
and  be  in  force  from  and  after  the  7th  of  June  succeeding  its  passage: 

1.  Be  it  enacted,  etc..  That  all  that  part  of  the  county  of  Trumbull  which  lies  west  of 
the  fifth  range  of  townships  be  erected  into  a  separate  county  by  the  name  of  Portage, 
and  shall  be  vested  with  all  the  powers,  privileges  and  immunities  of  a  separate  and  dis- 
tinct county:  Provided,  That  it  shall  be  lawful  for  the  Coroners,  Sheriffs,  Constables  and 
Collectors  of  the  County  of  Trumbull  to  do  and  perform  all  the  duties  which  they  are  or 
may  be  required  to  do,  within  the  bounds  of  the  said  County  of  Portage,  before  the  said 
division  shall  take  place;  and  all  suits  and  actions,  whether  of  a  civil  or  criminal  nature, 
which  shall  be  pending,  and  all  crimes  which  shall  have  been  committed  therein  at  the 
time  of  said  division,  shall  be  prosecuted  to  final  judgment  and  execution  in  the  County 
of  Trumbull,  as  though  no  division  Iwid  taken  place. 

2.  Tiiat  the  courts  for  the  said  County  of  Portage  shall  be  holden  at  the  house  of 
Benjamin  Tappan,  until  a  permanent  seat  of  justice  shall  be  established. 

3.  That  all  that  part  of  the  Connecticut  Western  Reserve  that  lies  west  of  the  Cuya- 
hoga River  and  south  of  the  township  numbered  five,  shall  be  annexed  to  and  become  a  part 
of  the  county  of  Portage:  Provided,  That  the  money  arising  to  the  county  from  a  tax 
on  land,  within  the  said  district,  shall  be  appropriated  by  the  Commissioners  of  Portage 
County,  and  expended  in  laying  out  and  making  roads  and  erecting  bridges,  within  the 
boundaries  of  said  district,  west  of  the  Cuyahoga. 

The  act  also  authorized  the  appointing  of  Commissioners,  under  the  law 
establishing  seats  of  justice,  to  fix  upon  the  place  for  the  county  seat  of  Port- 
age County.  The  Legislature  appointed  Robert  Simison,  Samuel  Hunter 
and  Rezin   Beall,  who  made  their  i-eport   to  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  of 

<--l'OJ'     /^ 

(_y;^6^x^t/c7-^       H 





Portage  County  at  its  first  session,  August  23,  1808,  having  selected  Ravenna, 
which  had  been  laid  out  by  Benjamin  Tappan  the  previous  spring,  as  the  seat 
of  justice  for  the  new  county.  There  is  a  well  authenticated  tradition  that 
Aaron  Olmstead,  the  original  proprietor  of  the  present  township  of  Franklin, 
was  very  desirous  of  having  the  county  seat  located  on  his  land,  and  in  the 
summer  of  1807  came  out  from  the  East,  and  with  John  Campbell,  of  Camp- 
bellsport,  selected  a  site  for  public  buildings  a  little  north  of  the  upper  ceme- 
tery in  the  city  of  Kent.  Olmstead  made  arrangements  with  Campbell 
for  the  latter  to  use  his  influence  with  the  State  Commissioners  in  favor  of 
this  location,  and  to  promise  that  he  (Olmstead)  would  donate  the  land  and 
erect  a  Court  House  at  his  own  expense,  if  the  Commissioners  selected  that 
site  for  the  county  seat  of  Portage  County.  He  then  returned  to  the  East, 
where  he  soon  afterward  died,  leaving  no  provision  for  carrying  out  his 
promises;  and  under  a  will  previously  executed  bequeathing  all  the  unsold 
lands  to  his  grandchildren,  the  proposed  site  could  not  be  donated  for  county 
purposes.  It  is  generally  believed  that  had  it  not  been  for  Olmstead's  death, 
the  seat  of  justice  would  undoubtedly  have  been  located  on  the  Cuyahoga 
River,  at  Kent,  instead  of  Ravenna,  and  consequently  the  boundary  lines 
of  Portage  County  would  be  much  different  from  what  they  are  to-day. 

Though  the  act  erecting  Portage  County  was  passed  and  went  into  effect 
in  1807,  the  new  county  remained  attached  to  Trumbull  for  one  year  longer. 
On  the  8th  of  June,  1808,  an  election  was  held,  and  Abel  Sabin,  Joel  Gaylord 
and  Lewis  Day  elected  Commissioners;  Alva  Day,  Sheriff;  and  Lewis  Day, 
Coroner  of  Portage  County.  On  the  same  date  the  Commissioners  met  for 
the  purpose  of  organizing  and  putting  the  wheels  of  local  government  in 
motion.  On  the  first  page  of  the  Commissioners'  Journal  the  following  record 
is  made  of  this  important  event  in  the  county's  history: 

In  conformity  to  an  act  of  the  General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Ohio,  entitled  "An 
Act  establisliing  Boards  of  County  Commissioners,"  the  Commissioners  in  and  lor  the 
County  of  Portage  met  at  the  house  of  Robert  Eaton*,  in  Ravenna,  on  Monday,  the  eighth 
day  of  June,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  eight.  Persons 
present,  Lewis  Day,  Joel  Gaylord  and  Abel  Sabin,  Esquires,  Commissioners  of  said  county, 
who,  having  produced  certificates  of  their  being  duly  elected  as  such,  and  having  taken 
the  necessary  oaths  required  by  law,  proceeded  to  discharge  the  duties  of  their  said  offices, 
in  pursuance  to  the  above  recited  act. 

The  Board  of  Commissioners  proceeded  to  fix  and  determine  on  a  suitable  person  to 
do  and  perform  the  duties  of  Clerk  to  the  said  Board.  Whereupon  it  was  considered  that 
Abel  Sabin,  Esquire,  one  of  the  Commissioners,  was  a  suitable  person  to  discharge  the  said 
duties  of  Clerk,  and  accordingly  was  appointed  thereto,  and  accepted  tiie  same. 

The  Board  of  Commissioners  in  and  for  said  county  appointed  Elias  Harmon,  Esquire, 
Treasurer  of  the  county  aforesaid,  for  the  year  ensuing;  who,  having  accepted  the  said 

appointment,  entered  into  bonds  in  the  sum  of  three  thousand  dollars,  with 

for  his  sureties,  conditioned  for  the  faithful  discharge  of  the  duties  of  his  office,  and  took 
the  oath  prescribed  by  law. 

Ordered  by  the  Board  of  Commissioners  in  and  for  the  County  of  Portage,  that  the 
sum  of  two  doilars  be  allowed  as  a  bounty  for  each  and  every  wolf  or  panther  killed,  over 
the  age  of  six  months,  within  said  county,  and  the  sum  of  one  dollar  for  each  wolf  or 
panther,  under  the  age  of  six  months,  killed  within  the  term  of  one  year,  in  the  county 
aforesaid,  to  be  paid  out  of  the  County  Treasury,  on  the  order  of  the  Commissioners,  in 
conformity  to  the  statute  in  such  cases  made  and  provided. 

Portage  County  at  that  time  possessed  but  six  organized  townships,  viz. : 
Franklin,  Deertield,  Aurora,  Hiram,  Springfield  and  Hudson.  The  two  last 
mentioned  then  included  the  ten  townships  taken  from  Portage  in  the  erection 
of  Summit  County,  in  1840,  also  the  present  townships  of  Randolph  and  Suf- 
field  in  this  county.  Franklin  Township  embraced  the  present  townships  of 
Franklin,  Rcivenna,  Charlestown,  Brimfield  and  Rootstown.      Deerfield  Town- 

*This  house  stands  about  two  and  a  half  miles  southeast  of  Ravenna,  and  since  1815  has  been  the  Thomp- 
son homestead. 


ship  then  included  Deerfield,  Atwater,  Palmyra,  Paris  and  Edinburg.  Aurora 
Township  embraced  Aurora  and  Streetsboro;  and  Hiram  Township  covered  the 
territory  now  known  as  Hiram,  Mantua,  Nelson,  Shalersville,  Freedom,  Wind- 
ham and  Garrettsville. 

The  resident  land  tax  levied  August  23,  1808,  was  as  follows:  Franklin 
Township,  $46.83;  Deerlield_,  $48.78;  Aurora,  $38.17;  Hiram,  $36.31;  Spring- 
field, $34.97;  Hudson,  $81.  il.  The  personal  property  tax  levied  on  the  same 
date  was;  Franklin  Township,  $35;  Deerfield,  $48.90;  Aurora,  $12.30;  Hiram, 
$23.40;  Springfield,  $26.60;  Hudson,  $55.60.  The  following  Tax  Collectors 
were  also  appointed  at  the  same  time:  Arthur  Anderson,  Franklin  Township; 
James  Carter,  Deerfield;  Oliver  Forward,  Aurora;  Isaac  Mills,  Hiram;  Timo- 
thy Culver,  Springfield;  George  Darrow,  Jr.,  Hudson. 

The  entire  receipts  of  Portage  County  from  June  13,  1808,  to  June  17, 
1809,  were  $3,247.71,  of  which  amount  $2,227.52  was  the  tax  on  lands  lying 
west  of  the  Cuyahoga  River,  which,  by  a  clause  in  the  act  of  erection,  were 
annexed  to  this  county.  The  expenditures  during  the  same  period  were 
$2,355.56,  of  which  $1,125.35  were  expended  in  laying  out  roads  and  building 
bridges  in  the  territory  west  of  the  Cuyahoga,  in  compliance  with  the  clause 
attaching  said  territory  to  Portage  County.  Thus,  the  total  receipts  of  this 
county,  from  the  territory  lying  between  the  Trumbull  County  line  and  the 
Cuyahoga  River,  were,  during  the  first  year  of  its  organized  existence,  $1,020.- 
19;  truly  a  very  insignificant  sum  with  which  to  meet  its  financial  wants. 

By  an  act  passed  January  22,  1811,  the  west  line  of  the  eleventh  range  of 
townships  was  designated  as  the  western  boundary  of  Portage  County;  and  on 
the  l8th  of  February,  1812,  Medina  County  was  erected  and  attached  to  Port- 
age for  judicial  purposes,  where  it  remained  until  its  separate  organization, 
January  14,  1818.  The  west  line  of  the  eleventh  range  continued  to  be  the 
western  boundary  of  Portage  until  the  29th  of  January,  1827,  when  the  follow- 
ing survey  was  established: 

Beginning  on  the  south  line  of  the  Connecticut  Western  Reserve,  at  the  point  where 
the  middle  of  the  Tuscarawas  River  intersects  the  same;  thence  northerly,  following  the 
middle  of  the  said  Tuscarawas  River,  to  the  range  line  between  the  eleventh  and  twelfth 
ranges,  as  run  by  the  Connecticut  Land  Company;  thence  north  on  the  course  of  the  range 
line  last  aforesaid,  to  the  north  line  of  the  township  numbered  four;  thence  east  on  the 
north  line  of  number  four,  in  the  eleventh  range,  to  the  middle  of  the  Cuyahoga  River; 
thence  down  the  middle  of  said  river  to  the  north  line  of  the  township  numbered  five,  in 
said  ranges.  ****** 

No  more  changes  occurred  in  the  boundary  lines  of  Portage  County  until 
the  erection  of  Siammit,  March  3,  1840,  when  its  two  western  tiers  of  town- 
ships were  cut  off  in  the  formation  of  the  new  county,  establishing  the  west 
line  of  the  ninth  range  as  the  western  boundary  of  Portage,  and  thus  its 
boundaries  have  since  remained.  It  is  botmded  on  the  west  by  Summit  County, 
on  the  north  by  Geauga,  on  the  east  by  Trumbull  and  Mahoning,  and  on  the 
south  by  Mahoning  and  Stark,  the  last  mentioned  boundary  being  also  the  south- 
ern line  of  the  Western  Reserve. 

Portage  County  received  its  name  from  the  fact  that  the  old  Indian  Portage 
Path,  between  the  Cuyahoga  and  Tuscarawas  Rivers,  was,  originally,  within  its 
limits,  though  now  in  Summit  County.  This  historic  path  was  a  part  of  the 
boundary  established  in  1784,  by  the  Treaty  of  Fort  Mcintosh,  and  remained 
the  dividing  line  between  the  whites  and  Indians  until  1805,  when  the  treaty 
consummated  at  Fort  Industry  established  the  western  line  of  the  Reserve  as 
the  north  and  south  boundary  between  the  two  races  in  Ohio.  The  Portage 
Path  left  the  Cayahoga  River  at  the  village  of  Old  Portage,  about  three  miles 
north  of  Akron,  thence  ran  westward  up  the  hill  about  half  a  mile  to  the  high 



ground,  where  it  turned  south  and  ran  about  parallel  with  the  Ohio  Canal  to 
near  Summit  Lake;  thence  took  the  low  ground  nearly  south  to  the  Tuscara- 
was, which  it  struck  a  mile  or  more  above  the  New  Portage.  The  whole  length 
of  the  path  was.  according  to  the  survey  made  by  Moses  Warren,  in  1797, 
eight  miles,  four  chains  and  fifty-five  links. 

As  the  county  increased  in  population  new  townships  were  organized,  and 
prior  to  the  erection  of  Summit  County,  in  1840,  Portage  contained  thirty 
townships,  with  a  combined  area  of  about  740  square  miles  of  territory,  or 
473,600  acres.  The  erection  of  Summit,  however,  left  Portage  County  with 
but  twenty  townships  (Garrettsville  has  since  been  formed  from  Hiram  and 
Nelson),  and  an  area  of  490  square  miles,  or  313,600  acres,  including  streams 
and  lakes;  but  the  report  of  the  Secretary  of  State  for  1881  gives  312,487 
acres  as  the  amount  of  land  contained  in  this  county.  Its  present  townships 
are  Atwater,  Aurora,  Brimfield,  Charlestown,  Deerfield,  Edinburg,  Franklin, 
Freedom,  Garrettsville,  Hiram,  Mantua,  Nelson,  Palmyra,  Paris,  Randolph, 
Ravenna,  Rootstown,  Shalersville,  Streetsboro,  Suffield  and  Windham. 

The  population  of  the  county  and  the  several  townships  by  decades,  since 
1810  and  1850  respectively,  is  given  in  the  following  tables:  County — 1810, 
2,995;  1820,  1,095;  1830,  18,820;  1840,  22,965;  1850,  24,419;  1860,  24,208; 
1870,  24,584;  1880,  27,500. 



Atwater  Township 

Aurora  Township 

Brimfield  Township 

Charlestown  Township 

Deerfield  Township 

Edinburg  Township 

Franklin  Township  (including  Kent) , 

Freedom  Township .  ; 

*Garrettsville  Township , 

Hiram  Township 

Mantua  Township 

Nelson  Township 

Palmyra  Township 

Paris  Township 

Randolph  Township 

Ravenna  Township  (including  Ravenna). 

Rootstown  Township 

Shalersville  Township 

Streetsboro  Township 

Suflield  Township 

Windham  Township 






















































*Organized  from  Hiram  and  Nelson  July  6, 1874. 



PoKTAGE  County  XiNETY  Years  Ago— Timber  and  Fruit-Bearing  Trees 
AND  Vines— Roots  and  Herbage— Wild  Animals,  Birds  and  Reptiles— Big 
Hunts— General  Topography,  Streams  and  Lakes— Geology  of  Portage 
County— Surface  Features  and  Deposits— Geological  Structure— Coal 
Measures— Coal  No.  1— Coals  Nos.  3  and  4— Fire  Clay— Altitudp:s  in  Port- 
age County  above  Lake  Erie. 

ERE  the  woodman' s  ax  resounded,  sombre  and  silent  was  the  ancient  forest, 
which,  during  untold  centuries,  had  overshadowed  the  hills  and  valleys 
of  this  region.  Beauty  and  variety  marked  the  plants  which  grew  and  bloomed 
beneath  the  leafy  canopy  of  the  gigantic  trees. 

"Full  many  a  flower  is  born  to  blush  unseen 
And  waste  its  sweetness  on  the  desert  air." 

Hill,  dale  and  streamlet,  with  all  the  families  of  plants  from  the  lofty 
forest  tree  to  the  creeping  ivy,  gave  to  the  landscape  variety  and  picturesque 
beauty.  An  unchanged  progression  of  periodical  decay  had  from  time  imme 
morial  been  forming  a  rich  vegetable  soil,  in  preparation  for  the  era  when 
civilized  man  should  take  possession  and  become  its  cultivator.  Oak  of  sev- 
eral varieties,  chestnut,  and  hickory  in  all  its  species,  were  the  principal  growth 
on  the  dry  gravelly  lands;  red  and  white  beech,  maple  or  sugar  tree,  linden 
or  basswood,  sumach,  white  ash,  cucumber,  poplar,  white,  red  and  slippery 
elm,  walnut,  ironwood,  dogwood,  sassafras  and  cherry,  on  the  rich  loamy  soil; 
and  on  the  wet  lands  hemlock,  black  ash,  tamarack,  sycamore,  soft  maple  and 
birch;  while  there  was  a  varying  undergrowth  of  fruit-bearing  trees  and  vines, 
such  as  the  plum,  crab- apple,  white,  red  and  black  haw,  alder,  whortleberry, 
blackberry,  raspberry,  serviceberry,  gooseberry,  currant,  cranberry  and  straw- 
berry, also  nuts  of  several  varieties,  and  hops,  ginseng,  bloodroot,  chocolate 
root,  together  with  innumerable  kinds  of  other  roots  and  herbage  of  valuable 
properties,  were  the  spontaneous  growth  of  Portage  County. 

A  thick  undergrowth  gave  an  excellent  covert  to  the  wild  animals  that  once 
abounded  in  this  section  of  the  State,  viz. :  the  elk,  deer,  panther,  wolf,  bear, 
wild  cat,  fox,  marten,  otter,  polecat,  beaver,  groundhog  or  woodchuck,  opossum, 
raccoon,  hare,  rabbit,  black,  grey,  red  or  pine,  flying  and  ground  or  striped 
squirrels,  muskrat,  mink,  weasel,  porcupine,  field-mouse,  deer-mouse,  common 
rat  and  mouse.  Of  these  the  elk,  panther,  wolf,  bear,  wild  cat  and  beaver 
are  extinct  in  this  county,  or  if  any  are  ever  seen  it  is  a  very  rare  occurrence. 

Among  the  birds  which  are  natives  of  this  county  or  visit  it  annually, 
either  to  build  or  touching  it  in  their  migration  to  a  more  northerly  region, 
are  the  bald  and  gray  eagle,  rarely  if  ever  seen;  the  hen  hawk,  fish  hawk, 
pigeon  hawk,  shrike  or  butcher  bird,  the  white,  the  cat  and  screech  owl,  the 
swan,  wild  goose,  black  duck,  mallard,  wood  duck,  shelldrake,  teal,  butter- 
bolt,  loon,  dipper,  water  hen  or  coot,  plover,  jacksnipe,  sandsnipe,  king- 
fisher, turkey,  pheasant,  partridge  or  quail,  woodcock,  rail,  pigeon,  dove, 
whip-poor-will,  robin,  thrush,  catbird,  cuckoo,  lark,  oriole,  bluejay,  fieldfare 
or  red  breasted  grossbeak,  martin,  the  barn  swallow,  bank  swallow,  oven  swal- 
low, bluebird,  wren,  cow  bird,  bobolink  or  reed-bird,  yellow  bird,  redbird, 
blackbird,  redwing,   starling,   black  or  large  woodpecker,   red-headed  wood- 


pecker,  gray  woodpecker,  flicker,  cedar  bird  or  toppy,  crookbill,  green  bird, 
humming  bird,  and  a  variety  of  small  birds  with  whose  species  the  writer  is 
not  familiar.  Some  of  these  members  of  the  feathery  kingdom  have  become 
very  rare  or  altogether  extinct,  while  others  have  come  into  the  county.  The 
white-breasted  swallow  is  one  of  the  later  inhabitants,  as  is  also  the  hardy, 
pugnacious  English  sparrow,  which  since  his  coming  has  driven  many  of 
the  most  beautiful  songsters  from  the  towns  now  inhabited  by  those  little  fel- 
lows in  great  numbers. 

The  snakes  that  were  found  in  this  locality  are  the  black  and  yellow  rattle- 
snakes, the  former  of  which  usually  frequented  the  wet  or  swampy  lands,  and 
the  latter  the  hilly  or  dry  ground.  Hundi-eds  of  those  "yellow  skins,"  as  they 
were  commonly  called,  were  killed,  during  the  first  few  years  of  settlement,  in 
nearly  every  township  in  the  county.  Regular  hunting  parties  were  some- 
times organized  in  the  spring-time,  to  invade  their  dens  among  the  ledges,  and 
by  this  means  those  dangerous  pests  were  rapidly  exterminated.  The  water 
snake  was  a  large  black  snake,  often  growing  from  five  to  seven  feet  in  length; 
the -small  black  snake  or  white-ringed  viper,  the  brown  or  house  snake,  the 
garter  snake  and  the  green  snake  were  plentiful.  All  of  those  mentioned  are 
innocuous  except  the  rattlesnake,  and  it  is  fortunately  now  nearly  or  altogether 

The  wild  denizens  of  the  forest  roamed  at  will  during  the  earlier  years  of 
the  county's  history,  and  many  of  the  pioneers  could  tell  of  dangers  and  hair- 
breadth escapes  from  an  enraged  bear,  a  pack  of  ravenous  wolves,  or  a  treach- 
erous wild  cat,  which  at  one  time  were  more  plentiful  in  this  region  than  cat- 
tle, sheep  or  hogs.  To  rid  the  country  of  these  dangerous  neighbors,  big 
hunts  were  gotten  up,  when  game  of  every  sort  went  down  in  scores,  before 
the  unerring  rifles  of  the  frontier  sportsmen.  A  whole  township  would  be 
surrounded  by  a  line  of  hunters,  and  at  a  pre-concerted  signal  all  would  begin 
the  march  toward  the  center,  di-ivingthe  game  before  them  and  shooting  down 
any  that  tried  to  escape.  Great  quantities  of  valuable  game  were  slaughtered 
in  this  way,  and  as  there  were  premiums  paid  for  the  scalps  of  the  more  dan- 
gerous animals,  these  hunts  usually  proved  a  financial  success.  In  a  big  hunt 
which  took  place  in  Freedom  Township,  in  December,  1818,  there  were  killed 
twenty-three  bears,  seven  wolves  and  thirty-six  deer,  besides  scores  of  turkeys 
and  other  game.  On  the  25th  of  December,  1818,  another  hunt  took  place  in 
Windham  Township,  when  twenty-one  bears,  sixty-eight  deer,  one  wolf,  one 
wild  cat,  with  turkeys  and  other  small  game  innumerable,  were  bagged.  The 
same  year  at  the  close  of  a  hunt  in  Edinburg  Township,  seven  bears,  five 
wolves,  one  hundred  deer  and  four  hundred  turkeys  were  counted  as  the  result 
of  the  day's  sport.  Another  hunt  occurred  in  Edinburg  and  Atwater  Town- 
ships December  24,  1819,  the  result  of  which  was  twenty-one  bears,  eighteen 
wolves,  one  hundred  and  three  deer,  and  more  than  three  hundred  turkeys. 
In  1819  a  similar  raid  was  made  upon  the  game  of  Streetsboro  Township,  and 
five  bears,  four  wolves  and  sixty  deer  were  slain.  Such  hunts  took  place  at 
different  times  in  nearly  every  township  in  the  county,  but  those  given  will 
fully  illustrate  the  great  amount  of  wild  game  which  once  inhabited  the  val- 
leys of  the  Mahoning  and  Cuyahoga.  Those  organized  hunting  parties  soon 
had  a  telling  effect  in  lessening  the  game,  and  finally  becoming  unpopular, 
met  with  a  determined  opposition  from  a  large  class  of  citizens  and  were 
abandoned.  Long  after  the  surrounding  country  was  well  settled,  the  tam- 
arack swamps  of  Brimfield  Township  afforded  an  excellent  covert  for  wild 
game,  and  bears,  wolves,  deer  etc.,  were  quite  numerous  in  that  locality. 
Bears  especially  were  so  plentiful  that  the  township  was  familiarly  known  as 


"Bear  Town."  Streetsboro,  Freedom,  Paris  and  Edinburg  Townships  were 
also  noted  hunting  grounds  for  some  years  after  the  game  in  the  adjoining 
territory  had  been  pretty  well  thinned  out.  The  last  wolf  killed  in  Streets- 
boro Township  was  shot  by  Merrill  Stanton,  March  6,  1838,  about  which  time 
the  larger  and  more  troublesome  wild  animals  had,  much  to  the  relief  of  those 
settlers  whose  cattle,  hogs  and  sheep  often  went  to  satisfy  their  voracious 
appetites,  entirely  disappeared  from  the  forests  of  this  county. 

The  general  topography  of  Portage  County  is  slightly  rolling,  the  uplands 
usually  of  a  sandy  or  gravelly  nature,  and  the  more  level  portions  principally 
composed  of  a  clay  soil.  Few  counties  in  Ohio  are  better  watered.  The 
whole  eastern  half  is  drained  by  the  Mahoning  River,  with  its  several  local 
branches,  Silver  Creek  being  the  most  important,  which  rise  along  the  central 
portions  of  the  county,  from  north  to  south,  and  flow  in  an  easterly  direction, 
uniting  before  reaching  Warren,  Ohio;  thence  take  a  southeast  course  to  the 
Shenango,  with  whose  waters  the  Mahoning  unites  about  two  miles  south  of 
Newcastle,  Penn.,  when  the  two  streams  become  Beaver  River.  The  word 
Mahoning  is,  according  to  Heckewelder,  derived  from  either  the  Indian  Mahoni, 
signifying  "a  lick,"  or  Mahonink,  "at  the  lick;"  but  Lucius  V.  Bierce,  in 
his  sketches  of  the  Western  Reserve,  says  that  it  comes  from  the  Indian  word 
Ma-um-ing,  meaning   "the  way  to  the  market." 

The  Cuyahoga  River  takes  its  rise  in  Geauga  County,  and  flowing  south- 
west, enters  Portage  near  the  northwest  corner  of  Hiram  Township;  thence 
crossing  said  corner  and  keeping  the  same  general  course  across  the  southeast 
corner  of  Mantua,  and  the  northwest  corner  of  Shalersville  Township,  turns 
southward  through  the  southeastern  tier  of  lots  in  Streetsboro  Township; 
thence  winding  diagonally  across  Franklin  Township,  from  its  northeast  to  its 
southwest  corner,  passing  through  Kent  on  its  route,  enters  Summit  County. 
It  there  makes  a  big  bend,  and  turning  northward  empties  into  Lake  Erie  at 
Cleveland.  This  river  receives  its  name  from  the  Indian  word  Cuy-o-ga,  mean- 
ing "crooked,"  a  term  significant  of  the  stream,  which'  is  very  winding.  Its 
largest  tribu-taries  in  this  county  are  the  Little  Cuyahoga  and  the  Breakneck. 
The  former  drains  the  southeast  corner  of  the  county,  Fritch's  Pond,  in  Suf- 
field  Township,  being  one  of  its  sources,  and  Springfield  Lake,  across  the  line 
in  Summit  County,  the  other.  The  Breakneck  heads  in  Stark  County,  and 
winding  northward  through  Randolph  and  Rootstown  Townships,  turns  across 
the  southwest  corner  of  Ravenna  Township,  and  thence  northwestward  through 
Franklin  Township,  discharges  its  waters  into  the  Cuyahoga,  about  a  mile  and 
a  half  northeast  of  Kent.  One  branch  of  the  Chagrin  River  heads  in  Aurora 
and  Mantua  Townships,  and  thence  passing  northward  joins  the  main  stream 
in  Cuyahoga  County. 

Portage  is  also  well  supplied  with  small  natural  lakes  and  ponds.  In 
Franklin  Township  we  find  Brady's  Lake,  Pippin  Lake,  Twin  Lakes  and 
Stewart's  Pond;  in  Rootstown.  Sandy  Lake, Muddy  Lake  (which  is  partly  located 
in  Ravenna  Township),  Muzzy' s  Pond  and  Ward's  Pond;  in  Suffield,  Congress 
Lake  (partly)  and  Fritch's  Pond,  and  Long  Pond  in  Aurora  Township.  Brady's 
Lake  received  its  name  in  honor  of  Capt.  Samuel  Brady,  of  "  Brady's  Leap  " 
fame,  who  fortunately  escaped  from  Indian  vengeance  by  hiding  beneath  its  wa- 
ters. Pippin  Lake  was  called  after  the  apple  of  that  name;  Twin  Lakes,  because 
of  their  close  proximity  to  each  other,  and  connection  by  a  small  branch;  Stew- 
art's Pond,  after  a  pioneer  of  that  name;  Sandy  and  Muddy  Lakes,  from  the 
character  of  the  soil  surrounding  them;  Muzzy's  Pond,  after  Nathan  Muzzy,  a 
peculiar  character  who  claimed  to  have  discovered  it;  Ward's  Pond,  from  a 
pioneer  of    that  name;  Congress  Lake,  from  the  lake  bearing  that  name  in 


New  York;  Fritch's  Pond,  after    John  Fritch,  a  German  who  built   a  mill  at 
the  outlet,   and  Long  Pond,  from  its  long,  narrow  shape. 

Geology  of  Portage  County* — Portage  County  lies  entirely  on  the  water- 
shed which  separates  the  streams  that  flow  into  Lake  Erie  from  the  tributaries 
of  the  Ohio.  Its  central  portion  rises  to  an  altitude  of  685  feet  above  the 
lake,  while  the  valleys  by  which  its  surface  is  diversified  descend  about  300 
feet  lower.  The  highest  point  of  the  county  is  near  the  line  of  the  Cleveland 
&  Pittsburgh  Railroad,  between  Rootstown  and  Atwater,  while  the  lowest  is  in 
the  valley  of  the  Mahoning,  below  Garrettsville. 

When  first  entered  by  the  whites,  the  county  was  covered  with  an  unbroken 
growth  of  primeval  forest,  consisting,  on  the  lower  and  more  level  portions,  of 
beach  and  maple;  of  oak,  chestnut,  etc.,  on  the  higher  and  drier  lands. 

Though  underlaid  by  rocks  of  diverse  character,  the  surface  is  mainly 
formed  by  a  sheet  of  clay,which  has  given  a  peculiar  character  to  the  agricult- 
ural pursuits  of  the  inhabitants,  and  has  made  this  a  portion  of  the  great  dairy 
district  of  the  Western  Reserve. 

In  some  localities  on  the  northern  and  western  slope  of  the  water-shed,  but 
near  its  summit,  are  heavy  beds  of  gravel,  forming  swells  of  the  surface,  or 
even-rounded  hills  of  considerable  altitude.  Typical  examples  of  these  may 
be  seen  in  Randolph,  Rootstown,  Siiffield,  Franklin  and  Brimfield,  and  near 
Earlville,  on  the  lines  of  the  two  railroads  which  pass  through  the  county. 
In  the  basins  inclosed  by  these  gravel  hills  and  ridges  lie  most  of  the  lakes 
and  peat  bogs  of  the  county.  These  gravel  hills  constitute  an  interesting 
feature  in  the  surface  deposits,  and  will  be  found  described  in  the  first  chapter 
of  Vol.  II,  under  the  head  of  Karnes.  I  have  ascribed  them  to  the  action  of 
waves  on  the  Drift  deposit  of  the  shore  and  shoals  which  formed  the  margin  of 
the  great  inland  sea  that  once  filled  all  the  basin  of  the  lakes. 

In  the  northern  part  of  the  county  the  Drift  deposits  are  generally  of  so 
great  thickness  as  to  cover  and  conceal  the  underlying  rocks.  W^herever 
exposed  to  view,  the  rock  surface  is  found  to  be  planed  and  grooved  by  glacial 
action,  and  usually  the  overlying  clay  may  be  designated  as  a  bowlder  clay, 
since  it  contains  masses  of  rock  derived  from  neighboring  sources,  with  smaller 
and  usually  scratched  and  worn  fragments  brought  from  distant  localities. 
This  clay  is  unquestionably  the  material  ground  up  by  the  great  glacier  which 
once  covered  northern  Ohio,  pushed  forward  by  its  advance,  and  left  in  an 
irregular  sheet  upon  the  rocky  foundation  in  its  retreat.  In  some  places  the 
clay  is  finer,  without  gravel  or  bowlders,  and  is  accurately  stratified  by  the 
action  of  water. 

Immediately  beneath  the  soil,  or  projecting  above  the  surface,  are  found 
many  transported  bowlders,  frequently  of  large  size,  composed  of  granite, 
greenstone,  and  other  crystalline  rocks,  evidently  of  foreign  origin,  and  appar- 
ently derived  from  the  highlands  north  of  the  great  lakes.  These  bowlders 
are  rarely  found  deeply  buried  in  the  Drift,  and,  as  I  have  elsewhere  shown, 
must  have  been  floated  by  icebergs  from  their  place  of  origin,  and  dropped  into 
their  present  position.  Some  of  the  superficial  gravels  which  overlie  the 
bowlder  clay  seem  to  have  been  transported  by  the  same  agency. 

As  a  whole,  the  soil  of  Portage  County  is  productive,  and  although,  from 
its  tenacious  character,  and  the  dense  growth  of  forest  by  which  it  was  cov- 
ered, it  has  required  much  patience  and  labor  for  its  subjugation,  this  task  has 
been  well  and  thoroughly  performed  by  the  intelligent  and  industrious  popu- 
lation into  whose  possession  it  came,  and  it  has  repaid  their  efiforts  by  a  con- 
stant and  generous  support  through  the  last  half  century. 

*By  J.  S.  Newberry. 


In  common  with  the  other  portions  of  the  great  divide  on  which  Portage 
County  is  located,  its  rolling  surface  forms  numerous  local  basins,  many  of 
which  have  been,  and  some  still  are,  occupied  by  lakes.  Of  these  lakes 
Stewart's  Pond,  Twin  Lakes,  Brady's  Lake,  and  Pippin  Lake,  in  Franklin, 
Muddy  Lake,  Sandy  Lake  andMuzzy's  Lake  in  Rootstown,  and  Fritch's  Pond  in 
Suffield,  may  be  cited  as  examples.  These  lakes  are  supplied  by  springs  which 
flow  through  the  Drift  gravels,  and  their  water  is  usually  clear  and  pure;  they 
contain  great  numbers  of  tine  fish,  and  are  also  interesting  and  beautiful  feat- 
ures in  the  scenery.  Some  of  these  basins  formerly  occupied  by  water  have 
been  gradually  filled  up  by  the  growth  of  vegetation,  and  now  exist  as  swamps 
underlaid  by  peat.  One  of  the  best  known  of  these  is  near  Ravenna,  where 
considerable  peat  has  been  cut  and  manufactured.  There  is  another  and  still 
more  extensive  peat  marsh  in  Brimfield,  and  small  ones  occur  in  nearly  every 
township.  Usually  these  peat  bogs  are  occupied  with  Sphagnum  (the  peat- 
producing  moss),  cranberry  vines,  huckleberry  bushes,  and  larches,  and  they 
are  often  known  as  tamarack  or  huckleberry  swamps.  The  peat  in  these 
Bwamps  is  not  unfrequently  underlaid  by  shell  marl,  and  both  these  are  capa- 
ble of  being  used  with  profit  by  the  farmers  as  fertilizers.  It  is  also  probable 
that  the  cranberry  may  be  successfully  cultivated  on  the  swamp  surfaces.  In 
the  Eastern  States  the  cultivation  of  cranberries  has  proved  to  be  liighly 
remunerative  to  those  engaged  in  it,  and  there  seems  no  good  reason  why  the 
same  success  should  not  be  attained  by  the  inhabitants  of  those  portions  of 
Ohio  where  the  cranberry  grows  spontaneously,  and  where  there  are  marshes 
which  are  well  adapted  to  its  cultivation. 

Striking  and  typical  examples  of  the  glacial  furrows  which  have  been 
referred  to  above  may  be  seen  on  the  hill  near  the  house  of  Mr.  Theodore 
Clark,  in  the  township  of  Edinburg.  The  direction  of  the  striae  is  here  N. 
60°  E.  The  rock  is  a  sandstone,  overlying  the  lower  seam  of  coal.  Near 
the  center  of  Palmyra  is  a  still  better  exhibition  of  glacial  marks.  On  the 
hill,  three  quarters  of  a  mile  west  of  the  center,  the  bearing  of  the  furrows  is 
N.  30^  E.  In  the  town  of  Palmyra,  on  a  surface  of  sandstone  exposed  in 
front  of  Mr.  Wilson's  store,  the  traces  of  glacial  action  are  very  conspicuous; 
the  rock  surface  being  planed  down  very  smooth,  and  marked  with  scratches 
and  furrows,  of  which  the  direction  is  N.  26°  E.  In  many  other  parts  of  the 
county  similar  ice  inscriptions  may  be  observed,  chiefly  on  the  surfaces  of  the 
beds  of  sandstone,  as  they  are  better  retained  on  this  indestructable  material 
than  on  the  softer  or  more  soluble  rocks. 

The  bowlder  clay  which  overlies  the  glaciated  sm-face  varies  considerably 
in  appearance  in  different  localities,  according  to  the  exposure  and  drainage 
to  which  it  has  been  subjected,  and  the  local  circumstances  which  controlled 
its  formation.  In  the  valleys  it  will  be  found  to  be  of  a  bluish  color  through- 
out. On  the  higher  lands  the  upper  portion  is  frequently  yellow,  sometimps 
down  to  the  depth  of  ten  or  twelve  feet,  while  the  lower  portion  is  blue  or 
gray.  This  difference  I  attribute  to  the  oxidation  of  the  iron  contained  in  the 
clay,  where  it  has  been  exposed  to  the  air  and  to  surface  drainage.  The  num- 
ber and  character  of  the  pebbles  and  bowlders  contained  in  the  clay  also 
varies  much  in  different  localities.  In  some  places,  as  near  Campbellsport,  the 
Drift  deposits  are  largely  made  up  of  angular  or  little-worn  fragments  of  sand- 
stone, torn  from  their  beds  in  the  immediate  vicinity  ;  while  in  places  remote 
from  such  outcrops  of  the  harder  rooks,  the  stones  contained  in  the  clay  are 
small,  much  worn,  and  many  of  them  are  composed  of  granite,  etc.,  brought 
from  the  region  north  of  the  lakes. 

On  the  highlands  the  gravel  beds  referred  to  above  rest  sometimes  on  the 


t^  ^  O^  ^  J^u/Ik^ 


bowlder  clay,  but  perhaps  oftener  on  the  underlying  rock,  showing  that  the 
causes  which  produced  the  accumulation  of  gravel  generally  removed  all  the 
clay.  Where  the  gravel  beds  overlap  the  bowlder  clay,  the  materials  which 
compose  them  seem  to  have  been  washed  back  from  the  higher  grounds.  It  will 
be  noticed  that  the  pebbles  in  the  gravel  beds  are  well  rounded  and  often  irregu- 
larly stratified,  while  those  found  in  the  bowlder  clay  are  sub- angular, 
scratched  and  worn,  but  rarely  rounded.  It  is  evident,  therefore,  that  the 
gravels  have  been  subjected  to  a  triturating  action  quite  different  from  that 
exerted  by  glaciers  on  the  materials  which  they  move.  The  facts  show  fur- 
ther that  water,  either  in  shore  waves  or  in  river  currents,  has  been  the  agent 
by  which  the  pebbles  of  the  gravel  have  been  rounded  ;  and  as  it  is  difficult  to 
conceive  of  any  currents  which  could  leave  beds  and  hills  of  gravel  such  as 
are  found  along  the  divide  between  the  waters  of  the  lake  and  the  Ohio, 
I  have  been  led  to  consider  these  deposits  as  the  effect  of  shore  waves, 
when  the  lake  basin  was  filled  to  this  height,  on  the  bowlder  clay  and  other 
Drift  material  which  once  covered  the  underlying  rocks.  It  is  possible,  too, 
that  the  drainage  from  the  glacier,  when  it  filled  the  lake  basin  and  was  melt- 
ing along  its  southern  edge,  contributed  to  the  washing  of  the  clay  and  the 
rounding  of  the  pebbles.  In  this  view  the  gi-avel  hills  and  sheets  which  cover 
80  much  of  the  great  divide  which  crosses  the  State  may  be  compared  to  the 
terminal  moraines  of  existing  glaciers,  but  in  no  moraine  of  which  I  have  any 
knowledge  are  the  pebbles  and  bowlders  nearly  so  well  rounded  as  in  the 
deposits  under  consideration  ;  and  I  am  sure  all  who  will  carefully  examine 
these  will  agree  with  me  that  free  and  swift  moving  water,  in  large  quantity, 
has  been  the  chief  agent  in  producing  the  phenomena  exhibited.  Along  cer- 
tain lines  leading  from  the  summit  of  the  watershed  to  the  Ohio,  both  east  and 
west  of  Portage  County,  there  are  belts  of  gravel  and  bowlders,  which  mark, 
as  I  concieve,  broad  and  long- existing  drainage  channels,  by  which  the  surplus 
water  of  the  lake  basin  flowed  through  certain  waste- weirs  cut  in  the  water- 
shed and  escaped  southward,  but  the  gravel  hills  of  Portage  County  can  hardly 
be  referred  to  such  a  cause. 

Geological  Structure. — The  number  and  relative  positions  of  the  strata 
which  come  to  the  surface  within  the  limits  of  Portage  County  will  be  seen 
at  a  glance  by  reference  to  the  section  given  below: 

Superficial  clay  and  gravel 10  to  100 

Shale  and  sandstone 50 

Limestone 0  to  4 

Coal  No.  4 1  to  5 

Fire-clay  3  to  4 

Shale  and  sandstone 25  to  30 

Limestone  0  to  4 

Coal  No.  3 1  to  8 

Fire-clay 3  to  12 

Shale 20to  50 

Coal  No.  2 Oto  1 

Sandstone 50  to  100 

Shale Oto  50 

CoalNo.l Oto  5 

Fire-clay 3  to  5 

Shale  and  sandstone 35  to  50 

Conglomerate 100 

All  the  rocks  enumerated  in  the  preceding  section  belong  to  the  Carbon- 
iferous system,  of  which  they  represent  two  members,  viz. :  the  Conglomerate 
and  the  Coal  Measures.  The  area  of  the  county  is  about  equally  divided  be- 
tween the  two  formations.  All  the  northern  half  has  the  Conglomerate  for 
its  surface  rook,  though  it  is  generally  deeply  buried  by  Drift  clays.     It  is 



fully  exposed  in  the  valleys  of  the  Mahoning  and  Cuyahoga.  The  trough  of 
the  latter  stream  is  cut  in  the  Conglomerate  all  the  way  from  the  point  where 
it  enters  the  county,  in  Hiram,  to  its  place  of  exit,  on  the  west  side  of  Frank- 
lin. The  Conglomerate  is  well  seen  in  Mantua  and  Garrettsville,  and  still 
better  in  Franklin  and  Nelson.  In  all  these  localities  it  exhibits  essentially 
the  same  characters,  viz. :  a  coarse,  drab-colored  sandstone,  in  places  thickly 
set  with  quartz  pebbles  from  the  size  of  a  pea  to  that  of  an  egg.  In  some 
places,  as  in  Windham,  the  stone  it  furnishes  is  finer,  whiter,  and  more  homo- 
geneous, and  would  answer  admirably  for  architectural  purposes.  As  a  gen- 
eral rule,  however,  it  is  rather  coarse  for  all  fine  work,  but  furnishes  a  strong 
and  durable  stone,  well  adapted  to  bridge-building,  cellar  walls,  and,  indeed, 
to  all  plain  and  massive  masonry. 

Near  Kent  certain  layers  of  the  Conglomerate  have  been  found,  which  are 
white  enough  to  serve  for  the  manufacture  of  glass.  The  coloring  matter  of 
the  rock  is  usually  iron,  and  it  here  contains  much  less  than  usual. 

The  best  sections  of  the  Conglomerate  found  in  the  county  are  in  Nelson, 
where  its  entire  thickness  is  shown — 175  feet — and  it  forms  bold 
escarpments,  which  constitute  the  western  boundary  of  the  valley  of 
Grand  River.  These  escarpments  are  known  as  the  Nelson  Ledges.  They 
afford  the  most  pictjiresque  scenery  to  be  found  in  the  county,  and  are  noted 
places  of  resoi't  for  the  inhabitants  of  the  surrounding  region.  In  the  extreme 
northeastern  corner  of  the  county  an  island  of  the  Conglomerate  has  been  cut 
ofi"  by  erosion  from  the  main  plateau.  Though  less  bold  in  its  outline,  it  has 
the  same  topographical  character  and  relation  as  Little  Mountain,  in  Lake 

At  the  base  of  the  Nelson  Ledges  the  Cuyahoga  shale  is  imperfectly 
exposed.  This  is  the  upper  member  of  the  Waver iy  formation,  and  will  be 
found  fully  described  in  the  reports  on  Cuyahoga,  Summit,  and  Trumbull 
Counties.  A  few  years  since  quite  an  excitement  was  raised  by  the  reported 
discovery  of  gold  at  the  Nelson  Ledges.  As  is  usual  in  such  cases,  stock  com- 
panies were  formed,  and  many  dreams  of  wealth  were  indulged  in  by  those 
who  obtained  shares  of  the  stock.  It  is  hardly  necessary  to  say  that  these 
dreams  have  passed  like  "the  baseless  fabric  of  a  vision."  The  excitement 
was  caused  by  the  discovery  of  iron  pyrites  in  certain  beds  of  the  Conglomer- 
ate— another  of  the  innumerable  examples  of  the  mistake  of  "fool's  gold"  for 
true  gold.  A  little  knowledge  of  geology  would  have  prevented  this  error, 
and  would  have  taught  the  sufferers  that  gold  could  never  be  found  in  paying 
quantities  in  Portage  County.  That  minute  particles  may  sometimes  be 
detected  in  the  superficial  gravels  is  very  probable,  since  these  gravels  are 
largely  made  up  of  quartz  pebbles,  which  are  only  rolled  masses  of  the  quartz 
veins  contained  in  the  crystalline  rocks  of  the  Canadian  highlands,  and  which 
frequently  carry  a  little  gold.  It  is  also  probable  that  with  sufficient  care  in 
searching  for  it,  an  infinitesimal  quantity  of  gold  might  be  detected  in  the 
Conglomerate,  as  the  quartz  pebbles  it  contains  were  doubtless  derived  from 
the  same  source  with  those  to  which  I  have  already  referred  ;  but  it  may  be 
confidently  predicted  that  the  precious  metal  will  never  be  obtained  from 
either  of  the  sources  mentioned  in  sufficient  quantity  to  compensate  the  most 
idle  and  worthless  member  of  the  community  for  any  time  he  may  spend  in 
its  search. 

Coal  Measures. — Nearly  three-fourths  of  the  surface  of  Portage  County  is 
underlaid  by  coal-measure  rocks,  and  they  once  covered  its  entire  area.  From 
the  valleys  of  the  Mahoning  and  Cuyahoga  they  have  been  removed  by  erosion, 
so  that  in  the  northern  part  of  the  county  they  are  restricted  to  a  small  island 


west  of  the  river,  in  Mantua,  and  a  narrow  arm  which  projects  from  Freedom 
northward,  through  Hiram,  into  Geauga  County. 

In  the  northern  part  of  Portage  County  the  Drift  deposits  are  so  thick  as  to 
hide  the  outcrops  of  the  coal  rocks,  and  it  is  here  very  difl&cult  to  trace  the 
line  along  which  the  edge  of  the  lowest  coal  seam  should  be  found.  It  is 
probable  that  coal,  in  greater  or  less  thickness,  underlies  the  principal  part  of 
Hiram,  the  western  half  of  Shalei'sville  and  Ravenna,  and  the  southwestern  cor- 
ner of  Windham.  The  northern  and  southern  portions  of  Paris,  and  nearly  all 
of  Charlestown,  lie  above  the  horizon  of  the  lower  coal,  as  do  most  of  Palmyra, 
Deerfield,  Brimiield  and  Suffield. 

Along  a  belt  running  through  the  central  part  of  the  county,  the  land  is 
high  enough  to  carry  the  second  and  third  seams  of  coal  from  the  bottom. 
With  this  breadth  of  coal  area  it  would  at  fu*st  sight  seem  that  Portage  County 
should  produce  as  large  an  amount  of  coal  as  Trumbull,  and  much  more  than 
Summit,  but  up  to  the  present  time  the  coal  production  of  the  county  has  been 
exceedingly  small.  This  arises  from  the  fact  that  the  margin  of  the  lower 
coal  (Coal  No.  1)  is  so  generally  covered  with  Drift  that  it  does  not  show  itself 
at  the  surface  in  many  localities,  and  also  that  this  coal  here,  as  in  the  Mahon- 
ing Valley,  lies  in  detached  basins  of  limited  extent,  and  is  entirely  absent 
over  large  areas  from  the  place  where  it  belongs,  or  is  so  thin  as  to  be  of  little 
value.  We  may  expect,  however,  that  important  basins  of  the  Briar  Hill  coal 
will  be  found  within  the  limits  that  have  been  marked  out.  W^ere  it  not  for 
the  Drift  it  would  be  easy  to  follow  the  outcrops  of  the  rocks,  and  knowing  just 
where  to  explore  by  digging  or  boring,  to  determine  the  presence  or  absence  of 
the  coal.  In  the  present  circumstances,  however,  even  where  coal  may  be 
supposed  to  exist,  it  can  only  be  detected  by  boring  blindly  through  the  Drift 
deposits.  In  many  places  these  will  doubtless  be  found  so  thick  as  to  cut  out 
the  coal,  though  the  surface  may  be  considerably  above  the  coal  level.  Even 
where  the  rocks  which  belong  above  the  coal  may  be  found  in  place,  from  the 
irregular  distribution  of  this  seam,  the  chances  are  more  than  equal  that  the 
result  of  boring  will  show  it  to  be  absent,  or  too  thin  to  have  any  economic 
value.  Since,  however,  the  coal  of  this  stratum  is  so  excellent,  it  will  be  the 
part  of  wisdom  for  all  those  who  own  territory  lying  within  the  lines  I  have 
traced  to  make  such  explorations  as  may  determine  whether  or  not  they  are  in 
possession  of  some  portion  of  this  great  source  of  wealth.  The  level  of  Coal 
No.  1,  in  the  northern  half  of  Portage  County,  varies  from  500  to  600  feet 
above  the  lake.  The  dip  being  toward  the  south,  the  coal  sinks  rapidly  in 
that  direction,  and  rises  correspondingly  toward  the  north.  At  Ravenna  the 
place  of  the  coal  is  probably  not  far  from  the  level  of  the  intersection  of  the 
Cleveland  &  Pittsburgh  and  Atlantic  &  Great  Western  Railroads,  or  about  500 
feet  above  Lake  Erie. 

Coal  No.  1  has  been  opened,  and  is  now  quite  extensively  mined  in  Pal- 
myra. It  here  exhibits  the  same  general  features,  both  as  regards  thickness 
and  quality,  as  the  coal  of  the  neighboring  counties  of  Mahoning  and  Trum- 
bull. The  coal  mining  of  Palmyra  is  principally  done  by  the  Western  Reserve 
Coal  Company,  to  a  member  of  which  company,  Mr.  W.  B.  Wilson,  of 
Palmyra,  I  am  indebted  for  much  valuable  information  concerning  the  opera- 
tions of  his  own  company,  and  in  regard  to  other  developments  of  coal  made 
in  this  township.  The  coal  mined  by  the  Western  Reserve  Coal  Company  is 
reached  by  a  shaft  which  is  eighty-one  feet  deep  to  the  coal,  or  ninety-five  feet 
from  the  tip.  It  is  reported  that  in  sinking  the  shaft  eighteen  feet  of  earth 
was  first  passed  through,  and  then  sixty-three  feet  of  rock,  mainly  shale,  in 
which  were  two  strata  of  "kidney"  ore.     The   coal   varies  from  two  to  four 


feet  in  thickness,  being  thickest  in  a  "  swamp  "  which  ruus  northwest  and 
southeast  in  a  tortuous  course.  On  each  side  of  this  crooked  basin  the  coal 
rises  and  thins,  and  is  worked  to  the  thickness  of  two  feet.  The  company  is 
taking  out  about  4,000  tons  per  annum,  selling  it  at  the  mine  at  $3.00  per  ton. 
The  coal  is  of  excellent  quality,  being  very  free  fi'om  sulphur,  and  containing 
little  ash.  It  is  a  block  coal,  Unely  laminated  with  charcoal  seams,  and  is  not 
siu'passed  in  quality  by  any  coal  in  the  State  outside  of  the  Mahoning  Valley. 
According  to  our  barometric  measurements  by  a  single  line  of  observations,  the 
center  of  Palmyra  is  120  feet  above  Ravenna  Station,  or  G50  feet  above  Lake 
Erie.  The  tip  of  the  coal  company's  shaft  is  430  feet  above  Lake  Erie,  and  the 
coal  335  feet  above  the  lake.  Owing  to  the  variability  of  the  barometer,  these 
figures  can  not  be  relied  upon  as  absolutely  correct.  The  Western  Reserve 
Coal  Company  has  200  acres  of  coal  land  in  the  eastern  part  of  Palmyra,  on 
the  center  road.  How  large  a  part  of  those  200  acres  is  underlaid  by  coal  of 
workable  thickness  has  not  yet  been  ascertained.  Other  companies  have  been 
making  explorations  in  this  neighborhood,  and  report  about  200  acres  of  good 
coal  land  in  addition  to  that  before  mentioned. 

In  the  northwestern  part  of  the  township  some  300  acres  of  coal  property 
are  said  to  have  been  tested,  and  the  coal  is  reported  to  be  from  three  to  four 
feet  in  thickness.  Coal  has  also  been  found  in  the  northeastern  and  south- 
western parts  of  the  township.  We  thus  have  good  reason  for  believing  that 
a  somewhat  extensive  basin,  or  series  of  basins,  of  the  Briar  Hill  coal  exists  in 
and  about  Palmyra,  but  years  of  exploration  will  be  required  before  it  will  be 
known  what  the  connection,  limits  and  value  of  this  coal  field  are. 

From  the  shaft  in  Palmyra  the  coal  extends  west  and  south  to  an  unknown 
distance,  and  possibly  reaches  under  much  of  the  central  and  southern  parts 
of  the  county.  Since  the  place  of  Coal  No.  1  is  from  200  to  250  feet  below 
the  surface  over  a  considerable  part  of  the  higher  land,  it  is  apparent  that 
most  of  the  boring  yet  done  has  formed  no  test  of  its  presence  or  absence. 

In  the  valley  of  the  Mahoning,  in  Deerfield,  an  outcrop  of  coal  may  be 
seen  which  was  supposed  by  Mr.  Read,  who  examined  it,  to  be  the  Briar  Hill 
coal.  It  is,  however,  only  about  a  foot  in  thickness,  and  it  is  probable  that 
it  is  the  next  seam  above.  A  boring  of  limited  depth  would  decide  the  ques- 
tion. In  Brimfield  and  Suffield  there  is  a  large  amount  of  territory  which 
deserves  more  careful  exploration  than  it  has  yet  received.  Hei'e  the  land 
rises  to  150  feet  above  the  level  of  the  coal,  but  the  surface  is  generally  occu- 
pied by  Drift.  Little  is  known  of  the  nature  of  the  underlying  rocks,  but  from 
the  relation  which  this  district  holds  to  the  coal  basins  of  Tallmadge  and 
Springfield,  in  Summit  County,  there  is  a  great  probability  that  sooner  or 
later  good  deposits  of  coal  will  be  found  here.  It  should  be  borne  in  mind, 
however,  that  from  the  circumstances  which  I  have  fully  explfiined  in  the 
report  on  the  geology  of  Summit,  the  lower  coal  is  of  tener  absent  than  present 
in  the  place  where  it  belongs,  and  it  is,  therefore,  to  be  expected  that  a  large 
part  of  the  trials  which  may  be  made  here  will  result  in  disappointment. 

At  Limaville,  on  the  southern  line  of  the  county,  Coal  No.  1  has  been 
struck  in  borings  by  Dr.  J.  A.  Dales,  at  the  depth  of  about  170  feet,  or  less 
than  350  feet  above  the  lake.  According  to  the  reports  by  Dr.  Dales,  the 
coal  has  here  a  thickness  of  over  four  feet.  Analyses  prove  that  it  has  the 
purity  and  physical  character  of  the  Mahoning  Valley  coal.  Should  a  consid- 
erable area  in  this  vicinity  bo  found  to  be  underlaid  by  Coal  No.  1,  it  would 
be  difficult  to  exaggerate  the  importance  it  would  assume  among  the  wealth- 
producing  elements  of  the  county,  and  it  is  sincerely  to  be  hoped  that  the 
examinations  begun  here  will  be  carried  through  the  townships  lying  north, 
until  this  important  question  shall  be  definitely  settled. 


Coals  Nos.  3  and  4. —  By  reference  to  the  general  section  of  the  rocks  of 
the  county,  it  will  be  seen  that  at  a  distance  from  the  lower  coal — generally 
from  fifty  to  seventy-five  feet — a  thin  seam  occurs.  This  has  no  value  in  this 
part  of  the  State,  and  requires  here  no  further  notice. 

From  150  to  200  feet  above  Coal  No.  1,  two  other  seams  come  in,  which 
are  sometimes  of  workable  thickness.  These  we  have  designated  as  Coals  No. 
3  and  No.  4.  They  are  separated  by  a  distance  of  thirty  to  fifty  feet,  and  are 
usually  both  overlaid  by  limestone.  Sometimes,  however,  one  or  both  of  the 
limestones  are  replaced  by  shale.  These  coal  seams,  here  as  elsewhere,  have 
proved  to  be  quite  irregular  in  their  thickness,  although  in  a  general  way 
continuous  from  Portage  through  Summit,  Stark,  Wayne,  Holmes,  Coshocton 
Counties,  etc.,  to  and  beyond  the  National  Road.  Both  these  coals  may  be 
seen  in  the  northeastern  corner  of  Atwater,  where  the  north  and  south  road 
crosses  a  small  stream,  and  not  far  from  the  locality  where  so  much  fire-clay  is 
dug.  Here  the  limestone  of  No.  3  shows  in  the  bed  of  the  brook  at  a  level  of 
twenty  feet  above  the  railroad  at  Atwater,  or  580  feet  above  Lake  Erie.  It  is 
about  four  feet  in  thickness,  and,  as  usual,  has  iron  ore  over  it.  The  coal 
beneath  is  only  a  few  inches  thick.  Some  twenty  feet  above  the  limestone 
Coal  No.  4  is  seen  in  the  road,  here  apparently  four  feet  thick,  but  with  scarcely 
any  covering.     No  limestone  is  visible  over  it. 

In  Limestone  Ridge,  in  Freedom,  both  these  strata  are  shown.  The  upper 
one  is  thin,  but  is  overlaid  by  limestone,  which  is  here  burned  for  quicklime. 
Coal  No.  3  is  seen  in  the  road  at  the  south  end  of  Limestone  Ridge;  as  usual, 
it  is  underlaid  by  a  thick  bed  of  fire-clay. 

On  the  farm  of  Wilson  Davidson,  about  half  a  mile  distant  from  the  last- 
named  locality,  this  coal  has  been  mined,  though  not  largely,  for  a  number  of 
years.  It  is  here  about  twenty-two  inches  thick.  From  the  fact  that  this  seam 
was  represented  as  Coal  No.  1  by  the  geologist  who,  when  connected  with  the 
first  geological  survey  of  the  State,  made  an  examination  of  this  region  (Annual 
Report  of  1838,  p.  59),  no  thorough  exploration  has  ever  been  made  of  the 
strata  below  it.  Possibly  such  explorations  would  have  been  fruitless,  as  the 
lower  seam  is  so  frequently  absent  from  its  place;  but  as  the  true  position  of 
Coal  No.  1  is  at  least  150  feet  below  Mr.  Davidson's  coal,  it  is  evident  that  a 
large  area  in  the  vicinity  deserves  examination  by  deep  boring.  Considerable 
money  has  been  spent  in  boring  in  Freedom,  but,  so  far  as  I  can  learn,  none 
of  the  wells  have  been  carried  deep  enough  to  determine  the  presence  or 
absence  of  the  lower  coal.  One  well  bored  on  Limestone  Ridge  is  reported  to 
have  furnished  the  following  section: 

FT.  IN. 

Earth 14  0 

Limestone 3  0 

Shale 54  0 

Coal 1  10 

Fire-clav ? 

Sandrock 30  0 

Shale 10  0 

In  this  boring  the  upper  limestone  coal  was  absent  or  so  thin  as  not  to 
attract  notice.  The  lower  limestone  was  absent,  as  seems  to  be  the  case  gen- 
erally in  this  vicinity.  The  place  of  the  lower  coal  was  not  reached  by  from 
seventy-five  to  one  hundred  feet.  Another  hole  was  bored  by  William  Cran- 
nage,  for  Mr.  George  Worthington,  of  Cleveland,  without  finding  the  coal 
sought  for,  but  was  almost  certainly  not  carried  to  a  suflficient  depth. 

A  well  sunk  near  the  quarries  on  Limestone  Ridge  is  said  to  have  passed 
through — 



Limestone 4 

Shale,  with  plants  and  thin  seams  of  coal 20 

Sandrock  to  bottom. 

Here  it  is  evident  that  the  place  of  the  twenty-two-inch  seam  was  not 

Half  a  mile  northeast  of  Drakesburg  a  well  showed  the  following  strata: 


Earth 14 

Shale 30 

Sandrock  to  bottom 26 

In  this  well  the  excavation  was  probably  begun  below  the  limestone  coals, 
but  it  did  not  descend  to  the  level  of  the  lower  coal. 

At  Hiram  Center  a  yellow  sandrock  of  the  Coal  Measures  is  quarried  just 
back  of  the  hotel.  South  of  the  Center,  about  one  mile,  shale  crops  out  in  the 
road  below  this  sandrock.  Near  this  point,  but  west  and  on  higher  ground, 
a  well  on  Mr.  Hopkins'  land  gave — 


Earth 9 

Sandrock 15 

Shale,  with  one  foot  of  coal 40 

"Flagstone,"  to  bottom 3 

Stratum  No.  4  of  this  section  was  called  by  the  drillers  "  bottom  rock," 
but  in  this  vicinity  no  proof  should  be  accepted  of  having  passed  the  place  of 
the  lower  coal,  except  reaching  the  Conglomerate. 

In  the  soiith  part  of  Hiram,  coal  has  been  taken  from  a  natural  outcrop 
twelve  to  eighteen  inches  thick,  and  used  by  the  blacksmiths.  This  is  proba- 
bly Coal  No.  1. 

In  going  from  Drakesburg  to  Garrettsville  the  surface  descends  nearly  two 
hundred  feet,  passing  down  from  a  broad  ridge  or  divide,  which  is  a  marked 
feature  in  the  topography,  and  which  stretches  connectedly  north  into  the  cen- 
ter of  Geauga  County.  The  top  of  this  ridge  or  table  is  above  the  coal  level 
from  Freedom  to  Burton,  and  more  or  less  coal  has  been  found  in  it  all  the 
way,  although  it  is  usually  thin. 

At  Garrettsville  the  Conglomerate  is  fully  exposed,  and  rises  thirty  feet 
above  the  depot,  or  485  feet  above  the  lake.  Two  miles  west  of  Garrettsville 
the  base  of  the  ridge  referred  to  is  reached,  and  in  the  ravine  by  the  roadside 
the  following  section  is  exposed  : 


Coarse  sandrock,  with  some  small  pebbles 30 

Irregular  seam  of  coal 1 

Shale,  with  bands  of   sandstone 20 

Black  shale,  with  iron 1 

Sandstone  to  base. 

The  top  of  this  section  is  ]  50  feet  above  the  depot  at  Garrettsville,  and 
the  coal  exposed  is  probably  about  the  horizon  of  the  thin  seam.  No.  2,  the 
place  of  Coal  No.  1  being  below. 

In  Mantua  there  are  many  natural  outcrops  of  coal,  viz.:  at  the  railroad 
cut  northeast  of  the  Corners  a  few  inches  (two  to  four)  thick;  a  mile  south  of 
the  Corners,  on  Mr.  Blaine's  land,  sixteen  inches  ;  one  and  a  half  miles  east 
of  the  Corners,  six  to  eight  inches  thick.  Three  wells  drilled  near  each  other 
in  this  vicinity  gave — 


Earth 4 

Sandrock 36  to  46 

Black  shale 20  to  40 

Gray  shale 2  to     4 

Coal 4  to  12  inches. 

Sandrock  (bottom  not  reached). 


A  boring  was  made  one  and  a  half  miles  south  of  the  Corners,  to  the  depth 
of  336  feet,  penetrating  earth,  sandrock  and  shale,  of  which  the  thickness  is 
not  known.      Coal  was  found  six  to  eight  inches  thick. 

The  center  of  Charlestown  rises  to  the  height  of  575  feet  above  the  lake, 
and  an  outcrop  of  coal  is  visible  on  the  King  place,  in  the  road  leading  to 
Ravenna,  and  about  fifty  feet  below  the  Center.  This  is  evidently  the  Briar 
Hill  seam.  The  hill  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  valley  rises  600  feet  above 
the  lake  and  nearly  100  feet  above  the  coal  level,  but  the  coal,  if  it  exists 
there,  is  concealed.  The  valleys  of  the  streams  in  this  region  are  cut  below 
the  coal,  and  all  the  highlands  should  carry  it  ;  but  unfortunately  heavy  beds 
of  Drift  conceal  its  outcrops  and  make  the  work  of  exploration  expensive  and 

In  the  central  part  of  Edinburg  the  land  is  all  at  least  150  feet  above  the 
coal  level.  This  is  proved,  not  only  by  barometric  measurement,  but  by  the 
explorations  made  east  of  the  Center  by  Mr.  G.  L.  Chapman.  He  has  bored 
many  holes  in  search  of  coal,  and  has  found  it  in  several.  In  one  place  a 
shaft  was  sunk  with  the  expectation  of  mining  it.  The  coal,  however,  was 
found  to  be  very  irregular  in  thickness,  and  the  enterprise  was  not  successful. 
In  making  these  explorations  Mr.  Chapman  at  first  supposed  that  the  coal  he 
found  was  the  Briar  Hill  seam,  but  it  is  quite  certain  that  the  place  of  Coal 
No.  1  is  at  least  150  feet  below  the  bottom  of  the  shaft.  Two  beds  of  coal  and 
two  of  limestone  were  passed  through  in  some  of  the  borings  made  by  Mr. 
Chapman,  all  within  fifty  feet  of  the  surface.  The  section  exposed  in  the 
shaft  referred  to  is  as  follows: 


Surface  deposits 12^ 

Sandy  shale 11^ 

White  sandrock 7^ 

Shale,  sandy  above 17| 

Coal  No.  3 3i 

Sandrock  and  shale 4 

Fire-clay 1^ 

The  upper  limestone  is  said  to  have  been  found  in  an  adjacent  field. 

A  boring  made  somewhat  east  of  the  shaft,  and  carried  to  a  greater  depth 
afibrds  a  much  better  view  of  the  geological  sub-stjucture  of  this  region.  The 
record  of  this  boring  is  as  follows: 

FT-  IN. 

Surface  deposits 20  0 

Shale 4  0 

Limestone 3  6 

Fire-clav 3  6 

Shale 3  6 

Shaly  sandstone 8  0 

Shale 6  0 

Coal 0  4 

Shale 2  0 

Coal 2  6 

Shale 7  0 

Fire-clay 4  0 

Shale 7  6 

Sandrock 54  0 

Shale 2  0 

Bluish  sandrock 0  6 

It  will  be  noticed  that  in  this  section  a  bed  of  limestone  occurs  near  the 
surface,  and  that  the  lower  part  of  the  boring  was  in  a  thick  bed  of  sand- 
stone. This  sandstone  is  the  massive  stratum  which  overlies  the  Briar  Hill 
coal,  sometimes  coming  down  to   it,  and   sometimes  even  cutting  it  out  com- 


pletely,  but  more  generally  resting  upon  a  bed  of  shale  of  variable  thickness. 
The  place  of  Coal  No.  1  is  plainly  below  the  bottom  of  this  hole. 

Since  my  first  visit  to  Edinburg,  Mr.  Chapman  has  continued  his  explora- 
tions, and  others  have  been  carried  on  by  Mr.  D.  W.  Goss,  but,  so  far,  I 
believe,  without  very  satisfactory  results.  The  many  borings  made  show  great 
irregularity  in  the  deposition  of  the  strata  here,  and  it  is  evident  that  this  has 
been  a  region  through  which  rapid  currents  of  water  have  swept,  which  have 
cut  away  the  coal  seams  and  deposited  sands  and  clays  in  a  very  unequal  way. 
This  will  be  evident  upon  an  examination  of  the  records  of  some  of  the  drill- 
ings.    A  well  bored  one  mile  northeast  of  the  Center  gave — 


Earth 20 

Shaly  sandrock 6 

White  sandrock 39 

Blue  shale 3 

Fire-clay 8 

Shale,  with  coal  streaks 4 

Fire-clay 1 

Shale 4 

Black,  coaly  shale 2 

Shale 3 

Fire-clay 2 

Shale 87 

Very  hard  sandrock 8 

Fire-clay 1 

Shale 42 

Fine  sandrock 24 

Sandrocli 8i 

Soft  shale 8 

Fine,  bluish  sandrock 45 

Gray  shale 50 

Shale  and  sandrock 38^ 

Bluish-gray  shale 21 

It  is  evident  that  this  boring  has  gone  far  into  the  Waverly,  and  it  reveals 
the  fact  that  the  Conglomerate  is  here  absent.  This  is  somewhat  surprising, 
as  in  the  valley  of  the  Mahoning,  only  a  few  miles  distant,  it  is  fully  100  feet 
in  thickness. 

Another  well,  one-half  mile  east  of  the  last,  gave — 


E  arth 1 

Soft  sandstone 13 

White  sandstone 24 

Stratified  iron  ore 6 

Sandrock  and  shale 4 

Fire-clay 3 

Shale 3 

Fire-clay 2 

Dark  shale 13 

This  was  evidently  not  deep  enough  to  aflford  a  satisfactory  test. 
A  third  well,  in  the  north  part  of  the  township,  east  of  the  Center  road, 

FT.  IN. 

Yellow  clay 10  0 

Blue  clay 40  0 

Sandrock 41  0 

Sandy  shale 4  0 

"Flint,"  very  hard 0  6 

Sandy  shale 12  6 

Fine  sandrock 26  0 

This,  also,  was  probably  not  deep  enough. 

An  instructive  section  is  furnished  by  a  well  three-quarters  of  a  mile  east 
of  the  Center;  this  is: 


«.l)tlrr         I' 






-     •-     4^ 


FT.  IN. 

Earth 10  0 

Shellyrock 10  0 

Sandrock 40  0 

Clay 0  4 

"Sulphurous"  sandrock 0  8 

Clay 0  3 

Shalycoal 0  9 

Coal,  good 0  6 

Shale 0  7 

Coal,  poor 0  11 

Black  shale 1  6 

This  hole  certainly  did  not  reach  near  the  horizon  of  the  block  coal,  but 
is  carried  to  about  the  place  of  the  bottom  of  the  shaft,  and  shows  the  mixed 
character  of  the  deposits  in  even  a  greater  degree  than  the  shaft  section. 

Mr.  Goss  has  sent  me  sections  of  three  wells  bored  south  of  the  Center  to 
the  depths  respectively  of  126^,  88  and  78  feet.  They  show  alternations  of 
shale,  sandstone  and  fire-clay,  with  a  little  coal,  but  do  not  reach  to  the  place 
of  Coal  No.  1. 

These  explorations  indicate  that  the  upper  coals  are  not  likely  to  be  found 
in  any  valuable  development  in  the  township  of  Edinburg.  It  is  to  be  hoped, 
however,  that  under  this  bi'oad  and  elevated  table-land  the  lower  coal  will  be 
somewhere  found  of  workable  thickness. 

Passing  south  from  Edinburg  the  land  continues  high,  and  the  surface 
nowhere  comes  nearer  than  150  feet  to  Coal  No.  1;  while  in  some  instances  it 
rises  to  such  a  height  that  the  coal  must  be  from  200  to  250  feet  beneath. 

In  Atwater  much  boring  has  been  done,  and  coal  found,  which  has  been 
opened  both  by  shaft  and  adit.  The  explorations  made  here  were  undertaken 
on  the  supposition  that  the  coal,  of  which  outcrops  had  been  known,  was  the 
Briar  Hill  seam.  This  was,  however,  an  error,  and  there  can  be  no  question 
that  it  is  Coal  No.  4.  The  place  of  Coal  No.  1  is  far  below  the  bottom  of 
the  Atwater  shaft,  and  probably  below  the  bottom  of  the  deepest  well  bored  in 
the  vicinity.  The  coal  mined  at  Atwater  is  of  good  thickness — from  four  to 
five  feet — but  it  exhibits  the  usual  characteristics  of  the  limestone  seams, 
being  of  irregular  thickness  and  variable  quality.  It  is  a  serviceable  fuel  for 
the  generation  of  steam,  and  is  a  pleasant  grate-coal,  but  from  the  quantity 
of  sulphur  it  contains  is  not  well  adapted  to  the  manufacture  of  iron.  The 
following  analyses  of  this  coal,  made  at  the  School  of  Mines  by  Mr.  W.  P. 
Jenney,  will  indicate  very  fairly  its  composition.  No.  1,  upper  bench;  No.  2, 
lower  bench: 

No.  1.  No.  2. 

Water 3.27  3.03 

Volatile  combustible  matter 26.06  26.42 

Fixedcarbon 64.50  62.50 

Sulphur 1.52  2.20 

Ash 4.65  5.72 

Totals 100.00  99.97 

At  the  shaft  of  the  Atwater  Coal  Company  the  coal  is  from  four  to  five  feet 
in  thickness,  in  two  benches,  separated  by  a  bony  parting.  It  is  overlaid  by 
black  shale,  which  contains  many  discoid  shells  {Discina).  In  the  shale  above 
is  considerable  granular  iron  ore,  but  not  of  very  good  quality.  The  shale  is 
succeeded  by  sandstone,  as  in  all  this  region.  The  coal  is  opened  by  an  adit, 
half  a  mile  east,  on  lower  ground. 

On  John  Hines'  farm,  one  and  a  half  miles  southeast  from  Atwater  Cen- 
ter, a  shaft  has  been  sunk  to  Coal  No.  4,  passing  through — 1,  surface  clay;  2, 
sandstone;  3,  black  and  gray  shale;  4,  black  shale;  5,  coal.     Coal  is  here  four 


feet  six  inches  in  thickness,  and,  according  to  barometer,  lies  twenty-six  feet 
below  Atwater  Station,  or  534  feet  above  Lake  Erie. 

About  half  a  mile  east  the  same  coal  is  struck  at  a  depth  of  eleven  feet, 
on  the  farm  of  Michael  Strong.  It  here  lies  ten  feet  higher  than  at  Hines', 
while  the  svirface  falls  off  rapidly  toward  the  east.  The  thickness  of  the  coal 
is  the  same  as  at  Hines'  farm. 

In  some  of  the  borings  made  by  Mr.  Christy,  near  the  Atwater  shaft,  the 
coal  was  found  to  be  cut  out  by  heavy  beds  of  sacdstone;  no  coal  whatever 
having  been  reached  in  borings  carried  to  a  depth  of  200  feet.  It  is  quite 
possible,  therefore,  that  in  this  locality  no  workable  coal  exists  below 
Coal  No.  4,  but  it  is  not  certain  that  the  deepest  boring  has  been  carried  to 
the  level  of  the  Briar  Hill  seam,  as  the  surface  of  this  portion  of  the  town- 
ship is  at  least  200  feet  above  the  level.  From  the  proximity  of  the 
railroad,  the  Briar  Hill  coal  would  have  special  value  if  found  under  these 
highlands,  and  it  seems  vexy  desirable  that  a  sufficient  number  of  borings 
should  be  made  to  determine  its  presence  or  absence.  The  cost  of  boring  to 
the  depth  of  200  feet  need  not  exceed  $300  for  each  hole,  and  experienced 
and  reliable  drillers  can  be  found  who  will  contract  to  do  the  work  at  this 
price.  The  result  of  boring  at  Limaville  has  already  been  reported,  and  this 
is  such  as  to  encourage  further  effort.  At  Limaville  the  upper  coals  are  found 
in  their  proper  positions,  and  Coal  No.  1  at  its  regular  level,  far  below. 

It  is  certain,  therefore,  that  the  lower  seam  does  exist  in  this  region — at 
least  in  basins  of  limited  area— and  we  may  confidently  predict  that  foresight 
and  energy  will  bring  to  some  fortunate  person  ample  reward  by  its  discovery 
in  this  part  of  Portage  County. 

Fire-clay. — As  I  have  stated  on  a  preceding  page,  the  Atwater  coal  crops 
out  in  the  northeast  corner  of  the  township.  The  lower  limestone  coal  is  here 
very  thin,  but,  as  usual,  is  underlaid  by  a  seam  of  fire-clay,  which  is,  perhaps, 
the  most  valuable  in  the  series.  This  is  apparently  the  same  bed  with  that 
worked  in  Springfield,  Summit  County,  and  also  that  which  furnishes  most  of 
the  fire-clay  made  into  pottery  and  tire-bricks  along  the  Ohio,  in  Columbiana 
and  Jefferson  Counties.  It  also  forms  the  basis  of  an  important  manufacture 
in  Portage  County,  as  it  supplies  the  material  for  the  potteries  at  Lima  and 
Atwater.  It  is  chiefly  derived  from  John  Spire's  farm.  Lot  10.  Atwater  Town- 
ship. The  bed  is  about  twelve  feet  thick,  divided  into  two  layers  by  a  part- 
ing of  back  slate.  The  upper  seven  feet  is  not  used  in  the  potteries  on 
account  of  the  contained  iron.  The  clay  generally  immediately  underlies  the 
soil,  and  is  worked  in  open  pits,  but  it  is  in  some  places  overlaid  by  coal  about 
thirty  inches  in  thickness.  A  specimen  obtained  from  the  mine  or  pit  (but 
"whether  from  the  upper  or  lower  bench  is  not  certain)  was  analyzed  by  Prof. 
Wormley,  giving  the  following  result: 

Water 3. 00 

Silica 79.90 

Alumina 14.60 

Iron  oxide 1.60 

Lime 0.20 

Magnesia 0.24 

Alkalies 1.50 

Total 100.04 




Ravenna  Station 530 

Ravenna  (City) 560 

Rootstown 550 

Atvvater  Station 560 

Atwater  Center 600 

Railroad  Summit 603 

Topographical  Summit,  north 685 

Cuyahoga  River  Bridge 474 

Garrettsville  Depot 455 

Mantua 536 

Drakesburg 635 

Windham 372 

Edinburg 610 

Campbellsport 410 

Charlestown  Center 575 

Limestone  Ridge 675 

Freedom  Station 575 


The  Pre-Historic  Races— Mound-Builders— Their  Great  Antiquity— Occu- 


Behind  Them— Some  Evidences  of  Their  Existence  in  Portage  County 
—The  North  American  Indians— Their  Supposed  Origin— Brief  Sketch 
of  Them— Indians  of  Portage  County— The  Great  Trail— The  Indian 
Chiefs  Bigson,  Stignish  and  Big  Cayuga— Extracts  from  the  Reminis- 
cences of  Christian  Cackler  on  the  Indians  of  This  Section. 

THAT  a  very  numerous  race  of  people  occupied  that  portion  of  the  North 
American  Continent  now  known  as  the  United  States,  long  anterior  to  its 
occupancy  by  the  present  Indians,  is  beyond  proof,  but  of  this  people  nothing 
is  now  known,  more  than  can  be  gleaned  or  conjectured  from  the  multiplicity 
of  massive  works  left  by  them  throughout,  almost,  the  entire  extent  of  the 
country.  These  works  exist  to-day  as  mounds,  varying  in  size  and  character, 
and  scattered  either  in  groups  or  singly,  from  the  sources  of  the  Allegheny  to 
the  headwaters  of  the  Missouri,  and,  extending  southward,  stretch  from  the 
Appalachians  in  the  Carolinas  to  Texas.  There  are  three  grand  divisions  of 
these  elevations,  but  they  all  bear  the  same  general  characteristics,  being  either 
mounds  in  the  true  sense,  or  circumvallations  of  earth  and  stone,  the  State  of 
Ohio,  alone,  it  is  computed,  containing  no  less  than  10,000  of  the  former  and 
1,500  of  the  latter,  some  of  which  are  of  a  very  marked  and  extraordinary 
character.  These  mysterious  dwellers  of  a  long- forgotten  age,  called  Mound- 
Builders,  in  lieu  of  a  more  accurate  designation,  evidently  possessed  a  civili- 
zation distinctive  of  themselves,  and  that  they  used  a  written  language  appears 
entirely  probable,  from  some  peculiar  hieroglyphic  characters  discovered  upon 
their  pottery  ware  and  stone  implements.  But,  beyond  their  almost  imperish- 
able monuments,  the  archaeologist  seeks  in  vain  for  a  further  solution  of  the 
grand  problem  of  the  coming,  the  life,  and  the  exodus  or  decay  of  this  myste- 
rious race.  On  opening  a  mound,  he  finds  only  mouldering  skeletons,  scattered 
and  shattered  remnants  of  vessels  of  earthenware,  rude  weapons  of  warfare,  axes 
of  stone,  flint  drills,  spear-heads,  and  bottles  of  irregular,  yet  finished  workman- 
ship, cut  and  polished  from  extremely  hard  stone,  never,  or  rarely,  indigenous 


to  the  spot  where  found,  showing  the  owners  of  them  to  have  been  an  essentially 
migratory  people,  or  a  conquering  nation,  shifting  about  from  place  to  place, 
yet  leaving  monuments  behind  them  whose  imperishability  is  not  inferior  to 
that  of  Cheops. 

A  thousand  interesting  queries  arise  respecting  them,  but  the  most  search- 
ing investigations  only  give  us  vague  and  unsatisfactory  speculations  as  an 
answer.  If  we  knock  at  their  tombs  no  spirit  reposing  within  responds  to  the 
summons,  but  a  sepulchral  echo  comes  ringing  down  the  ages,  reminding  us 
how  fruitless  the  search  into  that  inscrutable  past  over  which  the  curtain  of 
oblivion  seems  to  have  been  irrevocably  drawn.  Whence  came  these  people; 
who  and  what  were  they,  and  whither  did  they  go?  Some  writers  have  dis- 
covered evidences,  convincing,  apparently,  to  themselves,  that  this  pre-historic 
race  came  from  the  other  side  of  the  globe,  and  that  their  advent  was  made  at 
different  times  and  from  different  points  of  a  general  hive  in  the  supposed 
cradle  of  humanity — Central  Asia.  Others  think  them  to  have  been  the  for- 
gotten ancestors  of  the  degenerate  and  now  decaying  American  Indians,  who, 
having  no  preservative  written  language,  the  memory  of  their  ancestors  has 
gradually  slipped  from  them.  Still  others  fancy  them  to  have  been  the  orig- 
inal indigenous,  spontaneous  product  of  the  soil.  Regardless,  however,  of  the 
origin,  progress  and  destiny  of  this  curious  people,  the  fact  of  their  having 
been  here  is  certain;  therefore  the  best  that  can  be  done  by  the  archseologist 
is  to  examine  their  works  and  draw  from  them  the  conclusions  that  seem  the 
most  probable. 

The  mounds  vary  in  height  from  about  five  feet  to  thirty  feet,  with  several 
notable  exceptions,  when  they  reach  an  altitude  of  eighty  to  ninety  feet.  The 
erections  consist  of  villages,  altars,  temples,  idols,  cemeteries,  monuments, 
camps,  fortifications  and  pleasure  grounds.  They  are  chiefly  of  some  symmet- 
rical figure,  as  circle,  ellipse,  rectangular  parallelogram,  or  regular  polygon, 
and  inclose  from  one  or  two  acres  to  as  high  as  fifty  acres.  The  circumvalla- 
tions  generally  contain  the  mounds,  although  there  are  many  of  the  latter  to 
be  found  standing  isolated  on  the  banks  of  a  stream  or  in  the  midst  of  a  broad 
plateau,  being  evidently  thus  placed  as  outposts  of  offense  or  defense,  for  the 
fact  that  they  were  a  very  warlike  and  even  conquering  race,  is  fully  attested 
by  the  numerous  fortifications  to  be  met  with  wherever  any  trace  of  them  is 

The  works  of  the  Mound-Builders  in  the  United  States  are  divided  into 
three  groups:  The  first  group  extends  from  the  upper  sources  of  the  Alle- 
gheny River  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Missouri;  the  second  occupies  the 
Ohio  and  Mississippi  Valleys,  and  the  third  stretches  across  the  country,  with 
very  little  interruption,  from  South  Carolina  to  the  western  limits  of  Texas. 
These  groups  are  subdivided  into  three  varieties  of  elevations,  mounds, 
inclosures  and  eflSgieo,  which  are  designated  as  mounds  of  sepulture, 
sacrifice,  worship,  observation,  commemoration  and  defense.  Mounds  of 
sepulture  are  more  numerous  than  the  others,  are  conical  in  shape,  and  range 
from  three  to  fifty  feet  in  height.  They  usually  contain  the  bones  of  one  or 
more  skeletons,  accompanied  by  ornaments  and  implements  of  stone,  mica, 
slate,  shell  or  obsidian,  besides  pottery,  whole  and  fragmentary,  bone  and  cop- 
per beads,  and  the  bones  of  animals.  Mounds  of  sacrifice  are  recognized  by 
their  stratification,  being  convex  and  constructed  of  clay  and  sand  on  the  nor- 
mal level  of  the  soil,  on  top  of  which  can  be  found  a  layer  of  ashes,  charcoal 
and  calcined  bones,  which  in  time  has  a  layer  of  clay  and  sand,  followed  by 
more  ashes,  charcoal,  etc.,  till  the  gradual  upbuilding  resulted  in  the  manner 
we  now  see.     These  mounds  also  often   contain  beads,  stone  implements,  pot- 


tery  and  rude  sculpture,  and  occasionally  a  skeleton,  showing  that  they  may 
have  been  used  as  burial  places.  Mounds  of  worship,  which  are  compara- 
tively few,  have  generally  a  large  base  and  low  elevation,  and  are  in  some 
instances  terraced  and  having  inclined  ways  to  the  top.  Their  size  and  char- 
acter have  led  to  the  inference  that  these  flat-topped  mounds  originally  were 
crowned  with  temples  of  wood,  for  had  they  been  stone,  traces  of  that  material 
would  be  found.  Mounds  of  observation,  or  beacon  or  signal  mounds,  are 
generally  found  upon  elevated  positions,  and  apparently  could  have  subserved 
no  other  purpose  than  as  "  look-out"  stations,  or  beacon  points,  and  as  con- 
firmatory of  the  latter  purpose,  ashes  and  charcoal  have  been  found  imbedded  in 
their  summits.  These  mounds  occur  on  the  line  of  what  are  considered  the 
outposts  of  these  pre-historic  conquerors.  Mounds  in  commemoration  of  some 
important  event  or  character  are  here  and  there  to  be  found,  and  they  are  thus 
classed  because  from  their  composition,  position  and  character  they  are  neither 
sepulchral,  sacrificial,  temple,  defensive  nor  observation  mounds.  They  are 
generally  constructed  of  earth,  but  in  some  instances  in  Ohio,  where  they  are 
stone  erections,  they  are  considered  to  be  monumental.  Mounds  of  defense, 
however,  with  the  exception  possibly  of  one  or  two  efl&gies  in  Ohio,  are  the 
most  remarkable.  These  mounds  in  some  instances  give  evidence  that  their 
builders  were  acquainted  with  all  the  peculiarities  in  the  construction  of  the 
best  defensive  earth  and  stone-works.  They  are  always  upon  high  ground, 
on  precipitous  bluffs  and  in  positions  that  would  now  be  selected  by  the 
accomplished  strategist.  The  gateways  to  these  forts  are  narrow  and  are 
defended  by  the  usual  wall  in  front  of  them,  whilst  the  double  angle  at  the 
corners  and  projecting  walls  along  the  sides  for  enfilading  attack  show  a 
knowledge  of  warfare  that  is  phenomenal  in  so  rude  a  people  as  their  imple- 
ments would  indicate.  Moats  are  often  noticed  around  these  fortifications,  and 
cisterns  are  to  be  found  within  the  inclosures. 

When  the  first  settlers  arrived  at  the  sites  of  Marietta  and  Circleville, 
Ohio,  a  number  of  these  earthworks  were  discovered,  some  of  which  yet  exist; 
and  at  Newark  when  the  circumvallation  known  as  the  "  fort "  was  first  seen 
by  those  who  settled  there  in  the  early  years  of  the  century,  a  large  tree, 
whose  age  was  possibly  not  less  than  six  hundred  years,  stood  upon  one  of  the 
embankments  over  twenty  feet  above  the  general  level,  thus  giving  great  anti- 
quity to  the  erection.  Ohio  contains  many  curious  forms  of  these  works,  two 
of  the  most  singular  being  in  Licking  County  and  known  respectively  as  the 
"Eagle"  and  "Alligator"  eflSgies.  The  first  is  a  bird  with  outstretched 
wings  raised  about  three  or  four  feet  above  the  ground  in  the  same  manner  as 
a  bas-relief  of  the  sculptors;  the  other  is  an  animal  closely  resembling  an 
alligator.  They  are  supposed  to  have  been  idols,  or  in  some  way  connected 
with  the  religion  of  the  people  who  built  them. 

In  Boss  County  a  defensive  inclosure  occupies  the  summit  of  a  lofty, 
detached  hill,  twelve  miles  west  of  Chillicothe.  This  hill  is  not  far  from  400 
feet  in  perpendicular  height,  and  some  of  its  sides  are  actually  inaccessible, 
all  of  them  being  abrupt.  The  defenses  consisted  originally  of  a  stone  wall 
carried  around  the  hill  a  little  below  the  brow,  the  remains  of  this  wall  exist- 
ing now  only  in  a  line  of  detached  stones,  but  showing  plainly  their  evident 
purpose  and  position.  The  area  inclosed  embraced  about  140  acres,  and  the 
wall  itself  was  two  and  one-quarter  miles  in  length.  Trees  of  the  largest  size 
now  grow  upon  the  ruins  of  this  fortification.  About  six  miles  east  of  Leba- 
non, Warren  County,  on  the  Little  Miami  River,  is  another  extensive  fortifi- 
cation, called  "  Fort  Ancient."  It  stands  on  a  plain,  nearly  horizontal,  about 
236  feet  above  the  level  of   the  river,   between  two  branches  with  very  steep 


banks.  The  extreme  length  of  these  works  in  a  direct  line  is  nearly  a  mile, 
although  following  their  angles,  retreating  and  salient,  they  probably  reach  a 
distance  of  six  miles.  Another  of  those  inclosures  is  located  in  the  south- 
eastern part  of  Highland  County,  on  an  eminence  500  feet  above  the  level  of 
Brush  Creek,  which  washes  its  base.  The  walls  of  the  fortifications  are  over 
half  a  mile  long,  and  the  works  are  locally  called  "  Fort  Hill."  The  remains 
of  an  inclosure  may  yet  be  seen  near  Carrollton,  a  few  miles  south  of  Dayton, 
Montgomery  County.  All  of  those  inclosures  were  evidently  constructed  for 
defensive  purposes,  and  give  signal  proofs  of  the  military  knowledge  of  their 

Burial  mounds  are  very  numerous  in  this  State,  and  there  ai'e  few  coun- 
ties that  have  not  a  greater  or  less  number  of  these  tumuli.  The  most 
remarkable  of  this  class  was  a  mound  opened  by  John  S.  B.  Matson,  in  Har- 
din County,  in  which  over  300  human  skeletons  were  found.  Some  antiqua- 
rians, however,  entertain  the  belief  that  they  were  not  all  the  remains  of 
Mound-Builders,  but  many  of  them  Indian  remains,  as  it  is  well  known  that 
the  latter  often  interred  their  dead  in  those  monuments  of  their  predecessors. 
When  the  first  band  of  pioneers  to  the  Western  Reserve  arrived  at  the  mouth 
of  Conneaut  Creek,  July  4,  1796,  they  discovered  several  mounds,  and  could 
easily  trace  the  outline  of  a  large  cemetery  then  overgrown  with  forest.  Ex- 
plorations were  subsequently  made,  and  some  gigantic  skeletons  exhumed  from 
mounds  which  stood  on  the  site  of  Conneaut,  Ashtabula  County.  The  frames 
and  jaw-bones  were  those  of  giants,  and  could  not  have  belonged  to  the  race 
of  Indians  then  inhabiting  any  portion  of  this  country.  Several  yeai'S  ago  a 
burial  mound  was  opened  in  Logan  County,  from  which  three  skeletons  were 
taken.  The  frame  of  one  was  in  an  excellent  state  of  preservation,  and 
measured  nearly  seven  feet  from  the  top  of  the  skull  to  the  lower  part  of  the 
heel.  In  1850  a  mound  lying  on  the  north  bank  of  Big  Darby  about  one 
mile  northwest  of  Plain  City,  in  Union  County,  was  opened  and  several  mas- 
sive skeletons  taken  therefrom.  The  lower  jaw-bones,  like  those  found  at 
Conneaut,  could  be  easily  fitted  over  the  jaw  of  a  very  large  man,  outside  the 
flesh.  These  bones — and  they  are  usually  large  wherever  found — indicate 
that  the  Mound -Builders  were  a  gigantic  race  of  beings,  fully  according  in 
size  with  the  colossal  remains  they  have  left  behind  them. 

The  largest  mound  in  Ohio,  called  the  "Great  Mound,"  is  located  on  the 
east  bank  of  the  Miami  River,  a  short  distance  southeast  of  Miamisburg, 
Montgomery  County.  The  surf  ace  elevation  at  this  point  is  more  than  150  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  stream.  The  mound  measures  800  feet  around  the  base, 
and  about  sixty-five  feet  in  height,  though  archaeologists  claim  that  it  was  orig- 
inally more  than  eighty  feet  high.  Explorations  and  the  wear  and  tear  of  the 
elements  have  worn  o&  the  summit  about  fifteen  feet.  At  the  time  the  pio- 
neers first  came  to  the  Miami  Valley  this  mound  was  covered  with  trees,  a 
large  maple  crowning  the  top,  from  which,  it  is  said,  the  few  cabins  then  con- 
stituting Dayton  were  plainly  visible.  In  1869  a  shaft  was  sunk  from  the  top 
of  the  mound  to  a  distance  of  two  feet  below  the  base,  and  about  eight  feet 
from  the  surface  a  human  skeleton  was  found  in  a  sitting  posture  facing  due 
east.  A  deposit  of  vegetable  matter,  bones  of  small  animals,  also  wood  and 
stone  surrounded  the  skeleton,  while  a  cover  of  clay,  ashes  and  charcoal  seems 
to  have  been  the  mode  of  burial. 

There  are  few  traces  left  of  the  Mound -Builders  in  Portage  County, 
although  at  an  early  day  in  the  settlement  of  this  section,  many  small  tumuli 
were  observed,  which  the  plow  has  long  since  almost  entirely  obliterated. 
Still,  there  are  eminences  in  various  sections  in  the  northern  and  southeast- 


em  portions  of  the  county  which  seemingly  owe  their  origin  more  to  the 
labors  of  man  than  to  nature.  In  Randolph  Township,  we  have  been  informed, 
a  mound  was  opened  some  years  ago  which  disclosed  the  bones  of  a  skeleton, 
together  with  some  fragments  of  pottery  and  rude  stone  implements.  To  the 
northeast  of  Hiram  Center  the  writer  noticed  an  elevation  that  bears  the 
almost  unmistakable  marks  of  artificial  workmanship,  and  it  is  believed  that  if 
excavations  were  made  into  it  the  usual  pre-historic  "finds"  would  be  the 
reward.  In  the  townships  of  Suffield  and  Streetsboro  are  several  tumuli 
which  resemble  the  works  of  the  Mound- Builders,  but  as  no  scientific  examina- 
tion has  been  made  into  them,  they  are  still  held  in  doubt.  In  Palmyra  Town- 
ship, a  little  northwest  of  the  Center,  about  one  mile  therefrom,  is  a  low  but  well- 
defined  series  of  mounds,  almost  unnoticeable  to  the  untrained  eye,  that  have 
all  the  characteristics  of  the  true  mound.  They  are  not  far  from  where  there 
was,  in  the  early  days  of  the  county,  an  Indian  camp  or  small  village,  the 
spot  being  pointed  out  to  us  by  Mr.  Alva  Baldwin.  But  all  these  indica- 
tions, until  they  have  some  actual  foundation  given  them  by  examination, 
must  be  taken  with  a  grain  of  allowance.  The  remains  of  this  strange  people 
are  usually  found  near  the  larger  water  courses  and  lakes,  and  as  Portage 
County  lies  somewhat  out  of  the  course  of  these  by-ways  of  navigation,  many 
evidences  of  their  presence  cannot  be  looked  for  here.  Yet,  that  they  passed 
over  those  very  hills  is  beyond  all  reasonable  doubt,  for  their  mounds  are  to  be 
seen  eastward  and  westward  of  this  section. 

The  question  of  the  origin  of  the  North  American  Indians  has  long  inter- 
ested archaeologists,  and  is  one  of  the  most  difficult  they  have  been  called  upon 
to  answer.  The  commonly  accepted  opinion  is  that  they  are  a  derivative  race, 
and  sprang  from  one  or  more  of  the  ancient  peoples  of  Asia.  Some  writers 
have  put  forward  the  theory  that  the  Indians,  from  their  tribal  organization, 
faint  similarity  of  language  and  religion,  and  the  high  cheekbone  in  the  well 
developed  specimen  of  the  race,  are  the  descendants  of  the  two  lost  tribes  of 
Israel.  Others  contend  that  they  descended  from  the  Hindoos,  and  that  the 
Brahmin  idea  which  uses  the  sun  to  symbolize  the  Creator  has  its  counterpart 
in  the  sun-worship  of  some  Indian  tribes.  They  have  lived  for  centuries  with- 
out much  apparent  progress — purely  a  hunter  race — while  the  Caucasian,  under 
the  transforming  power  of  Christianity — the  parent  of  art,  science  and  civil 
government — has  made  the  most  rapid  advancement.  Under  the  influences  of 
the  church,  however,  the  Indian  has  often  shown  a  commendable  capability  for 
accepting  the  teachings  of  civilization;  but  the  earnest  efforts  of  her  devoted 
missionaries  have  often  been  nullified  or  totally  destroyed  by  the  unwise 
policy  pursued  by  the  governing  power,  or  the  dishonesty  and  selfishness  of 
the  officials  in  charge.  Stung  to  madness  at  our  injustice  and  usurpation  of 
his  hunting-grounds,  he  has  remained  a  savage,  and  his  career  in  the  upward 
march  of  man  is  forever  stunted.  The  Indian  race  is  in  the  position  of  a  half- 
grown  giant  cut  down  before  reaching  manhood.  There  never  has  been  a 
savage  people  who  could  compare  with  them  in  their  best  estate.  Splendid  in 
physique,  with  intense  shrewdness  and  common  sense,  and  possessed  of  a 
bravery  unexcelled,  there  never  was  a  race  of  uncivilized  people  who  had  with- 
in them  so  much  to  make  them  great  as  the  red  man.  Whatever  he  has  been 
or  is,  he  was  never  charged  with  being  a  coward  or  a  fool,  and  as  compared  to 
the  barbarians  of  other  portions  of  the  globe,  he  is  as  "Hyperion  to  a  Satyr." 

The  advent  of  the  whites  upon  the  shores  of  the  Western  continent  engen- 
dered in  the  bosom  of  the  aborigines  a  spark  of  jealousy,  which,  by  the 
impolitic  course  of  the  former,  was  soon  fanned  into  a  blaze,  and  a  contest 
was  thereby  inaugurated  that  sooner  or  later  must  end  in  the  extermination  of 


the  latter.  The  struggle  has  been  long  and  bitter;  many  a  campaign  has  been 
planned  by  warriors  worthy  and  able  to  command  armies,  for  the  destruction 
of  the  pale-faced  invaders  When  Philip  struck  the  blow  which  he  hoped 
would  forever  crush  the  growing  power  of  the  white  men,  both  sides  recognized 
the  supreme  importance  of  the  contest,  and  the  courage  and  resources  of  the 
New  England  colonists  were  taxed  to  the  utmost  to  avoid  a  defeat,  which  meant 
final  destruction.  The  fierce  resistance  of  later  days,  as  the  Indians  were 
driven  farther  and  farther  toward  the  setting  sun^  are  historic  facts  with 
which  the  student  is  already  familiar.  The  conspiracy  of  Pontiac,  the  famous 
Ottawa  chieftain,  in  1763,  failed  in  its  object  of  extermination,  and  the  bravery 
and  sagacity  of  the  celebrated  Indian  leaders,  Brandt,  Red  Jacket,  Cornplanter, 
Cornstalk,  Logan,  Black  Hoof,  Tarhe,  Little  Turtle  and  Blue  Jacket,  could 
not  prevail  against  the  heroes  of  the  Revolution,  and  the  triumph  of  Wayne  in 
1794  closed  a  long  series  of  bloody  Indian  wars.  A  few  years  passed  by,  when 
Tecumseh  flashed  out  like  a  brilliant  meteor  in  the  firmament  of  great  Indian 
leaders,  and  organized  the  Western  tribes  for  a  last  desperate  effort  to  hold 
their  own  against  the  advancing  tide  of  civilization.  But  he  too  went  down 
in  defeat  and  death  before  the  prowess  of  Hai-rison's  legions.  When  the 
Creeks,  in  1813,  through  the  intrigue  of  Tecumseh,  challenged  the  people  of 
the  South  to  mortal  combat,  it  required  the  genius  of  a  Jackson,  and  soldiers 
worthy  of  such  a  chief,  to  avert  a  serious  calamity.  But  since  the  decisive  bat- 
tle of  Tohopeka,  March  27,  1814,  there  has  been  but  one  Indian  war  of  any 
considerable  magnitude,  viz. :  the  Seminole  war  in  Florida.  The  Black  Hawk 
outbreak  in  Illinois  in  1832  required  but  a  few  weeks'  service  of  raw  militia 
to  quell,  but  the  Seminoles  of  Florida,  led  by  the  indomitable  Osceola,  a  half- 
breed  of  great  talents,  carried  on  a  bitter  struggle  from  1835  to  1839,  when 
their  power  was  completely  crushed,  and  they  were  soon  after  removed  beyond 
the  Mississippi.  Since  then  campaigns  have  dwindled  into  mere  raids,  and 
battles  into  skirmishes.  The  massacre  of  Custer's  command  in  Montana  must 
be  regarded  as  an  accident  of  no  permanent  importance,  and  a  dozen  such 
melancholy  events  would  not  in  the  least  alarm  the  country.  Indian  fighting, 
though  not  free  from  peril,  now  serves  a  useful  purpose  for  the  army  graduates 
of  West  Point,  who  might  otherwise  go  to  their  graves  without  ever  having 
amelled  hostile  gunpowder. 

Two  hundred  years  ago  the  white  man  lived  in  America  only  by  the  red 
man's  consent,  and  within  that  period  the  combined  strength  of  the  red  man 
might  have  di'iven  the  white  into  the  sea.  Along  the  Atlantic  coast  are  still 
to  be  seen  the  remains  of  the  rude  fortifications  which  the  early  settlers  built 
to  protect  themselves  from  the  host  of  enemies  around;  but  to  find  the  need 
of  such  protection  now,  one  must  go  beyond  the  Mississippi  to  a  few  widely 
scattered  points  in  Arizona,  New  Mexico  and  Oregon.  The  enemy  that  once 
camped  in  sight  of  the  Atlantic  has  retreated  toward  the  slope  of  the  Pacific, 
and  from  that  long  retreat  there  can  be  no  returning.  East  of  the  stream 
which  he  called  the  Father  of  Waters,  nothing  is  left  of  the  Indian  except  the 
beautiful  names  he  gave  and  the  graves  of  his  dead,  save  here  and  there  the 
remnants  of  once  powerful  tribes,  living  on  reservations  by  the  sufferance  of 
their  conquerors.  The  Indian  has  resisted  and  will  continue  to  resist  every  effort 
to  civilize  him  by  coercion — every  attempt  to  force  at  the  point  of  the  bayonet 
the  white  man's  ideas  into  his  brain.  He  does  not  want  and  will  not  have  our 
manners  or  our  code  of  morals  forced  upon  him.  The  greatest  redeeming  fea- 
ture in  the  Indian  character  and  career  is  that  he  has  always  preferred  the  worst 
sort  of  freedom  to  the  best  sort  of  slavery.  Whether  his  choice  was  a  wise 
one  or  not  the  reader  can  determine;  but  it  is  impossible  not  to   feel  some 



admiration  for  the  indomitable  spirit  that  has  never  bowed  to  the  yoke — never 
called  any  man  "master."  The  Indian  is  a  savage,  but  he  never  was,  never 
will  be,  a  slave.  We  have  treated  him  like  a  dog  and  are  surprised  that  he 
bites.  In  a  speech  in  New  York  City,  not  long  before  his  death,  Gen.  Sam 
Houston,  indisputable  authority  on  such  matters,  declared  with  solemn 
emphasis,  that  "there  never  was  an  Indian  war  in  which  the  white  man  was  not 
the  aggressor."  Aggression  leading  to  war  is  not  our  heaviest  sin  against 
the  Indian.  He  has  been  deceived,  cheated  and  robbed  to  such  an  extent  that 
he  looks  upon  most  of  the  white  race  as  villains  to  whom  he  should  show  no 
quarter.  A  very  decided  feeling  of  justice  to  the  abused  red  man  is  gaining 
ground  of  late  years,  and  numerous  able  pens  have  been  engaged  in  defending 
him,  among  whom  are  Joaquin  Miller,  the  poet,  and  Hon.  A.  B.  Meacham. 
But  we  can  well  afford,  after  getting  all  his  land  and  nearly  exterminating 
him,  to  extend  to  him  a  little  cheap  sympathy. 

The  Indians  of  this  continent  were  never  so  numerous  as  has  generally 
been  supposed,  although  they  were  spread  over  a  vast  extent  of  country.  Con- 
tinual wars  prevented  any  great  increase,  and  their  mode  of  life  was  not  cal- 
culated to  promote  longevity  or  numbers.  The  great  body  of  them  originally 
were  along  the  Atlantic  seaboard,  and  most  of  the  Indian  tribes  had  traditions 
that  their  forefathers  lived  in  splendid  hunting  grounds  far  to  the  westward. 
The  best  authorities  affirm  that  on  the  discovery  of  this  country  the  number 
of  the  scattered  aborigines  of  the  territory  now  forming  the  States  of  Ohio, 
Indiana,  Illinois,  Kentucky  and  Michigan    could  not  have  exceeded  18,000. 

The  earliest  date  of  any  authentic  knowledge  of  the  Indian  in  this  section 
is  1650,  when  the  Eries  held  possession  of  the  northern  portion  of  what  is  now 
Ohio.  They  lived  along  the  southern  borders  of  the  lake  which  bears 
their  name,  but  when  their  domains  were  invaded  by  the  Iroquois,  about  1655, 
most  of  them  fell  before  their  relentless  foes,  whilst  the  i*emainder  became 
incorporated  with  other  tribes,  were  driven  farther  southward,  or  adopted  into 
those  of  their  conquerors.  During  the  first  half  of  the  seventeenth  century 
the  Shawnees  were  living  along  the  valley  of  the  Ohio,  but  they,  too,  were  dis- 
persed by  the  Five  Nations  or  Iroquois,  and  dispossessed  of  their  lands,  though 
they  subsequently  returned  to  their  early  hunting  grounds.  For  many  years 
before  and  after  1700  this  entire  territory  was  occupied  by  the  remnants  of 
defeated  tribes,  who  were  permitted  to  remain  by  sufferance  of  their  conquerers, 
the  latter  exacting  a  tribute,  collected  at  will  from  the  wandering  and  unset- 
tled tribes.  In  1750,  however,  something  like  permanent  occupation  had 
again  taken  place,  and  we  find  in  what  is  now  Ohio  the  Wyandotts,  Delawares, 
Shawanees,  Mi  amis,  Munsees,  Chippewas,  Ottawas,  Senecas,  Cayugas, 
Mohawks,  Oneidas  and  Onondagas,  the  last  five  being  known  in  history  as  the 
Mingoes  of  Ohio.  They  were  settled  mostly  along  the  larger  streams  and  on 
the  southern  shore  of  Lake  Erie. 

When  the  first  settlers  reached  what  is  now  Portage  County,  the  then 
unbroken  wilderness  was  filled  with  wild  animals  and  nearly  as  wild  men. 
There  were  members  of  several  tribes,  as  this  county  was  among  the  best  of 
the  hunting  grounds  of  the  red  man.  In  the  northwestern  section  there  were 
representatives  of  three  tribes:  the  Senecas,  who  had  their  headquarters  near 
the  Cuyahoga  River,  in  Streetsboro  Township,  on  land  now  owned  by  Samuel 
Olin,  and  whose  chief  was  Bigson;  the  Ottawas,  who  had  their  village  near 
the  mouth  of  the  Little  Cuyahoga  River,  whose  chief  was  Stignish,  and  the 
Chippewas,  who  lived  further  west  in  Medina  County,  about  Chippewa.  Lake, 
but  who  occupied  a  portion  of  this  section  in  summer,  where  they  hunted. 
These  tribes  had  their  hunting  grounds  as  well  defined  as  the  boundaries  of  a 



modern  farm,  and  every  Indian  knew  where  the  limits  of  his  "range"  was, 
as  well  as  if  it  had  been  surveyed. 

Bigson,  the  Seneca  chief,  was  about  six  feet  in  height,  of  a  powerful  and 
muscular  frame,  well  proportioned,  with  keen  black  eyes,  a  stern  and  dignified 
look,  honest  and  upright  in  all  his  dealings  with  the  whites,  a  firm  friend,  or 
an  implacable  enemy.  His  family  consisted  of  four  sons  and  three  daughters, 
only  two  of  the  sons  being  with  him:  John  Amur  and  John  Mohawk,  the  lat- 
ter the  one  who  shot  Diver  in  Deerfield  Township.  The  husbands  of  the 
daughters  were  George  Wilson,  Nickshaw  and  Wobmung.  These  Indians  did 
most  of  their  trading  with  Capt.  Heman  Oviatt,  who  kept  a  little  Indian 
store  about  one  mile  south  of  Hudson.  They  named  the  old  trader  "  Coppa- 
qua, "  from  the  fact  that  he  was  so  badly  cheated  in  a  trade  on  one  occasion 
that  he  cried — the  term  Coppaqua  meaning  "to  shed  tears."  This,  also,  was 
the  Seneca  name  for  Cuyahoga  Falls. 

In  what  is  now  Windham  Township  there  was  a  village  of  Indians  up  to 
about  1807  or  1808,  a  short  distance  northwest  of  where  now  stands  the  depot 
of  the  Mahoning  Branch  of  the  New  York,  Lake  Erie  &  Western  Railroad. 
There  were  small  clearings  and  a  few  decaying  wigwams  still  to  be  seen  when 
the  first  settlers  arrived  in  that  section.  There  was,  also,  an  old  orchard,  set 
out  by  the  red  men,  and  from  the  old  trees,  one  of  the  sons  of  those  first 
settlers  informed  the  writer  he  had  eaten  apples.  An  Indian  trail  ran  along 
the  northern  border,  and  at  various  points  the  pioneers  discovered  the  remains 
of  villages.  What  are  now  Nelson  and  Hiram  Townships  was  a  favorite  hunt- 
ing resort  of  the  Indians,  and  members  of  several  tribes  periodically  visited 
this  section,  among  whom  were  Senecas,  Ottawas,  Onondagas,  and  a  few 
Oneidas,  but  mostly  Cayugas,  with  their  chief  Big  Cayuga,  and  his  nephew, 
Snipnose  Cayuga,  who  succeeded  him,  after  the  redoubtable  Capt.  Delaun 
Mills  had  killed  the  former.  The  "  ledges "  in  the  upper  part  of  Nelson 
afforded  excellent  shelter  for  the  red  skins,  and  a  few  wigwams  could  always 
be  seen  under  them.  Many  thrilling  tales  are  told  of  the  adventures,  hair- 
breadth escapes  and  dreadful  vengeance  of  the  early  settlers,  and  particularly 
of  Capt.  Mills,  the  most  of  which,  however,  has  been  summed  up  in  the  sketch 
of  Nelson  Township. 

When  the  first  settlers  came  into  Palmyra  Township,  and  for  several  years 
afterward,  a  number  of  families  belonging  to  the  Onondaga  and  Oneida  tribes 
were  living  in  that  locality.  The  Onondagas  had  their  village  about  a  mile 
west  of  the  Center,  a  little  to  the  northeast  of  the  residence  of  Mr.  Alva  Bald- 
win, and  one  of  the  trees  under  which  they  used  to  congregate  is  still  standing 
on  the  spot.  This  settlement  was  on  the  line  of  the  "  Great  Trail,"  which 
extended  from  Fort  Mcintosh,  where  Beaver,  Penn.,  now  is,  to  Sandusky  and 
Detroit.  From  the  Big  Beaver  the  trail  passed  up  the  left  branch  of  the 
Mahoning,  crossing  it  about  three  miles  above  Youngstown;  thence  by  way  of 
the  Salt  Springs  in  Trumbull  County, through  Milton  and  on  through  the  upper 
portion  of  Palmyra;  thence  through  Edinburg,  after  crossing  Silver  Creek  one 
mile  and  a  half  north  of  the  Center  road;  thence  through  Ravenna  and 
Franklin,  crossing  the  Cuyahoga  at  Standing  Rock,  about  a  mile  from  the 
city  of  Kent,  where  the  waters  enter  the  narrow  gorge  made  so  famous  by 
the  "Leap"  of  Capt.  Brady;  the  trail  then  passed  in  a  northwesterly  direc- 
tion to  Sandusky.  Along  this  great  thoroughfare  parties  of  Indians  frequently 
passed  for  many  years,  even  after  the  whites  had  taken  possession  of  the 
country.  There  were  several  large  piles  of  stones  in  Palmyra  Township,  along 
this  trail,  under  which  human  skeletons  were  found,  supposed  to  be  the 
remains  of    Indians  slain  in  war,  or  murdered  enemies,  and  as  it  was  the  cus- 


torn  of  the  red  men  to  cast  stones  upon  the  graves  of  their  dead  foes,  they  each, 
in  passing,  helped  to  form  the  piles.  In  1814,  near  where  the  trail  crosses 
Silver  Creek,  several  devices  were  found  carved  upon  trees.  The  bark  had 
been  carefully  shaved  off,  and  in  one  instance  seven  Indian  figures  carved 
thereon,  one  of  which  was  without  a  head,  the  inference  being  that  seven  of 
the  red  skins  h^ed  started  out  on  one  of  their  forays,  and  that  one  of  the  band 
had  been  slain;  hence  the  memorial. 

The  Indians  living  in  Deertield  at  the  time  Diver  was  shot  were,  according 
to  Christian  Cackler,  who  knew  them  well,  Senecas,  and  not  Mohawks,  as 
Howe,  in  his  "  Historical  Collections"  makes  them,  nor  were  they  permanent 
dwellers  in  that  portion  of  the  county,  their  camp  being  in  Streetsboro  Town- 
ship, where  they  would  erect,  in  the  winter- time,  a  large  wigwam,  spacious 
enough  to  contain  the  whole  remnant  of  their  tribe  in  this  section.  Nickshaw, 
who  traded  horses  with  Diver,  was  a  son-in-law  of  the  Seneca  chief,  John 
Bigson,  and  John  Mohawk,  who  shot  the  unfortunate  man,  was  a  son  of  the 
chief.  A  detailed  account  of  this  affair  will  be  found  in  the  chapter  ok 
Deerfield  Township.  In  the  summer  of  1809  Bigson  lost  his  squaw  by  death, 
at  their  head-quarters  on  the  Cuyahoga  River.  She  was  a  large,  stout  woman, 
and  very  good  looking,  having,  like  her  husband,  a  very  dignified,  not  to  say- 
stoical,  appearance.  She  was  said  to  be  very  kind  and  friendly  for  an  Indian. 
Her  age  was  between  fifty  and  sixty  years.  They  made  a  new  calico  frock  for 
her  after  she  was  dead,  and  placing  it  on  the  corpse,  literally  covered  the  arms 
and  ankles  with  silver  beads  and  broaches.  She  was  buried  in  a  coffin  made 
of  bark,  in  a  grave  three  feet  deep,  bein^i;  first  rolled  up  in  a  large  blanket, 
the  covering  being  so  arranged  that  a  hole  was  left  that  she  might  see  out  of 
it  when  she  was  summoned  to  arise  again  and  enjoy  the  happy  hunting  grounds 
in  the  domain  of  the  Great  Spirit. 

This  chapter  can  have  no  more  appropriate  closing  than  to  give  a  few 
extracts  from  the  recollections  of  the  late  Christian  Cackler,  who  was  an  eye- 
witness to  what  he  relates.  Speaking  of  the  head-quarters  of  John  Bigson,  the 
Seneca  chief,  whom  he  knew  personally  for  many  years,  the  old  gentleman 
writes  in  the  following  quaint  style:  "I  have  been  there  a  great  many  times 
when  they  lived  there,  and  if  they  had  anything  to  bestow  upon  you  in  the 
way  of  eatables,  it  was  as  free  as  water.  They  thought  it  a  privilege  to  give, 
for  they  thought  it  was  a  token  of  friendship,  and  if  they  gave- one  they  gave 
all  present.  Their  wigwam  was  about  twenty-five  feet  long  or  more,  and  they 
had  their  fire  through  the  middle,  and  had  it  so  constructed  as  to  leave  room 
for  a  tier  of  them  to  lie  down  on  each  side  of  the  fire  so  as  to  have  their  feet 
to  the  fire,  for  they  laid  on  their  skins  and  furs,  and  were  covered  over  with 
their  blankets.  They  had  a  space  left  open  on  the  ridge  of  their  camp  to  let 
the  smoke  pass  oat.  They  had  their  wigwam  thatched  with  bark,  so  that  it 
was  tight  and  warm,  and  had  a  door  in  each  end  so  that  they  could  haul  in 
their  wood  without  much  chopping.  They  laid  there  as  warm  and  comfortable 
as  a  king  in  his  palace.  The  Seneca  chief  used  to  gather  in  all  his  family 
connections  and  lay  there  all  winter.  In  the  spring  they  would  scatter  out 
over  their  hunting  grounds,  each  family  by  themselves,  and  build  their  wig- 
wams for  the  summer.  They  were  as  careful  of  their  game  as  we  are  of  our  cat- 
tle, and  would  kill  nothing  unless  wanted  for  present  use.  *  *  *  Thej 
had  no  government  expenses,  no  taxes  to  pay,  no  jails  to  build,  no  locks  to 
buy.  I  think  the  Indian  is  the  happiest  man  in  the  world,  in  the  wilderness. 
*  *  *  I  never  knew  they  had  any  language  in  which  to  swear.  He  will 
eat  all  kinds  of  animals  and  fish  and  horses,  or  anything  that  a  dog  will  eat, 
and  sometimes  I  have  thought  what  a  dog  would  not  eat.     They  often  paini 


their  faces  in  streaks;  that  denotes  peace  and  friendship.     They  love  whisky 
and  get  drunk  often." 

Describing  one  of  their  drunken  frolics,  Mr.  Cackler  says:  "They  got 
their  whisky  and  had  a  suit  made  like  a  little  boy's  suit,  all  whole,  but  open 
before  so  they  could  stick  their  arms  and  legs  in.  It  was  fringed  all  around, 
and  had  claws  of  several  kinds^deer,  bear,  turkey,  coon,  etc.  The  one  that 
was  dancing  would  jump,  hop  and  kick  around  the  floor,  *  *  *  and  when 
he  got  tired  he  would  take  a  drink  and  another  would  try  his  hand.  But 
when  they  got  perfectly  drunk,  the  claws  rattling  looked  more  like  the  devil 
than  anything  I  ever  saw.  *  *  *  Then  the  squaws  went  into  it  and  got 
as  drunk  as  could  be,  and  went  tumbling  around  on  the  ground.  But  after 
they  got  through  they  looked  as  though  they  had  lost  their  best  friends." 


The  Pioneers  of  Portage  County— Their  Heroic  Perseverance  and  Pri- 
vations—New England  Transplanted  on  the  Connecticut  Western 
Reserve— The  First  Settlement  Made  Within  The  Limits  of  Portage 
County— First  Settlers  of  Mantua,  Ravenna,  Aurora  and  Atwateb 
Tow^NSHiPS— At  water  Hall,  the  First  White  Child  Born  in  the 
County— First  Settlers  of  Palmyra,  Deerfield,  Nelson,  Rootstown, 
Randolph,  Suffield,  Charlestown,  Hiram,  Franklin,  Shalersville, 
Edinburg.  Windham,  Paris,  Brimfield,  Freedom,  Streetsboro  and 
Garrettsville  Townships — The  Portage-Summit  Pioneer  Association. 

LESS  than  one  hundred  years  ago  there  was  not  a  single  white  inhabitant 
a  permanent  settler  throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  State  of 
Ohio;  less  than  eighty-seven  years  ago  there  was  not  a  single  white  person  in 
Portage  County.  Could  those  who.  only  see  this  country  as  it  now  is,  borrow 
the  eyes  of  those  who  helped  make  the  transformation,  their  amazement  could 
not  be  depicted  by  words.  In  place  of  the  now  smiling  fields  and  comfortable 
homes,  naught  but  a  vast  wilderness  of  forest  would  greet  the  sight.  The  true 
story  of  the  first  settlement  of  Portage  County  has  never  been  told.  Those 
early  pioneers  were  not  seeking  fortunes,  nor  fame;  thej^  were  intent  only  on 
making  a  home  for  their  children,  and  from  that  laudable  impelling  motive 
has  arisen  the  splendid  structure  of  Western  civilization  we  see  all  around  us. 
It  is  astonishing  how  rapidly  accurate  and  reliable  information  concerning  the 
pioneer  days  is  perishing.  The  traditions  of  those  early  times  have  been  very 
carelessly  kept,  and  whoever  seeks  to  collect  them  finds  much  difiiculty  in 
doing  so.  Yet,  what  does  remain  has  been  carefully  and  cautiously  collated, 
keeping  ever  in  view  the  unreliability  of  certain  sources,  but  gleaning  the 
rich  kernels  from  out  the  debris  of  shells.  The  present  generation  can  form 
no  just  conception  of  the  trials,  tireless  labors,  sacrifices  and  privations  to 
which  the  first  settlers  heroically  submitted.  These  men  whose  industry,  enter- 
prise and  perseverance  wx'ought  from  out  nature's  wilds  the  great  prosperity 
which  in  to-day's  sunlight,  from  every  hillside  and  glen,  looks  up  to  smile 
upon  us,  have,  in  the  benefactions  they  have  bestowed  upon  their  children,  by 
leaving  this  to  them  for  an  inheritance,  proved  themselves  greater  heroes, 
because  their  achievements  were  nobler  and  better,  than  if  they  had  laid  the 
trophies  of  a  blood-bought  conquest  upon  their  escutcheons.     Courage  upon 


the  soil  of  carnage  wins  the  wreath  of  laurel  that  evanescently  bedecks  the 
brow  of  victory,  but  true,  manly  courage  upon  life's  broad  field  of  battle 
should  bestow  a  more  brilliant  and  fadeless  diadem  than  ever  pressed  the  war- 
rior's brow,  for  the  peaceful  conquests  of  ax  and  plow  are  more  fruitful  of 
benefits  to  mankind  than  those  of  the  sword  and  the  mere  scorn  of  death. 

.From  the  time  that  the  Connecticut  Land  Company  put  their  lands  upon 
the  market,  exaggerated  reports  of  the  wonderful  richness  of  the  Connecticut 
Western  Reserve,  or  New  Connecticut,  as  it  was  called,  were  in  circulation- 
Single  individuals,  parties  and  companies  made  their  way  to  the  far-off  wilds, 
nearly  all  of  whom  either  returned  with  or  sent  back  to  their  homes  glowing 
accounts,  the  result  of  which  was  an  exodus  to  and  a  rapid  settlement  of  thi? 
section.  The  new  comers  were  at  first  almost  exclusively  from  Connecticut 
and  Massachusetts.  They  brought  with  them  their  religious  ideas  and  preju- 
dices, their  virtues  and  social  customs,  their  peculiarities,  and  above  all,  their 
New  England  thrift,  and  to  such  an  extent  that  for  many  years  the  inhabitants 
of  Portage  County,  as  well  as  the  entire  tract  of  territory  knowu  as  the  Con- 
necticut Western  Reserve,  so  closely  resembled  their  ancestors  in  their  modes 
of  life  and  veins  of  thought,  as  to  be  but  a  transplantation  of,  or  an  enlarge- 
ment upon,  the  land  of  the  "Pilgrim  Fathers."  The  two  upper  tiers  of  town- 
ships, especially,  were  peopled  from  Massachusetts  and  Connecticut,  and  a 
native  of  any  other  State  was  rarely  to  be  found.  The  pioneers  of  the  two 
southern  tiers  of  townships,  however,  were  from  New  England  and  Pennsvl- 
vania,  with  here  and  there  a  Virginian,  a  Carolinian,  or  a  Marylander. 
Many  Germans  came  in  later,  bringing  with  them  their  hardiness  of  constitu- 
tion and  industry,  and  bringing  up  the  land  upon  which  they  settled  to  the 
highest  point  of  fertility.  In  the  eastern  portion  of  the  county  many  of  that 
sturdy  race,  the  Welsh,  have  settled,  and  in  one  township  largely  outnumber 
the  purely  American  population. 

In  those  early  days  the  entire  communitv  were  producers— every  man 
woman,  boy  and  girl  had  their  duties  to  perform.  They  lived  in  comparative 
social  equality,  and  the  almighty  dollar  did  not  form  a  barrier  between  the 
rich  and  the  poor;  a  man  was  esteemed  not  for  his  money  bags,  but  for  actual 
merit.  A.11  aristocratic  distinctions  were  left  beyond  the  mountains,  and  the 
only  society  lines  were  to  separate  the  bad  from  the  good.  Rich  and  poor 
dressed  alike,  homespun  being  almost  universal,  whilst  the  primitive  cabin  was 
furnished  with  the  same  style  of  simplicity.  Bedsteads  often  consisted  of 
forked  sticks  driven  in  the  ground,  with  crosspoles  to  support  the  clapboards 
or  cord.  We  have  gi-own  older,  in  many  respects,  if  not  wiser,  and  could  not 
think  of  living  on  what  our  ancestors  lived.  But  this  is  an  age  of  progress 
and  improvement,  and  these  observations  are  made  by  way  of  contrasting  the 
past  with  the  present.  The  pioneers  who  endured  the  hardships,  and  ofttimes 
the  dangers  from  wild  beasts  and  still  wilder  men  have,  with  few  exceptions, 
passed  to  their  final  account,  and  all  that  remains  for  their  descendants  to  do 
18  to  keep  bright  the  recollections  of  such  names  and  such  events  as  have  come 
down  to  them,  for  the  memory  of  their  deeds  should  be  "written  in  characters 
of  living  light  upon  the  firmament,  there  to  endure  as  radiant  as  if  every  let- 
ter were  traced  in  shining  stars." 

The  first  settlement  within  the  bounds  of  what  is  now  Portage  County  was 
made  in  the  fall  of  1798,  in  Mantua  Township,  on  Lot  24,  by  Abram  S.  Honev, 
who  erected  a  log  cabin,  made  a  clearing,  and  put  out  a  small  crop  of  wheat' 
which  was  harvested  the  following  season  by  his  brother-in-law,  Ruf us  Ed- 
wards, who  owned  the  land,  but  who  had  sent  Honey  in  advance  to  prepare  the 
way.     A  man  by  the  name  of  Peter  French  is  said  to  have  been  at  the  point 


■where  Edwards  settled,  as  early  as  Honey,  but  be  made  no  permanent  settle- 
ment and  may  have  been  simply  a  helper  of  the  latter.  William  Crooks  was 
the  next  permanent  settler  to  come  in  after  those  named  above,  and  he  built  a 
cabin  and  made  a  clearing  on  the  southwest  part  of  Lot  29.  He  remained  a 
resident  of  Mantua  till  1854,  dying  at  the  age  of  eighty-five.  Elias  Harmon 
arrived  at  the'  clearing  Honey  had  made  on  the  12th  of  June,  1799,  where  he 
remained  a  short  time,  and  then  proceeded  to  Aurora,  where  he  had  engaged 
to  make  some  improvements  on  the  land  of  Ebenezer  Sheldon.  Harmon  came 
in  company  with  three  other  men  who  have  had  considerable  local  notoriety: 
Benjamin  Tappan,  Jr.,  of  Ravenna,  afterward  a  resident  of  Steubenville;  David 
Hudson,  of  Summit  County,  and  Jotham  Atwater,  of  Euclid.  Mr.  Harmon 
was  for  a  number  of  years  one  of  the  leading  citizens  of  the  county  and  left 
many  descendants.     He  was  the  first  Treasurer  of  the  county. 

In  June,  1799,  Benjamin  Tappan,  Jr.,  son  of  Benjamin  Tappan,  of  North- 
ampton, Mass.,  one  of  the  principal  proprietors  of  the  present  territory  known 
as  Ravenna  Township,  set  out  from  his  home  in  the  East  to  make  a  settlement 
on  the  land  of  his  father.  On  his  journey,  Mr.  Tappan  fell  in  with  David 
Hudson,  at  Gerondaquet  Bay,  N.  Y.,  wl\om  he  took  in  his  boat'and  assisted  on 
his  way  to  what  is  now  Summit  County.  In  company  they  overtook  Elias  Har- 
mon in  a  small  boat  with  his  wife,  bound  to  Mantua.  At  Niagara  they  found 
the  river  full  of  ice,  which  compelled  them  to  convey  their  boats  to  some  dis- 
tance around  and  above  the  Falls.  Proceeding  on  their  dangerous  way  vast 
bodies  of  floating  ice  impeded  their  progress,  and  they  had  to  get  out  upon  the 
shore  and  drag  their  boats  along  with  I'opes  till  they  were  clear  of  the  stronger 
current  running  to  the  Falls.  When  they  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  the  lake 
they  also  found  it  full  of  floating  ice,  and  had  to  remain  tbei'e  several  days 
before  proceeding.  Ofi"  Ashtabula  County  their  boats  were  driven  ashore  in  a 
storm,  and  that  of  Mr.  Harmon  stove  to  pieces,  the  latter  traveling  thence  by 
land  to  his  destination.  Tappan  and  his  companions  sailed  along  the  shore- 
line till  they  arrived  at  Cleveland,  which  consisted  at  that  time  of  one  log- 
cabin.  Entering  the  Cuyahoga  River  and  following  its  sinuosities,  but  know- 
ing nothing  at  all  of  its  depth,  they  soon  found  that  they  would  have  to  either 
abandon  their  boats  or  di'ag  them  over  the  frequent  rapids  in  the  river.  After 
much  difficulty,  however,  they  passed  safely  onward,  and,  judging  from  the  dis- 
tance traveled,  thought  that  they  were  in  about  the  latitude  of  the  township  of 
which  they  were  in  search.  They  landed  at  a  point  where  now  is  the  town  of  Bos- 
ton, in  Summit  County,  where  Tappan  left  all  of  his  goods  under  a  tent  with  a 
hired  man,  and  taking  Benjamin  Bigsby  with  him  commenced  to  cut  out  a  road  to 
Eavenna.  They  built  a  sled  and  witb  a  yoke  of  oxen  Mr.  Tappan  had  bought 
in  Ontario  County,  N.  Y.,  conveyed  a  load  of  his  farming  utensils  to  his  set- 
tlement in  the  southeast  corner  of  the  township,  where,  owing  to  delays,  a 
cabin  was  not  finished  till  the  first  of  the  following  year,  ISOO.  He  subse- 
quently erected  a  house  about  one  mile  east  of  Ravenna  on  the  Marcus  Heath 
farm.  Returning  for  a  second  load,  he  found  that  his  efi"ects  had  been  aban- 
doned and  partly  plundered,  and  to  make  it  still  worse,  one  of  his  oxen  became 
overheated  and  died.  From  a  sketch  of  Hon.  Benjamin  Tappan,  published 
in  the  Democratic  Review  for  June,  1840,  we  extract  the  following: 

"The  death  of  one  of  his  oxen  left  him  in  a  vast  forest,  distant  from  any 
habitation,  without  a  team,  and  what  was  still  worse,  with  but  a  single  dol- 
lar in  money.  He  was  not  depressed  for  an  instant  by  these  untoward  cir- 
cumstances. He  sent  one  of  his  men  through  the  woods,  with  a  compass,  to 
Erie,  Penn. ,  a  distance  of  about  one  hundred  miles,  requesting  from 
Capt.  Lyman,   the  commandant  at  the  fort,    a  loan  of   money.     At  the  same 


time,  he  himself  followed  the  township  lines  to  Youngstown,  where  he  became 
acquainted  with  Col.  James  Hillman,  who  did  not  hesitate  to  sell  him  an  ox, 
on  credit,  at  a  fair  price — an  act  of  generosity  which  proved  of  great  value, 
as  the  want  of  a  team  must  have  broken  up  his  settlement.  The  unexpected 
delays  upon  the  journey,  and  other  hindrances,  prevented  them  from  raising  a 
crop  this  season,  and  they  had,  after  the  provisions  brought  with  them  were 
exhausted,  to  depend  for  meat  upon  their  skill  in  hunting  and  purchases  from 
the  Indians,  and  for  meal  upon  the  scanty  supplies  procured  from  west- 
tern  Pennsylvania.  Having  set  out  with  the  determination  to  spend  the  win- 
ter, he  erected  a  log-cabin,  into  which  himself  and  one  Bigsby,  whom  he  had 
agreed  to  give  one  hundi'ed  acres  of  land  on  condition  of  settlement,  moved 
on  the  first  day  of  January,  1800,  before  which  they  lived  under  a  bark  camp 
and  tent." 

During  the  spring  following  the  removal  of  Tappan  into  his  first  cabin, 
which  stood  on  the  Capt.  J.  D.  King  farm,  several  other  settlers  came 
into  Ravenna,  among  whom  were  William  Chard  and  Conrad  Boos- 
inger,  the  latter  coming  in  August,  and  bringing  his  wife,  sons  George  and 
John,  and  daughter  Polly.  Boosinger  settled  on  200  acres  of  land  about 
one  and  one-half  miles  southeast  of  the  present  town  of  Ravenna,  made  a 
clearing  and  sowed  it  in  wheat.  Chard  located  on  Lot  33.  Boosinger  being 
a  tanner,  constructed  a  couple  of  vats  soon  after  he  came,  which  was  the  first 
effort  in  that  direction,  and  the  first  public  enterprise  in  the  way  of  manufac- 
tures in  the  county.  The  privations  of  these  early  settlers  of  the  Western 
Reserve  cannot  now  be  described  or  realized,  and  why  a  young  lawyer  like 
Benjamin  Tappan,  Jr.,  surrounded  with  all  of  the  comforts  of  an  Eastern 
home,  would  venture  out  into  an  unknown  wilderness,  seems  to  us  now  some- 
thing wonderful. 

During  the  same  month  in  which  Benjamin  Tappan  and  his  party  arrived 
in  Ravenna,  Ebenezer  Sheldon,  of  Suffield,  Conn.,  came  into  Aurora  Township, 
and  with  the  assistance  of  Elias  Harmon  and  his  wife,  made  a  settlement  on 
Lot  40.  After  the  erection  of  a  cabin  and  making  a  small  clearing  in  the  prim- 
itive forest,  Harmon  and  wife  moved  to  Mantua  Township,  where  they  ever 
afterward  resided.  Sheldon  then  returned  to  Connecticut,  and  in  the  following 
spring,  1800,  came  out  to  his  new  home,  bringing  his  wife,  four  sons  and  two 
daughters.  They  rode  the  entire  distance  in  a  wagon  drawn  by  a  yoke  of 
oxen,  and  leading  a  pair  of  young  horses.  They  came  safely  as  far  as  War- 
ren, which  at  that  time  consisted  of  a  few  log  structures,  but  after  leaving 
there  a  storm  overtook  them  in  the  woods  and  they  were  very  near  perishing 
from  falling  trees.  They  managed  to  avoid  all  accidents,  however,  but  were 
literally  penned  in  and  had  to  remain  in  the  woods  all  night,  only  being 
released  the  next  day  by  getting  assistance  and  cutting  a  road  out.  One  of  the 
daughters  of  this  sturdy  old  pioneer,  the  year  following  their  arrival,  married 
Amzi  AtAvater,  of  Mantua,  one  of  the  surveyors  who  accompanied  Cleveland  in 
the  survey  of  the  Western  Reserve,  and  who  afterward  became  one  of  the  Asso- 
ciate Judges  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  and  a  leading  citizen  of 
the  county.  Ebenezer  Sheldon  and  his  family  were  the  only  inhabitants  of 
Aurora  for  three  years  after  they  arrived  there,  but  in  1803  quite  a  number 
came  in,  among  whom  were  Samuel  Forward  and  his  family,  from  Granby, 
Conn.  The  next  year  came  James  M.  Henry,  John  Cochran,  Jr.,  David  Ken- 
nedy, Sr.,  Ebenezer  Kennedy,  Samuel  Ferguson  and  several  others.  Within 
a  year  or  two  afterward  came  Moses  Eggleston,  father  of  Gen.  Nelson  Eggles- 
ton;  also  Joseph  Eggleston,  brother  of  Moses,  together  with  Capt.  Perkins, 
Col.  Ebenezer  Harmon,  Isaac  Blair  and  others  from  Massachusetts  and  Con- 


Early  in  April,  1799,  two  months  before  any  settlers  had  arrived  in  Ravenna 
or  Aurora  Townships,  and  only  six  months  after  Honey  had  made  his  clearing 
in  Mantua,  six  persons  made  their  way  into  what  is  now  Atwater  Township. 
They  came  from  Wallingford,  Conn.,  and  were  Capt.  Caleb  Atwater,  Jonathan 
Merrick,  Peter  Bunnell,  Asahel  Blakesley  and  Asa  Hall  and  his  wife.  This 
party,  headed  by  Atwater,  surveyed  the  township  into  lots,  and  in  the  fall  all 
of  them,  with  the  exception  of  Hall  and  his  wife,  returned  to  their  homes  in 
the  East.  From  the  time  of  the  arrival  of  this  first  settler  till  the  spring  of 
1801 — two  years — Hall  and  his  wife  were  the  only  persons  in  the  township, 
his  nearest  neighbor  being  Lewis  Ely,  over  in  Deertield  Township,  who  had 
come  out  with  others  shortly  after  Hall's  arrival.  Although  having  a  lonesome 
time  during  those  two  years  in  the  wilderness,  an  incident  happened  within 
Hall's  household  that  was  calculated  in  a  measure  to  relieve  the  tedium  of, 
whilst  it  imposed  additional  cares  upon,  the  life  of  this  pioneer  couple.  The 
"incident"  was  a  child  born  to  them  in  the  spring  of  1800,  which  was 
promptly  and  appropriately  named  Atwater  Hall,  and  had  the  honor  of  being 
the  first  white  child  born  in  Portage  County.  Hall  was  considerable  of  a 
hunter,  and  as  may  well  be  supposed,  had  ample  opportunity  and  game  to 
gratify  all  his  taste  in  that  direction,  but  he  eventually  got  tired  of  his  lone- 
some life  and  moved  in  1801  to  near  the  Deertield  Township  line,  where  he 
could  more  easily  reach  the  settlements  in  that  township.  About  the  time 
Hall  moved  from  his  first  location,  David  Baldwin,  Jr.,  came  in  from  Walling- 
ford, Conn.,  and  settled  about  two  miles  south  of  the  Center  of  Atwater  Town- 
ship. These  two  families  for  the  next  three  years  were  the  only  persons  in 
the  township,  but  after  that  period  settlers  came  in  rapidly,  most  of  whom 
were  from  Connecticut  and  Massachusetts,  but  about  1807  quite  a  number  of 
persons  from  South  Carolina  settled  here,  among  whom  were  Enos  Davis, 
whose  son  Isaac,  then  a  boy  of  ten  years  is  still  living,  nearly  ninety  years  of  age; 
also,  from  the  same  State, came  William  Marshall,  John  Huttou  and  John  Camp- 
bell. Among  the  arrivals  shortly  before  and  about  the  year  1806-07  were  Jere- 
miah Jones,  Josiah  Mix,  John  H.  Whittlesey,  Caleb  Mattoon,  Asahel  Blakesley 
and  Ira  and  Amos  Morse.  David  Baldwin,  Jr.,  was  the  agent  of  Capt.  Atwater, 
who  owned  not  only  the  entire  township,  but  several  others  and  portions  of  others 
on  the  Reserve,  he  being  one  of  the  original  members  of  the  Connecticut  Land 
Company.  Maj.  Ransom  Baldwin,  now  I'esiding,  at  the  advanced  age  of 
eighty-two  years,  on  the  original  land  located  by  his  father,  is  the  son  of  David 
Baldwin,  he  being  born  in  1802,  the  second  male  child  born  in  the  township 
of  Atwater.  The  settlement  of  this  portion  of  the  county  was  very  rapid,  as 
the  land  was  considered  by  most  of  the  early  comers  to  be  better  in  the  southern 
than  in  the  northern  portions  of  the  county. 

The  first  settler  in  that  division  of  the  county  known  as  Palmyra  Township 
was  David  Daniels,  who  left  his  home  in  Grattan,  Conn.,  in  the  spring  of 
1799,  and  arrived  there  in  June,  locating  on  Lot  21,  about  one  and  a  half 
miles  south  of  the  Center.  At  the  drawing  of  the  Connecticut  Land  Company, 
Palmyra  Township  fell  to  the  lot  of  eight  persons,  Elijah  Boardman  being  the 
principal  owner,  and  these  gentlemen,  as  an  inducement  to  its  settlement,  gave 
Daniels  100  acres  of  land  to  go  there,  make  a  clearing  and  build  a  cabin, 
which  he  accordingly  did.  He  put  in  a  small  crop  of  wheat,  which  was  duly 
harvested  the  following  season,  and  after  threshing  his  crop  carried  a  bushel 
of  the  grain  on  his  shoulders  to  Poland,  about  thirty  miles  away,  had  it  ground 
and  returned  with  it  to  his  humble  cabin.  Daniels  was  a  soldier  in  the  Rev- 
olutionary Army  and  died  in  1813,  having  been  highly  respected.  He  was  the 
first  Justice  of  the  Peace  of  Palmyra   Township  after  its  organization.     Not 



.r     .f     ^i 


long  after  the  settlement  of  Daniels,  Ethelbert  Baker  came  in  and  located 
about  half  a  mile  sovith  of  the  Center  on  the  west  side  of  the  road,  and  the 
next  year,  1800,  in  the  spring,  William  Bacon  arrived  and  located  one  and  a 
quarter  miles  south  of  the  Center.  In  1802  came  a  son-in-law  of  Nehemiah 
Bacon — E.  Cutler — who  located  two  miles  south  of  the  Center,  and  in  1804 
James  McKelvey,  of  Pennsylvania,  and  Amasa  Preston  arrived.  In  1805 
quite  a  delegation  came  in  from  Connecticut,  among  whom  were  David,  Silas 
and  Asahel  Waller,  John  Tuttle,  Jr.,  and  Capt.  John  T.  Baldwin;  the  latter, 
who  was  from  Litchfield  County,  Conn.,  bringing  his  wife  and  three  sons,  one 
of  whom.  Squire  Alva  Baldwin,  still  resides  upon  the  farm  originally  owned 
by  his  father.  Capt.  Baldwin  for  many  years  kept  a  tavern  at  the  Center  of 
Palmyra.  In  1806  Truman  Gilbert,  Sr. ,  also,  from  Litchlield,.Conn. ,  arrived 
and  settled  west  of  the  Center.  He  brought  his  wife,  seven  sons  and  one 
daughter,  the  latter  still  living  at  the  age  of  eighty-six. 

In  the  spring  of  1799  Lewis  Day  and  Horatio  Day,  of  Connecticut,  came 
to  their  purchase  of  land  in  Deertield  Township.  They  came  through  in  a 
wagon  drawn  by  horses,  selected  their  locations,  made  a  clearing  and  put  out 
a  crop  of  wheat.  The  first  actual  settler,  however,  was  Lewis  Ely,  who  came 
in  July,  bringing  his  family  and  settling  down  to  business  at  once,  while  the 
Days  in  the  fall  returned  to  their  homes  in  the  East.  Ely  located  on  Lot  19, 
just  east  of  the  old  grave-yard.  The  following  year,  1800,  was  marked 
by  the  arrival  in  Deerfield  of  several  men  who  afterward  became  prominent  in 
the  history  of  the  county.  In  February  Alva  Day,  John  Campbell  and  Joel 
Thrall  started  from  their  homes  in  Connecticut  and  walked  the  entire  distance, 
arriving  here  in  March,  after  an  exceedingly  rough  time,  as  the  mountains 
over  which  they  had  to  pass  were  covered  with  five  or  six  feet  of  snow,  subject- 
ing them  to  much  su£fering  from  the  cold.  Provisions  were  exceedingly  scarce 
at  this  time,  and  Lewis  Ely  and  Alva  Day  were  compelled  to  make  a  trip  to  the 
Ohio  River  to  procure  some  bacon  and  meal.  They  constructed  a  canoe  from 
a  log,  floated  it  down  to  the  Ohio  River,  and  at  a  point  opposite  Steubenville, 
procured  what  they  needed  and  brought  it  back  with  an  ox  team.  James 
Laughlin  also  came  this  year  from  Pennsylvania.  In  July  Lewis  Day  returned 
bringing  out  his  wife  and  six  children:  Horatio,  Munn,  Seth,  Lewis,  Jr., 
Solomon  and  Seba  Day.  During  the  next  three  or  four  years  following  1800 
the  township  filled  up  very  rapidly,  many  of  the  settlers  coming  from  Penn- 
sylvania, Maryland  and  Virginia.  Ephraim  B.  Hubbard,  of  Connecticut, 
came  about  this  time,  and  in  1803  Daniel  Diver  and  his  family.  Noah  Grant, 
the  grandfather  of  Gen.  U.  S.  Grant,  is  supposed  to  have  settled  in  Deerfield 
about  1804-05,  where  he  opened  a  tannery  and  followed  shoe-making.  Noah 
brought  his  wife  and  little  son  Jesse,  aged  about  ten  years,  father  of  the  now 
illustrious  Gen.  U.  S.  Grant,  to  whom  the  country  owes  so  much,  for  to  him 
is  largely  due  the  conception  of  the  proper  mode  to  crush  out  the  modern 
python  of  armed  secession.  Rev.  Shadrack  Bostwick,  son  in-law  of  Daniel 
Diver,  came  in  1803.  This  gentleman  was  one  of  the  early  circuit-riders  of 
the  Methodist  Church,  and  was  a  physician  as  well. 

In  the  spring  of  1800  there  arrived  in  Nelson  Township,  from  Becket,  Mass., 
Delaun,  Asahel  and  Isaac  Mills,  sons  of  Deacon  Ezekiel  Mills.  The  first  two 
were  married  and  brought  out  their  families;  the  latter  was  single.  They 
came  in  covered  wagons  and  several  weeks  were  occupied  in  the  trip,  during 
which  time  their  money  had  dwindled  down  to  less  than  25  cents.  Falling  in 
with  XJrial  Holmes,  the  principal  proprietor  of  Nelson  Township,  the  brothers 
engaged  with  him  to  serve  as  ax-men  to  the  surveyors,  who  were  under  charge 
of  Amzi  Atwater.     After  finishing  their  job,  Delaun  settled  on   a  lot  of  100 


acres  which  had  been  donated  to  him  by  Holmes.  It  was  on  the  north  side  of 
the  road  just  west  of  the  Center.  Asahel  settled  on  a  100  acre  lot  on  the 
north  and  south  road.  Delaun,  or  Capt.  Delaun  Mills,  as  he  was  afterward 
known,  was  looked  upon  as  the  Daniel  Boone  of  this  section,  and  a  full 
account  of  him  will  be  found  in  the  sketch  of  Nelson  Township.  For  nearly 
three  years  the  two  brothers,  Delaun  and  Asahel  (Isaac  having  returned  to  the 
East)  and  their  families  were  the  only  white  inhabitants  of  Nelson  Township; 
but  in  the  spring  of  1803  seven  families  came  in,  they  being  Stephen  Baldwin, 
Benjamin  Stow  and  two  sons,  John  Bancroft  and  four  sons,  Daniel  Owen,  two 
Stiles  brothers,  William  and  Thomas  Kennedy  and  Asa  Truesdell.  In  July, 
1804,  Col.  John  Garrett,  who  founded  Garrettsville,  or  rather  built  a  mill  at 
that  point,  and  for  whom  that  enterprising  little  town  is  named,  came  into 
Nelson,  and  about  the  same  time  Abraham  Dyson  and  a  German  named  Johann 
Noah,  all  coming  from  the  State  of  Delaware.  In  the  following  year,  1805, 
came  John  Tinker,  Nathaniel  Bancroft,  Martin  Manley  and  Daniel  Wood. 

Ephraim  Root,  principal  proprietor  of  Rootstown  Township,  in  company 
with  a  young  man  named  Harvey  Davenport,  came  out  in  the  spring  of  1800 
to  survey  his  land,  which  was  done,  he  returning  in  the  fall,  but  leaving  his 
companion  in  the  wilderness,  the  unfortunate  young  man  having  suddenly 
died.  In  the  spring  of  1801  Mr.  Root  again  came  out,  bringing  his  brother 
David,  and  they  together  made  a  settlement  in  the  northeast  corner  of  the 
township.  They  erected  a  two-story  log-cabin  not  far  from  where  now  is 
Campbellsport.  Nathan  Muzzy,  of  whom  frequent  mention  is  made  in  several 
of  the  township  sketches,  came  to  the  county  about  this  time,  and  did  the  car- 
penter work  for  the  Roots.  Muzzy  discovered  the  little  lake  which  has  ever 
since  borne  his  name.  Poor  old  Nathan!  His  life-story  was  a  romance:  A 
graduate  of  Yale, brilliant  young  minister,  crossed  in  love,  reason  dethroned,  a 
wanderer  in  the  West,  decrepit  and  penniless,  buried  by  the  hand  of  charity. 
In  1802  Henry  O'Neill,  an  Irishman  of  fine  education  and  a  pioneer  Justice 
of  the  Peace,  and  Samuel  McCoy  came  in  and  together  erected  a  cabin  on  Lot 
3,  but  McCoy,  also  an  Irishman,  afterward  moved  to  Lot  28.  In  the  fall  of 
this  year  Michael  Hartle  and  Frederick  Caris,  originally  from  Northumberland 
County,  Penn.,  and  the  following  year  John  Caria  came  in,  also  Arthur 
Anderson.  In  1804,  in  addition  to  a  number  of  others,  the  Chapmans  made  a 
settlement  on  Lot  4.  Jacob  and  Abraham  Reed  settled  on  the  southwest  cor- 
ner of  Lot  15.  In  the  fall  of  1805  Beman  Chapman,  brother  of  Ephraim, 
arrived  with  his  wife  and  brother  Nathan.  Stephen  Colton  came  about  this 
time,  and  Gersham  Bostwick  in  1806. 

Bela  Hubbard  and  Salmon  Ward,  natives  of  Middletown,  Conn.,  in  the  year 
1802  removed  with  their  families  to  Randolph  Townshi}),  from  Jefferson 
County,  N.  Y.,  where  they  had  resided  since  1799.  These  two  old  pioneers 
made  a  halt  about  half  a  mile  west  of  the  Center,  and  the  first  night  camped 
under  a  large  tree,  but  the  next  day  built  them  a  cabin.  Ward  was  taken  sick, 
and  upon  recovery  returned  to  his  Eastern  home.  He,  however,  made  three  other 
trials  at  settling  here,  and  as  many  times  gave  it  up.  The  last  time  he  started 
for  the  East  was  the  last  ever  heard  of  him  by  his  friends.  For  six  weeks 
Hubbard  was  the  solitary  inhabitant  of  Randolph  Township,  and  a  lonely  time 
he  must  have  had  of  it,  bat  in  July  came  Arad  Upson,  originally  from  Ply- 
mouth, Conn. ;  also  Joseph  Harris,  from  the  same  State.  In  the  fall  came  Calvin 
Ward  and  John  Ludington.  In  the  spring  of  1803  Josiah  Ward,  wife  and  six 
children  moved  in,  and  daring  the  summer  Jehiel  Savage  and  Timothy  Culver 
arrived  from  Atwater,  where  they  had  at  first  located.  In  the  fall  Salmon 
Ward,   on  his  third  return  trip,  brought  with  him  Aaroa  Weston,  Levi  Davis, 


and  two  young  men  named  Carey  and  Smith,  the  latter  two  simply  coming  to 
trade  with  the  Indians.  In  November,  1804,  Ebenezer  Goss,  and  in  Decern 
ber  following  Eliakim  Merriman,  the  first  from  Plymouth  and  the  last  from 
Wallingford,  Conn.,  came  in.  July  17,  1805,  Oliver  Dickinson  and  family, 
from  East  Granville,  Mass.,  arrived.  He  was  a  blacksmith  by  trade,  and  one 
of  the  most  useful  members  of  the  first  settlement.  During  this  same  year 
Isaac  Merriman  from  Connecticut,  Archibald  Coon  from  Pennsylvania,  John 
Goss,  and  Jeremiah  Sabin  and  bis  son  Abel  located  in  the  township.  In 
1806  came  Hiram  Raymond,  Thomas  Miller,  Nathan  Sears  and  son  Elisha, 
and  Rev.  Henry  Ely,  all  of  Connecticut,  William  Thornton  from  Pennsylva- 
nia and  Daniel  Cross  from  Vermont.  In  1807  Deacon  Stephen  Butler  and 
Caleb  Wetmore  moved  in  from  Connecticut,  but  removed  to  Stow  Township  in  a 
few  years.  Dr.  Rufus  Belding,  from  Cattaraugas  County,  N.  Y.,  settled  here 
this  year,  whei'e  he  practiced  his  profession  for  nearly  thirty  years.  Among 
the  leading  names  of  settlers  in  the  few  years  succeeding  the  last  date  are 
those  of  Nathaniel  Bancroft,  Sylvester  Tinker  and  Deacon  James  Coe. 

"In  the  southwestern  corner  of  the  county  a  settlement  was  made  in  May, 
1802,  by  Royal  Pease,  a  native  of  Suffield,  Conn.,  who  owned  a  considerable 
portion  of  the  land  comprised  in  the  township  now  known  as  Suffield.  Pease 
settled  on  what  is  now  known  as  the  Kent  Farm,  and  made  a  clearing,  built  a 
cabin  and  put  out  a  crop  of  wheat.  This  old  pioneer  remained  alone  at  his 
settlement  for  nearly  a  year,  but  the  following  spring  after  his  arrival  Ben- 
jamin Baldwin  made  his  appearance,  and  soon  after  him  David  Way  and 
family.  In  1804  John  Fritch,  a  Pennsylvania  German,  located  at  the  little 
lake  that  has  since  borne  his  name.  In  this  year  also  came  from  Connecticut 
Daniel  Warner,  Ezekiel  Tupper,  Bradford  Waldo  and  Champlin  Minard.  In 
1805  Martin  Kent  and  family  and  Jonathan  Foster  came  in;  also,  Samuel 
Hale  and  his  sons  Thomas  and  Orestes.  During  the  next  few  years  settlers 
were  quite  numerous,  and  among  the  most  noted  was  Moses  Adams,  from  Mas- 
sachusetts. Many  Germans  have  from  time  to  time  settled  in  Suffield  Town- 
ship, and  form  a  large  portion  of  its  present  population. 

In  Charlestown  Township  a  man  by  the  name  of  Abel  Forsha,  from  Mary- 
land, about  1803,  squatted  on  a  piece  of  land  afterward  known  as  "  Farnham's 
Hill,"  where  he  lived  for  a  short  time,  afterward  removing  to  Ravenna;  but 
the  first  permanent  settler  was  John  Campbell,  who  moved  here  from  Deerfield 
Township  in  1805,  and  remained  throughout  his  life  one  of  the  leading  citi- 
zens of  the  county.  A  company  from  Blanford  and  Granville,  Mass.,  com- 
posed of  thirteen  families,  gave  the  township  an  impetus  in  1809. 

Hiraui  Township,  which  originally  comprised  the  territory  now  known  as 
Hiram,  Mantua,  Shalersville,  Freedom,  Windham  and  Nelson,  I'eceived  its 
first  settlers  in  1802,  when  Elijah  Mason,  Elisha  Hutchinson  and  Mason  Til- 
den  came  in  and  settled  respectively  as  follows:  Mason,  who  was  from  Leba- 
non, Conn.,  selected  the  west  half  of  Lot  23;  Hutchinson,  who  was  from  Her- 
kimer County,  N.  Y. ,  also  selected  a  portion  of  Lot  23,  and  Tilden,  from  Con- 
necticut, selected  Lot  22.  In  the  fall  they  all  returned  to  their  homes  in  the 
East.  John  Fleming  came  about  the  same  time,  but  remained  only  one  year. 
In  1803  the  three  first-named  persons  again  came  out  and  made  improvements 
on  their  land.  Mason  cleared  twenty-two  acres,  built  a  cabin,  and  put  out  a 
crop  of  wheat.  They  all  then  again  returned  to  their  homes.  Three  men 
whom  Mason  and  Tilden  had  in  their  employ,  liking  the  country,  remained. 
These  men  were  Richard  Redden  and  Jacob  and  Samuel  Wirt,  all  from 
Pennsylvania.  In  1804  William  Fenton  and  Cornelius  Baker  settled  on  Lot 
38,    the   first    on   the    east   half    of    the    west    half,    and    the    other    on   the 


west  half  of  the  same.  Eoswell  Mason,  son  of  Elijah,  and  some  others, 
came  out  in  1807,  but  as  late  as- 1809  the  number  of  inhabitants  was  only 
twenty.  In  1811  the  Youngs  came  from  Connecticut;  also  Elisha  Hutch- 
inson. For  five  or  six  years  after  the  last  date  many  settlers  came  in, 
and  an  enumeration  of  them  will  be  found  in  the  sketch  of   Hiram  Township. 

John  Haymaker,  a  native  of  Pennsylvania,  from  near  Pittsburgh,  in  the 
fall  of  1805  made  the  first  settlement  in  Franklin  Township.  He  brought 
his  wife  and  three  children,  and  at  first  located  on  the  Cuyahoga,  just  west  of 
where  the  upper  bridge  now  is  in  Kent.  The  following  spring  George  Hay- 
maker, a  brother  of  John,  and  their  father,  Jacob,  arrived.  The  next  year 
the  Haymakers  built  a  mill,  the  Cuyahoga  River  at  the  point  where  they 
settled  affording  ample  water  power.  Settlement  in  Franklin  was  rather  slow 
for  many  years,  considering  the  natural  advantages  of  the  township.  Jacob 
Reed,  who  had  settled  in  Rootstown  in  1804,  came  to  Franklin  in  1811.  and 
purchased  the  Haymaker  Mill,  and  ran  it  for  several  years, when  it  was  in  turn 
purchased  by  George  B.  DePeyster,  For  a  more  extended  account  of  the 
early  settlement  of  Franklin,  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  two  chapters  on  that 

The  first  settlement  in  Shalersville  Township  was  made  in  the  spring  of 
1806  by  Joel  Baker,  from  Tolland  County,  Conn.  He  brought  his  wife  and 
one  child  and  located  on  Lot  46,  erecting  his  cabin  and  digging  a  well  nearly 
opposite  where  the  hotel  at  the  Center  now  stands.  For  two  years  Baker  and 
his  family  were  alone  in  this  part  of  the  wilderness,  but  in  1808  Simeon 
Belden  and  Calvin  Crane,  from  Say  brook,  Conn.,  came  in,  located  their  future 
homes  and  then  returned  to  Trumbull  County,  Ohio,  where  they  had  resided 
several  years,  but  the  following  spring  came  out  for  permanent  residence. 
Hezekiah  Hine,  Daniel  Keyes  and  his  son,  Asa  D.  Keyes,  also  came  in  1808. 
In  1810  William  Coolman,  Sr.,  and  family  came  from  Middletown,  Conn. ; 
also,  Daniel  Burroughs,  and  his  sons,  Asa  K.  and  Greenhood,  from  Vermont, 
and  others.  In  1814  Silas  Crocker,  then  a  lad  of  fifteen  years,  came  in  with 
Job  and  Benoni  Thompson.  Gen.  David  Mcintosh  and  Sylvester  Beecher 
came  later.  These  three  last-named  were  all  poor  boys,  but  they  each  left 
their  impress  on  the  county  of  their  adoption. 

Eber  Abbott,  of  Tolland  County,  Conn.,  in  the  spring  of  1811  came  to 
Edinburg  Township  and  settled  on  Lot  2,  Subdivision  5,  and  shortly  after 
him  his  bi'other-in-law,  Lemuel  Chapman,  located  near  him.  In  1813  a  man 
by  the  name  of  Howard  came  in  and  located  on  Silver  Creek.  In  1815  Alan- 
son  and  Justin  Eddy,  from  Williamstown,  arrived  with  their  families,  having 
come  the  entire  distance  in  sleighs.  Justin  made  his  settlement  on  the  now 
fine  farm  of  Mr.  Theodore  Clark.  Alanson  settled  on  the  farm  afterward 
owned  by  C.  H.  Rowell.  Robert  Calvin,  a  Virginian,  came  about  1816,  and 
settled  on  Lot  8.  He  was  the  father  of  Mr.  John  Calvin,  who  now  resides  in 
the  northeastern  portion  of  the  township.  David  Trowbridge  and  Sylvester 
Gilbert  also  came  at  this  time.  Richard  M.  Hart  came  in  1817,  and  Adnah 
H.  Bostwick  in  1819. 

In  1810  the  Becket  Land  Company  was  formed  in  Becket,  Berkshire  Co., 
Mass.,  for  the  purchase  and  settlement  of  the  lands  now  embraced  in  Windham 
Township,  most  of  which  then  belonged  to  Gov.  Caleb  Strong,  of  that  State. 
The  company  consisted  of  sixteen  persons,  viz. :  Bills  Messenger,  John  Seely, 
Jeremiah  Lyman,  Aaron  P.  Jagger,  Benjamin  C.  Perkins,  Elijah  Alford,  Alpheus 
Streator,  Benjamin  Higley,  Elisha  Clark,  Isaac  Clark,  Ebenezer  N.  Messenger, 
Thatcher  Conant,  Nathan  Birchard,  Enos  Kingsley,  Dillingham  Clark  and 
Gideon  Bush.     Early  in  1811  the  company  sent  out  four  young  men— Elijah 


Alford,  Jr.,  Oliver  Alford,  Ebenezer  O.  Messenger  and  Nathan  H.  Messenger — 
to  make  some  preparation  for  the  coming  population.  On  their  arrival  in 
Windham,  March  15,  the  Alfords  began  an  improvement  on  Lot  84,  and 
erected  a  cabin,  which  was  the  first  built  in  the  township.  The  Messengers- 
built  a  cabin  on  Lot  82.  These  two  cabins  constituted  VVindam  Township  in 
March,  1811,  and  the  population  up  to  the  2t7h  of  that  month  consisted  of  the 
four  pioneer  boys  previously  mentioned.  On  the  27th  Wareham  Loomis  and 
family  moved  in  from  Nelson.  This  was  the  first  family  in  the  township. 
Loomis  put  up  a  cabin  on  that  part  of  Lot  92  subsequently  owned  by  Daniel 
Jagger.  Hiram  Messenger,  a  son  of  Bills,  one  of  the  Becket  Land  Company, 
arrived  with  his  family  in  June,  1811,  being  the  first  installment  of  the  pro- 
prietors. He  settled  on  Lot  76.  His  father  came  with  him,  and  stayed  sev- 
eral months,  assisting  Hiram  in  making  improvements,  and  then  returned  to 
his  home.  In  July,  1811,  Alpheus  Streator,  Benjamin  Higley,  Ebenezer  N. 
Messenger,  Gideon  Bush,  Thatcher  Conant  and  Jeremiah  Lyman  arrived  and 
settled  on  their  lands,  and  the  following  October  Deacon  Elijah  Alford  joined 
the  settlement.  From  this  time  forward  settlers  continued  to  arrive  at  inter- 
vals, and  this  portion  of  the  county  rapidly  increased  in  population. 

In  consequence  of  a  certain  reputation  for  an  almost  uninhabitable  swamp- 
iness, Paris  Township,  although  excellent  land,  was  not  settled  very  early,  at 
least  not  as  early  as  it  should  have  been  under  the  circumstances.  Richard 
Hudson,  a  Pennsylvanian,  however,  ventured  in  about  June,  1811,  and  drove 
his  stakes  on  Lot  21.  John  Bridges,  son-in-law  of  Hudson,  came  the  next 
year,  and  about  the  same  time  John  Cox  and  John  Young.  In  1815  Chauncy 
Hawley  and  William  Selby,  in  1816  Brainard,  Newton  and  Thomas  Selby, 
and  in  1817  Austin  Wilson  and  John  Smith  arrived. 

The  first  permanent  settler  in  Brimfield  Township  was  John  Boosinger,  who 
removed  from  Ravenna  Township  in  1816,  settling  on  Lot  39.  In  November 
of  the  same  year  Henry  Thorndike  and  his  family,  with  his  brother  Israel, 
arrived.  In  the  employ  of  the  Thorndikes  was  Abner  H.  Lanphare,  who  lived 
to  an  advanced  age.  The  following  January  Deacon  Alpheus  Andrews  settled 
near  the  Center.  In  the  year  1817  many  settlers  came,  whose  names  will  be 
found  in  the  chapter  on  Brimfield. 

Charles  H.  Paine,  son  of  Gen.  Paine,  of  Painesville,  who  had  married  a 
daughter  of  Elijah  Mason,  of  Hii'am  Township,  settled  in  Freedom  Township 
in  the  spring  of  1818,  on  Lots  31  and  41,  and  from  that  time  till  1822  himself 
and  family  were  the  only  inhabitants  of  Freedom.  In  the  spring  of  the  year 
last  named,  however,  thirteen  persons  arrived,  all  in  one  family:  Thomas 
Johnston,  wife  and  eleven  children.  In  1823  came  Newell  Day,  and  Enos  and 
Asa  Wadsworth;  in  1824,  Rufus  Ranney,  father  of  Judge  R.  P.  Ranney,  and 
in  1825  Paul  Larkcom,  father  of  A.  C.  Larkcom,  still  a  resident  of  Freedom 

Streetsboro  Township  settled  up  very  rapidly  from  the  time  the  first  settler 
made  his  appearance  in  1822,  that  person  being  Stephen  Myers,  who  located 
on  Lot  82.  He  made  a  clearing  and  put  up  a  distillery.  In  1824  a  number 
of  other  persons  came  in  and  rapidly  filled  up  the  township. 

Col.  John  Garrett,  of  Delaware,  as  noticed  elsewhere,  was  the  first  settler 
of  what  is  now  Garrettsville  Township. 

For  the  purpose  of  keeping  the  I'emembrance  of  the  old  pioneer  days  fresh 
in  the  minds  of  the  present  generation,  and  as  a  humble  monument  to  their 
deeds,  an  association  was  formed  a  few  years  ago,  entitled  "  The  Portage - 
Summit  Pioneer  Association."  From  the  eighth  annual  report  of  the  Secre- 
tary,  Dr.  A.  M.  Sherman,  of  Kent,  we  glean  the  following: 


"  Some  of  you  will  remember  that  on  the  10th  of  February,  1874,  seventy- 
three  persons  met  at  the  residence  of  the  venerable  Samuel  Olin,  in  Streets- 
boro,  mainly  by  invitation  of  his  sister,  Mrs.  J.  B.  Stratton,  and  her  venerable 
husband.  The  primary  object  was  to  enjoy  a  social  reunion  of  "  Old  Folks," 
and  partake  of  Father  Olin's  generous  hospitality.  At  that  meeting  Christian 
Cackler,  being  the  first  white  boy  that  ever  crossed  the  Cuyahoga  River  here, 
invited  all  those  present  and  many  others  to  meet  at  his  pleasant  home  in 
October  following  to  enjoy  his  hospitality.  At  that  meeting  an  organization 
was  effected  that  has  enlarged  into  the  grand  proportions  of  your  present 
organization.  There  have  joined  up  to  this  meeting  620  persons,  and  out  of 
this  number  (up  to  the  fall  of  1882)  112  have  died.  Comparatively  few  of 
those  present  at  the  organization  remain.  Another  decade  will  evidently  wit- 
ness the  departure  from  earth  of  the  last  of  the  original  members.  The 
society,  since  it  extended  its  borders,  has  rapidly  grown,  including  as  it  now 
does  in  its  territory  all  of  Portage  and  Summit  Counties.  All  above  sisty 
years  of  age  are  permitted  to  become  members." 

The  annual  meetings  of  the  association  are  occasions  of  much  interest  and 
enjoyment,  as  many  as  5,000  to  6,000  persons  being  in  attendance.  Eloquent 
addresses  are  delivered,  music  by  the  Pioneer  Band  discoursed,  and  a  sump- 
tuous dinner  served  at  the  beautiful  grounds  selected  in  the  village  of  Kent. 
This  is  as  it  should  be,  for  the  people  of  to-day  scarcely  realize  or  appreciate 
how  much  they  owe  to  the  large-hearted  pioneer  fathers  and  mothers,  who, 
with  their  children,  braved  the  perils  of  the  wilderness;  who  reared  their 
families  in  the  fear  of  God,  and  implanted  within  them  many  of  the  virtues 
necessary  to  the  welfare  of  humanity,  then  'passed  from  the  scene  of  action, 
leaving  to  their  descendants  an  inheritance  that  should  ever  be  cherished  and 
kept  in  sacred  remembrance.  The  history  of  Portage  County  would  be  incom- 
plete without  fitting  notice  of  those  pioneers  who,  by  reason  of  their  limited 
sphere  of  action,  could  not  become  conspicuous  in  the  great  drama  of  life,  but 
whose  busy  hands  and  conscientious  regard  of  duty  made  them  necessary  fac- 
tors in  the  establishment  of  the  solid  foundation  upon  which  our  republican 
form  of  government  is  embedded.  It  is  a  little  thing  to  preserve  their  names 
in  the  pages  of  history,  yet  it  is  all  that  is  left  to  do,  for  their  lives  were  much 
alike;  they  met  the  stern  necessities  of  the  hour,  and  were  content  in  the  con- 
sciousness of  duty  well  done. 



Pioneer  Days  and  Trials— Habitations  of  the  First  Settlers— Furni- 
ture, Food  and  Medicine— Habits,  Labor  and  Dress— Early  Manners 
and  Customs— Bees  and  Weddings— The  Hominy  Block  and  Pioneer 
Mills— Prices  of  Store  Goods  and  Produce— Items  From  an  Old  Cash 
Book— Mode  of  Living— Churches  and  Schools— Period  of  the  War 
OF  1812— Prices  After  the  War— First  Crops  Eaised  in  the  County- 
Agricultural  Implements  of  the  Pioneers,  and  Subsequent  Improve- 
ments Made  in  Them— Pioneer  Farming— Cheese  and  Butter  Statis- 
tics—First Stock  Brought  into  the  County— Stock  Statistics  Since 
1840— Statistics  of  Wheat,  Corn,  Oats  and  Hay— Total  Valuation  of 
Property  by  Decades— Portage  County  Agricultural  Societies— Por- 
tage County  Horticultural  Society. 

THE  first  settlers  who  built  their  cabins  in  the  unbroken  forest  of  Portage 
County  came  not  to  enjoy  a  life  of  lotus-eating  and  ease.  They  could, 
doubtless,  admire  the  pristine  beauty  of  the  scenes  that  unveiled  before  them, 
the  vernal  green  of  the  forest,  and  the  loveliness  of  all  the  works  of  nature; 
they  could  look  forward  with  happy  anticipation  to  the  lives  they  were  to  lead 
in  the  midst  of  all  this  beauty,  and  to  the  rich  reward  that  would  be  theirs 
from  the  cultivation  of  the  mellow,  fertile  soil;  but  they  had  first  to  work. 
The  dangers  they  were  exposed  to  were  serious  ones.  The  Indians  could  not 
fully  be  trusted,  and  the  many  stories  of  their  depredations  in  the  earlier 
Eastern  settlements  made  the  pioneers  of  Ohio  apprehensive  of  trouble.  The 
larger  wild  beasts  were  a  cause  of  much  dread,  and  the  smaller  ones  a  source 
of  great  annoyance.  Added  to  this  was  tlie  liability  to  sickness  which  always 
exists  in  a  new  country.  In  the  midst  of  all  the  loveliness  of  the  surround- 
ings, there  was  a  sense  of  loneliness  that  could  not  be  dispelled,  and  this  was 
a  far  greater  trial  to  the  men  and  women  who  first  dwelt  in  the  "Western  coun- 
try than  is  generally  imagined.  The  deep-seated,  constantly  recurring  feeling 
of  isolation  made  many  stout  hearts  turn  back  to  the  older  settlements  and  the 
abodes  of  comfort,  the  companionship  and  sociability  they  had  abandoned  in 
their  early  homes  to  take  up  a  new  life  in  the  wilderness. 

The  pioneers  making  the  tedious  journey  from  the  East  and  South  by  the 
rude  trails,  arrived  at  their  places  of  destination  with  but  very  little  with 
which  to  begin  the  battle  of  life.  They  had  brave  hearts  and  strong  arms, 
however,  and  they  were  possessed  of  invincible  determination.  Frequently 
they  came  on  without  their  families  to  make  a  beginning,  and  this  having  been 
accomplished,  would  return  to  their  old  homes  for  their  wives  and  children. 
The  first  thing  done,  after  a  temporary  shelter  from  the  rain  had  been  pro- 
vided, was  to  prepare  a  little  spot  of  ground  for  some  crop,  usually  corn. 
This  was  done  by  girdling  the  trees,  clearing  away  the  underbrush,  if  there 
chanced  to  be  any,  and  sweeping  the  surface  with  fire.  Five,  ten,  or  even  fif- 
teen acres  of  land  might  thus  be  prepared  and  planted  the  first  season.  In 
the  autumn  the  crop  would  be  carefully  gathered  and  garnered  with  the  least 
possible  svaste,  for  it  was  the  food  supply  of  the  pioneer  and  his  family,  and 
life  itself  depended,  in  part,  upon  its  safe  preservation.  While  the  first  crop 
was  growing  the  pioneer  had  busied  himself  with  the  building  of  his  cabin, 
which  must  answer   as  a  shelter  from  the  storms  of  the  coming  winter,  a  pro- 


tection  from  the  ravages  of  wild  animals,  and,  possibly,  a  place   of  refuge 
from  the  red  man. 

If  a  pioneer  was  completely  isolated  from  his  fellow-men,  his  position  was 
certainly  a  hard  one;  for  without  assistance  he  could  construct  only  a  poor 
habitation.  In  such  cases  the  cabin  was  generally  made  of  light  logs  or  poles, 
and  was  laid  up  roughly,  only  to  answer  the  temporary  purpose  of  shelter,  until 
other  settlers  had  come  into  the  vicinity,  by  whose  help  a  more  solid  structure 
could  be  built.  Usually  a  number  of  men  came  into  the  country  together,  and 
located  within  such  distance  of  each  other  as  enabled  them  to  perform  many 
friendly  and  neighborly  offices.  Assistance  was  always  readily  given  each  pio- 
neer by  all  the  scattered  residents  of  the  forest  within  a  radius  of  several 
miles.  The  commonly  followed  plan  of  erecting  a  log-cabin  was  through  a 
union  of  labor.  The  site  of  the  cabin  home  was  generally  selected  with  refer- 
ence to  a  good  water  supply,  often  by  a  never-failing  spring  of  pure  water,  or 
if  such  could  not  be  found,  it  was  not  uncommon  to  first  dig  a  well.  When 
the  cabin  was  to  be  built  the  few  neighbors  gathered  at  the  site,  and  first  cut 
down,  within  as  close  proximity  as  possible,  a  number  of  trees  as  nearly  of  a 
size  as  could  be  found,  but  ranging  from  a  foot  to  twenty  inches  in  diameter. 
Logs  were  chopped  from  these  and  rolled  to  a  common  center.  This  work, 
and  that  of  preparing  the  foundation,  would  consume  the  greater  part  of  the 
day,  in  most  cases,  and  the  entire  labor  would  most  commonly  occupy  two  or 
three  days — sometimes  four.  The  logs  were  raised  to  their  places  with  hand- 
spikes and  "  skid  poles,"  and  men  standing  at  the  corners  with  axes  notched 
them  as  fast  as  they  were  laid  in  position.  Soon  the  cabin  would  be  built  sev- 
eral logs  high,  and  the  work  would  become  more  difficult.  The  gables  were 
formed  by  beveling  the  logs,  and  making  them  shorter  and  shorter,  as  each 
additional  one  was  laid  in  place.  These  logs  in  the  gables  were  held  in  place 
by  poles,  which  extended  across  the  cabin  from  end  to  end,  and  which  served 
also  as  rafters  upon  which  to  lay  the  rived  "  clapboard  "  roof.  The  so-called 
"  clapboards  "  were  five  or  six  feet  in  length,  and  were  split  from  oak  or  ash 
logs,  and  made  as  smooth  and  flat  as  possible.  They  were  laid  side  by  side, 
and  other  pieces  of  split  stuff  laid  over  the  cracks  so  as  to  effectually  keep 
out  the  rain.  Upon  these  logs  were  laid  to  hold  them  in  place,  and  the  logs 
were  held  by  blocks  of  wood  placed  between  them. 

The  chimney  was  an  important  part  of  the  structure,  and  taxed  the  build- 
ers, with  their  poor  tools,  to  their  utmost.  In  rare  cases  it  was  made  of  stone, 
but  most  commonly  of  logs  and  sticks  laid  up  in  a  manner  similar  to  those 
which  formed  the  cabin.  It  was,  in  nearly  all  cases,  built  outside  of  the  cabin, 
and  at  its  base  a  huge  opening  was  cut  through  the  wall  to  answer  as  a  fire- 
place. The  sticks  in  the  chimney  were  kept  in  place  and  protected  from  fire 
by  mortar,  formed  by  kneading  and  working  clay  and  straw.  Flat  stones  were 
procured  for  back  and  jambs  of  the  fire-place. 

An  opening  was  chopped  or  sawed  in  the  logs  on  one  side  of  the  cabin  for 
a  doorway.  Pieces  of  hewed  timber,  three  or  four  inches  thick,  were  fastened 
on  each  side  by  wooden  pins  to  the  end  of  the  logs,  and  the  door  (if  there  was 
any)  was  fastened  to  one  of  these  by  wooden  hinges.  The  door  itself  was  a 
clumsy  piece  of  wood-work.  It  was  made  of  boards  rived  from  an  oak  log, 
and  held  together  by  heavy  cross-pieces.  There  was  a  wooden  latch  upon 
the  inside,  raised  by  a  string  which  passed  through  a  gimlet-hole,  and  hung 
upon  the  outside.  From  this  mode  of  construction  arose  the  old  and  well- 
known  hospitable  saying:  "  You  will  find  the  latch-string  always  out."  It 
was  pulled  in  only  at  night,  and  the  door  was  thus  fastened.  Very  many  of 
the  cabins  of  the  pioneers  had  no  doors  of   the  kind  here  described,   and  the 

^^^'^      ^^^^ 


entrance  was  protected  only  by  a  blanket  or  skin  of  some  wild  beast  suspended 
above  it. 

The  window  was  a  small  opening,  often  devoid  of  anything  resembling  a 
sash,  and  very  seldom  having  glass.  Greased  paper  was  sometimes  used  in 
lieu  of  the  latter,  but  more  commonly  some  old  garment  constituted  a  curtain, 
which  was  the  only  protection  from  sun,  rain  or  snow. 

The  floor  of  the  cabin  was  made  of  puncheons — pieces  of  timber  split  from 
trees  about  eighteen  inches  in  diameter,  and  hewed  smooth  with  the  broad-ax. 
They  were  half  the  length  of  the  floor.  Many  of  the  cabins  first  erected  in 
this  part  of  the  country  had  nothing  but  the  earthen  floor.  Sometimes  the 
cabins  had  cellars,  which  were  simply  small  excavations  in  the  ground  for  the 
storage  of  a  few  articles  of  food,  or  perhaps  cooking  utensils.  Access  to  the 
cellar  was  readily  gained  by  lifting  a  loose  puncheon.  There  was  sometimes 
a  loft  used  for  various  purposes,  among  others  as  the  "guest  chamber''  of  the 
house.  It  was  reached  by  a  ladder,  the  sides  of  which  were  split  pieces  of  a 
sapling,  put  together,  like  everything  else  in  the  house,  without  nails. 

The  furniture  of  the  log-cabin  was  as  simple  and  primitive  as  the  structure 
itself.  A  forked  stick  set  in  the  floor  and  supporting  two  poles,  the  other  ends 
of  which  were  allowed  to  rest  upon  the  logs  at  the  end  and  side  of  the  cabin, 
formed  a  bedstead.  A  common  form  of  table  was  a  split  slab  supported  by  four 
rustic  legs  set  in  augur  holes.  Three-legged  stools  were  made  in  a  similar 
simple  manner.  Pegs  driven  in  augur  holes  into  the  logs  of  the  wall  supported 
shelves,  and  others  displayed  the  limited  wardrobe  of  the  family  not  in  use.  A 
few  other  pegs,  or  perhaps  a  pair  of  deer  horns,  formed  a  rack  where  hung  the 
rifle  and  powder-horn,  which  no  cabin  was  without.  These,  and  perhaps  a  few 
other  simple  articles  brought  from  the  "old  home"  formed  the  furniture  and 
furnishings  of  the  pioneer  cabin. 

The  utensils  for  cooking  and  the  dishes  for  table  use  were  few.  The  best 
were  of  pewter,  which  the  careful  housewife  of  the  olden  time  kept  shining  as 
brightly  as  the  most  pretentious  plate  of  our  later-day  fine  houses.  It  was  by 
no  means  uncommon  that  wooden  vessels,  either  coopered  or  turned,  were  used 
upon  the  table.  Knives  and  forks  were  few,  crockery  very  scarce,  and  tin-ware 
not  abundant.  Food  was  simply  cooked  and  served,  but  it  was  of  the  best  and 
most  wholesome  kind.  The  hunter  kept  the  larder  supplied  with  venison,  bear 
meat,  squirrels,  fish,  wild  turkeys,  and  the  many  varieties  of  smaller  game. 
Plain  corn-bread  baked  in  a  kettle,  in  the  ashes,  or  upon  a  board  in  front  of 
the  great  open  fire-place  answered  the  purpose  of  all  kinds  of  pastry.  The 
corn  was  among  the  earlier  pioneers  pounded  or  grated,  there  being  no  mills 
for  grinding  it  for  some  time,  and  then  only  small  ones  at  a  considerable  dis- 
tance away.  The  wild  fruits  in  their  season  were  made  use  of,  and  afi"orded 
a  pleasant  variety.  Sometimes  especial  efi'ort  was  made  to  prepare  a  delicacy, 
as,  for  instance,  when  a  woman  experimented  in  mince  pies  by  pounding 
wheat  for  the  flour  to  make  the  crust,  and  used  crab- apples  for  fruit.  In  the 
lofts  of  the  cabins  was  usually  to  be  found  a  collection  of  articles  that  made 
up  the  pioneer's  materia  medica — the  herb  medicines  and  spices,  catnip,  sage, 
tansy,  fennel,  boneset,  pennyroyal  and  wormwood,  each  gathered  in  its  sea- 
son; and  there  were  also  stores  of  nuts,  and  strings  of  dried  pumpkin,  with 
bags  of  berries  and  fi-uit. 

The  habits  of  the  pioneers  were  of  a  simplicity  and  purity  in  conformance 
to  their  surroundings  and  belongings.  The  men  were  engaged  in  the  hercu- 
lean labor,  day  after  day,  of  enlarging  the  little  patch  of  sunshine  about  their 
homes,  cutting  away  the  forest,  burning  ofl"  the  brush  and  debris,  preparing 
the  soil,  planting,  tending,  harvesting,  caring  for  the  few  animals  which  they 



brought  with  them  or  soon  procured,  and  in  hunting.  While  they  were 
engaged  in  the  heavy  labor  of  the  field  and  forest,  or  following  the  deer,  or 
seeking  other  game,  their  helpmeets  were  busied  with  their  household  duties, 
providing  for  the  day  and  for  the  winter  coming  on,  cooking,  making  clothes, 
spinning  and  weaving.  They  were  fitted  by  nature  and  experience  to  be  the 
consorts  of  the  brave  men  who  first  came  into  the  Western  wilderness.  They 
were  heroic  in  their  endurance  of  hardship  and  privation  and  loneliness.  Their 
industry  was  well  directed  and  unceasing.  Woman's  work  then,  like  man's, 
was  performed  under  disadvantages  which  have  been  removed  in  later  years. 
She  had  not  only  the  common  household  duties  to  perform,  but  many  others. 
She  not  only  made  the  clothing,  but  the  fabric  for  it.  That  old,  old  occupa- 
tion of  spinning  and  of  weaving,  with  which  woman's  name  has  been  associated 
in  all  history,  and  of  which  the  modern  world  knows  nothing,  except  through 
the  stories  of  those  who  are  grandmothers  now — that  old  occupation  of  spin- 
ning and  of  weaving,  which  seems  surrounded  with  a  glamour  of  romance  as 
we  look  back  to  it  through  tradition  and  poetry,  and  which  always  conjures  up 
thoughts  of  the  graces  and  virtues  of  the  dames  and  damsels  of  a  generation 
that  is  gone — that  old,  old  occupation  of  spinning  and  of  weaving,  was  the 
chief  industry  of  the  pioneer  women.  Every  cabin  sounded  with  the  softly- 
whirring  wheel  and  the  rythmic  thud  of  the  loom.  The  woman  of  pioneer 
times  was  like  the  woman  described  by  Solomon:  "She  seeketh  wool  and  flax, 
and  worketh  willingly  with  her  hands;  she  layeth  her  hands  to  the  spindle, 
and  her  hands  hold  the  distafif." 

Almost  every  article  of  clothing,  all  of  the  cloth  in  use  in  the  old  log- cab- 
ins, was  the  product  of  the  patient  woman-weaver's  toil.  She  spun  the  flax 
and  wove  the  cloth  for  shirts,  pantaloons,  frocks,  sheets  and  blankets.  The 
linen  and  the  wool,  the  "  linsey-woolsey  "  woven  by  the  housewife  formed  all 
of  the  material  for  the  clothing  of  both  men  and  women,  except  such  articles 
as  were  made  of  skins.  The  men  commonly  wore  the  hunting-shirt,  a  kind  of 
loose  frock  reaching  half  way  down  the  figure,  open  before,  and  so  wide  as  to 
lap  over  a  foot  or  more  upon  the  chest.  This  generally  had  a  cape,  which 
was  often  fringed  with  a  raveled  piece  of  cloth  of  a  different  color  from  that 
which  composed  the  garment.  The  bosom  of  the  hunting-shirt  answered  as  a 
pouch,  in  which  could  be  carried  the  various  articles  that  the  hunter  or  woods- 
man would  need.  It  was  always  worn  belted  and  made  out  of  coarse  linen, 
or  linsey,  or  of  dressed  deer  skin,  according  to  the  fancy  of  the  wearer. 
Breeches  were  made  of  heavy  cloth  or  of  deer  skin,  and  were  often  worn  with 
leggings  of  the  same  material,  or  of  some  kind  of  leather,  while  the  feet  were 
most  usually  encased  in  moccasins,  which  were  easily  and  quickly  made, 
though  they  needed  frequent  mending.  The  deer-skin  breeches  or  drawers 
were  very  comfortable  when  dry,  but  when  they  became  wet  were  very  cold  to 
the  limbs,  and  the  next  time  they  were  put  on  were  almost  as  stiff  as  if  made 
of  wood.  Hats  or  caps  were  made  of  the  various  native  furs.  The  women 
were  clothed  in  linsey  petticoats,  coarse  shoes  and  stockings,  and  wore  buck- 
skin gloves  or  mittens  when  any  protection  was  required  for  the  hands.  All 
of  the  wearing  apparel,  like  that  of  the  men,  was  made  with  a  view  to  being 
serviceable  and  comfortable,  and  all  was  of  home  manufacture.  Other  articles 
and  finer  ones  were  sometimes  worn,  but  they  had  been  brought  from  former 
homes,  and  were  usually  relics  handed  down  from  parents  to  children.  Jew- 
elry was  not  common,  but  occasionally  some  ornament  was  displayed.  In  the 
cabins  of  the  more  cultivated  pioneers  were  usually  a  few  books,  and  the  long 
winter  evenings  were  spent  in  poring  over  these  well-thumbed  volumes  by  the 
light  of  the  great  log-fire,  in  knitting,  mending,  curing  furs,  or  some  similar 


Hospitality  was  simple,  imaflfected,  hearty,  unbounded.  Whisky  was  in 
common  use,  and  was  furnished  on  all  occasions  of  sociality.  Nearly  every 
settler  had  his  barrel  stored  away.  It  was  the  universal  drink  at  merry-mak- 
ings, bees,  house-warmings,  weddings,  and  was  always  set  before  the  traveler 
who  chanced  to  spend  the  night  or  take  a  meal  in  the  log-cabin.  It  was  the 
good  old-fashioned  whisky,  "clear  as  amber,  sweet  as  musk,  smooth  as  oil," 
that  the  few  octogenarians  and  nonagenarians  of  to-day  recall  to  memory  with 
an  unctuous  gusto  and  a  suggestive  smack  of  the  lips.  The  whisky  came  from 
the  Monongahela  district,  and  was  boated  up  the  streams  or  hauled  in  wagons 
across  the  country.  A  few  years  later  stills  began  to  make  their  appearance, 
and  an  article  of  peach  brandy  and  rye  whisky  manufactured;  the  latter  was 
not  held  in  such  high  esteem  as  the  peach  brandy,  though  used  in  greater 

As  the  settlement  increased,  the  sense  of  loneliness  and  isolation  was  dis- 
pelled, the  asperities  of  life  were  softened  and  its  amenities  multiplied:  social 
gatherings  became  more  numerous  and  more  enjoyable.  The  log  rollings, 
harvestings  and  husking-bees  for  the  men,  and  the  apple-butter  making  and 
the  quilting  parties  for  the  women,  furnished  frequent  occasions  for  social 
intercourse.  The  early  settlers  took  much  pleasure  and  pride  in  rifle  shooting, 
and  as  they  were  accustomed  to  the  use  of  the  gun  as  a  means,  often,  of 
obtaining  a  subsistence,  and  relied  upon  it  as  a  weapon  of  defense,  they  exhib- 
ited considerable  skill. 

A  wedding  was  the  event  of  most  importance  in  the  sparsely  settled  new 
country.  The  young  people  had  every  inducement  to  marry,  and  generally 
did  so  as  soon  as  able  to  provide  for  themselves.  When  a  marriage  was  to  be 
celebrated,  all  the  neighborhood  turned  out.  It  was  customary  to  have  the 
ceremony  performed  before  dinnei-,  and  in  order  to  be  in  time,  the  groom  and 
his  attendants  usually  started  from  his  father's  house  in  the  morning  for  that 
of  the  bride.  All  went  on  horseback,  riding  in  single  file  along  the  narrow 
trail.  Arriving  at  the  cabin  of  the  bride's  parents,  the  ceremony  would  be 
performed,  and  after  that,  dinner  served.  This  would  be  a  substantial  back- 
woods feast  of  beef,  pork,  fowls,  and  bear  or  deer  meat,  with  such  vegetables, 
as  could  be  procured.  The  greatest  hilarity  prevailed  during  theraeal.  After 
it  was  over  the  dancing  began,  and  was  usually  kept  up  till  the  next  morning, 
though  the  newly  made  husband  and  wife  were  as  a  general  thing  put  to  bed 
in  the  most  approved  fashion,  and  with  considerable  formality,  in  the  middle 
of  the  evening's  hilarity.  The  tall  young  men,  when  they  went  on  the  floor 
to  dance,  had  to  take  their  places  with  care  between  the  logs  that  supported 
the  loft  floor,  or  they  were  in  danger  of  bumping  their  heads.  The  figures  of 
the  dances  were  three  and  four  hand  reels,  or  square  sets  and  jigs.  The  com- 
mencement was  always  a  square  four,  which  was  followed  by  "jigging  it  off," 
or  what  is  sometimes  called  a  "cutout  jig."  The  "settlement"  of  a  j^oung 
couple  was  thought  to  be  thoroughly  and  generously  made  when  the  neighbors 
assembled  and  raised  a  cabin  for  them. 

During  all  the  early  years  of  the  settlement,  varied  with  occasional  pleas- 
ures and  excitements,  the  great  work  of  increasing  the  tillable  ground  went 
slowly  on.  The  implements  and  tools  were  few  and  of  the  most  primitive 
kinds,  but  the  soil  that  had  long  held  in  reserve  the  accumulated  richness  of 
centuries,  produced  splendid  harvests,  and  the  husbandman  was  well  rewarded 
for  his  labor.  The  soil  was  warmer  then  than  now,  and  the  season  earlier. 
The  wheat  was  occasionally  pastured  in  the  spring  to  keep  it  from  growing  up 
so  fast  as  to  become  lodged.  The  harvest  came  early,  and  the  yield  was  often 
from  twenty  to  thirty  bushels  per  acre.  Corn  grew  fast,  and  roasting  ears 
were  to  be  had  by  the  1st  of  August  in  most  seasons. 


When  the  corn  grew  too  hard  for  roasting  ears,  and  was  yet  too  soft  to 
grind  in  the  mill,  it  was  reduced  to  meal  bv  a  grater.  Next  to  the  grater  came 
the  hominy  block,  an  article  in  common  use  among  the  pioneers.  It  consisted 
simply  of  a  block  of  wood — a  section  of  a  tree  perhaps — with  a  hole  burned 
or  dug  into  it  a  foot  deep  in  which  corn  was  pulverized  with  a  pestle.  Some- 
times this  block  was  inside  the  cabin,  where  it  served  as  a  seat  for  the  bashful 
young  backwoodsman  while  "sparking"  his  girl;  sometimes  a  convenient  stump 
in  front  of  the  cabin  door  was  prepared  for  and  made  one  of  the  best  of  hom- 
iny blocks.  These  blocks  did  not  last  long,  for  mills  came  quite  early 
and  superseded  them,  yet  those  mills  were  so  far  apart  that  in  stormy 
weather,  or  for  want  of  transportation,  the  pioneer  was  compelled  to  resort  to 
his  hominy-block  or  go  without  bread.  In  winter  the  mills  were  frozen  up 
nearly  all  the  time,  and  when  a  thaw  came  and  the  ice  broke,  if  the  mill  was 
not  swept  away  entirely  by  the  floods,  it  was  so  thronged  with  pioneers,  each 
with  his  sack  of  corn,  that  some  of  them  were  often  compelled  to  camp  out 
near  the  mill  and  wait  several  days  for  their  turn.  When  the  grist  was  ground, 
if  they  were  so  fortunate  as  to  possess  an  ox,  or  a  horse  or  mule  for  the  pur- 
pose of  transportation,  they  were  happy.  It  was  not  unusual  to  go  from  ten 
to  thirty  miles  to  mill,  through  the  pathless,  unbroken  forest,  and  to  be  be- 
nighted on  the  journey  and  chased  by  wolves. 

As  the  majority  of  the  pioneers  settled  in  the  vicinity  of  a  stream, 
mills  soon  made  their  appearance  in  every  settlement.  Those  mills,  however, 
were  very  primitive  affairs— mere  "corn -crackers" — ^but  they  were  a  big 
improvement  on  the  hominy-block.  They  merely  ground  the  corn;  the  pio- 
neer must  do  his  own  bolting.  The  meal  was  sifted  through  a  wire  sieve  by 
hand,  and  the  finest  used  for  bread.  A  road  cut  through  the  forest  to  the  mill 
and  a  wagon  for  hauling  the  grist  were  great  advantages.  The  latter,  espe- 
cially, was  often  a  seven  days'  wonder  to  the  children  of  a  settlement,  and  the 
happy  owner  of  one  often  did  for  years  the  milling  of  a  whole  neighborhood. 
About  once  a  month  this  good  neighbor,  who  was  in  exceptionally  good  cir- 
cumstances because  able  to  own  a  wagon,  would  go  around  through  the  settle- 
ment, gather  up  the  grists  and  take  them  to  mill,  often  spending  several  days 
in  the  operation,  and  never  think  of  charging  for  his  time  and  trouble. 

Only  the  commonest  goods  were  brought  into  the  country,  and  they  sold  at 
very  high  prices,  as  the  freightage  of  merchaiidise  from  the  East  was  high. 
Most  of  the  people  were  in  moderate  circumstances,  and  were  content  to  live 
in  a  very  cheap  way.  A  majority  had  to  depend  mainly  on  the  produce  of 
their  little  clearings,  which  consisted  to  a  large  extent  of  potatoes  and  corn. 
Mush,  corn  bread  and  potatoes  were  the  principal  food.  There  was  no  meat 
except  game,  and  often  this  had  to  be  eaten  without  salt.  Pork,  flour,  sugar 
and  other  groceries  sold  at  high  prices,  and  were  looked  upon  as  luxuries.  In 
1798-99  wheat  brought  $1.50  per  bushel;  flour  $4  per  100  pounds;  corn  $1 
per  bushel;  oats,  75  cents,  and  potatoes  65  cents.  Prices  were  still  higher  in 
1813-14,  corn  being  $2  per  bushel;  flour  $14  per  barrel;  oats,  $1,  and  salt 
from  $12  to  $20  per  barrel. 

The  writer  has  seen  an  old  cash  book  kept  at  one  of  the  frontier  stores  on 
the  Reserve  prior  to  1800,  wherein  the  accounts  with  the  whites  are  carried  out 
in  pounds,  shillings  and  pence,  while  those  with  the  Indians,  who  largely 
patronized  the  store,  wei-e  kept  in  dollars  and  cents.  To  judge  from  the  daily 
consumption  of  whisky,  it  was  pre-eminently  the  "  staflf  of  life,''  there  being 
scarcely  an  account  against  a  white  or  Indian,  male  or  female,  of  which  it 
does  not  form  a  large  proportion.  For  domestic  use,  it  cost  3  shillings  per 
quart,  while  a  gill  cost  4  cents.      Tobacco  was  sold  by  the  yard  at  4  cents  per 


yard;  common  sugar  at  33  cents,  and  loaf  at  50  cents  per  pound.  Chocolate 
was  in  more  general  use  than  tea  or  coffee,  and  sold  at  3  shillings  and  6  pence 
per  pound,  and  coffee  at  30  cents.  Homespun  linen  could  be  purchased  at  50 
cents  per  yard,  while  the  belle  aspiring  to  the  extravagance  of  calico,  could 
gratify  her  ambition  at  83  cents  per  yard,  with  the  addition  of  a  cotton  hand- 
kerchief at  from  70  cents  to  $1,  according  to  color  and  design.  Shoes  and 
boots  brought  from  $1  to  $3  per  pair,  but  moccasins  were  in  common  use  with 
both  white  men  and  Indians  at  3  shillings  and  9  pence,  though  from  9  pence 
to  two  shillings  higher  when  ornamented  with  the  colored  quills  of  the  porcu- 
pine. The  price  of  a  rifle  was  $25,  a  horse  $125,  and  a  yoke  of  oien  $80. 
Indians  usually  paid  their  bills  with  peltry  and  many  of  the  whites  did  like- 
wise. A  bear  skin  was  worth  from  $2  to  $5;  otter,  from  $3  to  $4;  beaver,  from 
$2  to  $3;  deer  from  75  to  90  cents;  marten  1  shilling  and  10  pence;  muskrat, 
1  shilling,  while  fisher,  wild  cat,  panther,  wolf,  fox,  raccoon,  mink  and  other 
skins  were  also  readily  purchased. 

Long  journeys  upon  foot  were  often  made  by  the  pioneers  to  obtain  the 
necessities  of  life  or  some  article,  then  a  luxury,  for  the  sick.  Hardships  were 
cheerfully  borne,  privations  stoutly  endured;  the  best  was  made  of  what  they 
had  by  the  pioneers  and  their  families,  and  they  toiled  patiently  on,  industri- 
ous and  frugal,  simple  in  their  tastes  and  pleasures,  happy  in  an  independ- 
ence, however  hardly  gained,  and  looking  forward  hopefully  to  a  future  of 
plenty  which  should  reward  them  for  the  toils  of  their  earliest  years,  and  a 
rest  from  the  struggle  amidst  the  benefits  gained  by  it.  Without  an  iron  will 
and  indomitable  resolution  they  could  never  have  accomplished  what  they  did. 
Their  heroism  deserves  the  highest  tribute  of  praise  that  can  be  awarded.  A 
writer  in  one  of  the  local  papers  says: 

"  Eighty  years  ago  not  a  pound  of  coal  or  a  cubic  foot  of  illuminating  gas 
had  been  burned  in  the  country.  All  the  cooking  and  warming  in  town  as 
well  as  in  the  country  were  done  by  the  aid  of  a  fire  kindled  on  the  brick 
hearth  or  in  the  brick  ovens.  Pine  knots  or  tallow  candles  furnished  the  light 
for  the  long  winter  nights,  and  sanded  floors  supplied  the  place  of  rugs  and 
carpets.  The  water  used  for  household  purposes  was  drawn  from  deep  wells 
by  the  creaking  sweep.  No  form  of  pump  was  used  in  this  country,  so  far  as 
we  can  learn,  until  after  the  commencement  of  the  present  century.  There 
were  no  friction  matches  in  those  early  days,  by  the  aid  of  which  a  fire  could 
be  easily  kindled,  and  if  the  fire  went  out  upon  the  hearth  over  night,  and  the 
tinder  was  damp,  so  that  the  spark  would  not  catch,  the  alternative  remained 
of  wading  through  the  snow  a  mile  or  so  to  borrow  a  brand  from  a  neighbor. 
Only  one  room  in  any  house  was  warm,  unless  some  member  of  the  family  was 
ill,  in  all  the  rest  the  temperature  was  at  zero  during  many  nights  in  winter. 
The  men  and  women  undressed  and  went  to  their  beds  in  a  temperature  colder 
than  our  barns  and  woodsheds,  and  they  never  complained." 

Churches  and  schoolhouses  were  sparsely  scattered,  and  of  the  most  primi- 
tive character.  One  pastor  served  a  number  of  congi-egations,  and  salaries 
were  so  low  that  the  preachers  had  to  take  part  in  working  their  farms  to  pro- 
cure support  for  their  families.  The  people  went  to  religious  service  on  foot 
or  horseback,  and  the  children  often  walked  two  or  three  miles  through  the 
woods  to  school.  There  were  no  fires  in  the  churches  for  a  number  of  years. 
When  they  were  finally  introduced  they  were  at  first  built  in  holes  cut  in  the 
floors,  and  the  smoke  found  its  way  out  through  openings  in  the  roofs.  The 
seats  were  of  unsmoothed  slabs,  the  ends  and  centers  of  which  were  laid  upon 
blocks,  and  the  pulpits  were  little  better.  Worship  was  held  once  or  twice  a 
month,  consisting  usually  of  two  services,  one  in  the  forenoon  and  one  imme- 


diately  after  noon,  the  people  remaining  during  the  interval  and  spending  the 
time  in  social  intercourse.  It  is  much  to  be  feared  that  if  religious  worship 
were  attended  with  the  same  discomforts  now  as  it  was  eighty  to  ninety  years 
ago,  the  excuses  for  keeping  away  from  the  house  of  God  would  be  many  times 
multiplied.  Taken  altogether,  while  they  had  to  endure  many  privations  and 
hardships,  it  is  doubtful  whether  the  pioneers  of  any  part  of  America  were 
more  fortunate  in  their  selection  than  those  of  Portage  County.  Every  one 
of  the  settlers  agrees  in  saying  that  they  had  no  trouble  in  accommodating 
themselves  to  the  situation,  and  were,  as  a  rule,  both  men  and  women,  healthy, 
contented  and  happy. 

During  the  war  of  1812-15,  many  of  the  husbands  and  fathers  volunteered 
their  services  to  the  United  States,  and  others  were  drafted.  Women  and 
children  were  then  left  alone  in  many  an  isolated  log-cabin  in  northeastern 
Ohio,  and  there  were  several  intervals  of  unrest  and  anxiety.  It  was  feared 
by  many  that  the  Indians  might  take  advantage  of  the  absence  from  these  homes 
of  their  natural  defenders,  and  pillage  and  destroy  them.  The  dread  of  rob- 
bery and  murder  filled  many  a  mother's  heart,  but  happily  the  worst  fears  of 
the  kind  proved  to  be  groundless,  and  this  part  of  the  country  was  spared  any 
scenes  of  actual  violence. 

After  the  war  there  was  a  greater  feeling  of  security  than  ever  before;  a 
new  motive  was  given  to  immigration.  The  country  rapidly  filled  up  with  set- 
tlers, and  the  era  of  peace  and  prosperity  was  fairly  begun.  Progress  was 
slowly,  surely  made:  the  log-houses  became  more  numerous  in  the  clearings; 
the  forest  shrank  away  before  the  woodman's  ax;  frame  houses  began  to  appear. 
The  pioneers,  assured  of  safety,  laid  better  plans  for  the  future,  resorted  to 
new  industries,  enlarged  their  possessions,  and  improved  the  means  of  culti- 
vation. Stock  was  brought  in  from  the  South  and  East.  Every  settler  had 
his  horses,  oxen,  cattle,  sheep  and  hogs.  More  qommodious  structures  took 
the  places  of  the  old  ones;  the  large  double  log-cabin  of  hewed  logs  and  the 
still  handsomer  frame  dwelling  took  the  place  of  the  smaller  hut;  log  and 
frame  barns  were  built  for  the  protection  of  stock  and  the  housing  of  the  crops. 
Then  society  began  to  form  itself;  the  schoolhouse  and  the  church  appeared, 
and  the  advancement  was  noticeable  in  a  score  of  ways.  Still  there  remained 
a  vast  work  to  perform,  for  as  yet  only  a  beginning  had  been  made  in  the  West- 
ern woods.  The  brunt  of  the  struggle,  however,  was  past,  and  the  way  made 
in  the  wilderness  for  the  army  that  was  to  come. 

For  the  next  ten  years  succeeding  the  war  of  1812  wheat  was  from  25  to 
37^  cents  per  bushel,  and  other  products  in  proportion.  Merchandise  was  still 
very  high.  A  day's  labor  would  barely  pui'chase  a  yard  of  cotton,  while 
thirty -two  bushels  of  corn  are  known  to  have  been  exchanged,  by  one  of  the 
pioneers  of  Portage  County,  for  four  yards  of  fulled  cloth.  About  1813  John 
T.  Baldwin  and  David  Waller,  two  well  remembered  pioneers  of  Palmyra 
Township,  brought  the  first  load  of  salt  from  Cleveland  to  Portage  County. 
It  took  five  days  to  make  the  trip,  and  the  salt  wais  worth  when  delivered  $20 
per  barrel.  In  1816  corn  was  $2  per  bushel,  and  flour  SL4  per  barrel,  while 
hired  hands  received  but  25  cents  a  day.  In  1821  wheat  sold  in  Ravenna  for 
25  cents  per  bushel,  and  money  was  so  scarce  that  the  average  pioneer  was 
very  often  unable  to  raise  the  funds  to  pay  the  postage  on  an  occasional  letter, 
which  then  cost  25  cents.  Wheat  and  flour  were  hauled  to  Cleveland  with  ox 
teams,  and  exchanged  for  goods,  and,  as  the  roads  were  usually  in  a  terrible 
condition,  it  often  took  a  whole  week  to  make  the  round  trip.  Along  about 
this  period  Judge  Amzi  Atwater,  who  resided  in  the  northern  part  of  the 
county,    with  the   laudable  intention  of  encouraging  the  struggling  settlers, 


advertised  that  he  would  allow  50  cents  per  bushel  for  wheat  to  those  who 
had  purchased  or  would  purchase  land  of  him.  Taking  advantage  of  this 
liberal  ofifer,  they  would  buy  up  wheat  at  from  25  to  40  cents  and  turn  it  over 
to  Judge  Atwater  at  50  cents  per  bushel.  This  was  soon  regarded  by  the 
Judge  as  "sharp  practice,"  and  he  withdrew  his  offer.  The  usual  hotel 
charges  throughout  the  county  for  a  good  pioneer  dinner  was  12i^  cents,  a 
similar  amount  being  charged  for  four  quarts  of  oats  and  hay  for  the  guest's 
horse.  Very  little  change  occurred  in  prices  of  produce  or  goods  until  1825, 
when  the  commencement  of  work  on  the  Ohio  Canal  gave  an  impetus  to  every 
branch  of  trade. 

The  first  settlers  were  necessarily  exposed  to  many  dangers  and  privations, 
yet  as  a  rule  they  had  no  fears  of  starvation,  for  the  forest  was  alive  with 
game,  the  streams  abounded  in  fish  and  the  virgin  soil  yielded  bountifully. 
Upon  selecting  a  location,  the  pioneer  usually  began  at  once  to  open  a  clearing 
in  the  primitive  forest  and  prepare  a  piece  of  ground  for  tillage.  Thus  the 
foundation  of  the  present  agricultural  prosperity  was  laid  by  the  first  settlers 
of  the  county.  In  the  fall  of  1798  Abram  S.  Honey  planted  a  small  patch  of 
wheat  in  Mantua  Township, which  was  harvested  the  following  summer  by  his 
brother-in-law,  Kufus  Edwards,  who  owned  the  land.  This  was  the  first  crop 
raised  by  white  men  in  what  is  now  Portage  County,  In  June,  1799,  Elias 
Harmon  planted  some  potatoes  and  peas  in  the  Honey  clearing.  The  same  fall 
Lewis  Ely  put  in  a  crop  of  wheat  in  Deertield  Township,  as  also  did  Lewis 
and  Horatio  Day,  amounting  in  all  to  some  eight  or  ten  acres.  The  next 
spring  Lewis  Ely,  Alva  Day,  John  Campbell  and  Joel  Thrall  each  planted  a 
small  jjatch  of  corn  in  Deerfield.  David  Daniels  cleared  up  a  piece  of  ground 
on  Lot  21,  Palmyra  Township,  in  the  summer  of  1799,  and  that  fall  sowed  it 
in  wheat,  which  he  harvested  the  following  summer.  After  threshing  the 
little  crop  with  his  flail,  he  cleaned  up  about  a  bushel  of  the  grain  and  carried 
it  on  his  back  to  a  mill  located  at  Poland,  Ohio,  about  thirty  miles  distant, 
had  it  ground  and  retui-ned  with  the  flour  to  his  cabin,  where  for  the  first  time 
since  settling  in  the  wilderness,  he  enjoyed  the  luxury  of  wheat  bread.  In 
the  spring  of  1800  Daniels  put  in  a  patch  of  corn;  Ethelbert  Baker  and 
William  Bacon  also  planted  little  fields  of  corn  in  Palmyra  the  same  spring. 
In  1799  Ebenezer  Sheldon  sent  out  Eben  Blair  fi'om  Connecticut  to  make  a 
settlement  on  his  land  in  Aurora  Township.  Blair  came  ria  Pittsburgh,  where 
he  bought  a  peck  of  grass  seed.  This  he  carried  on  his  back  from  Pittsburgh 
to  Sheldon's  land,  where  he  was  soon  after  joined  by  his  employer  and  Elias 
Harmon.  An  opening  was  soon  made  in  the  woods  and  sown  with  wheat 
brought  out  by  Sheldon,  the  gi'ass  seed  being  sown  in  the  same  field.  Benja- 
min Tappan  put  in  a  few  acres  of  corn  and  vegetables  in  1800,  on  his  land  in 
the  southeast  corner  of  Ravenna  Township,  and  the  same  fall  planted  the 
ground  in  wheat.  William  Chard  and  Conrad  Boosinger,  both  of  whom  settled 
in  Tappan's  neighborhood,  also  planted  small  fields  of  the  latter  cereal  in  the 
fall  of  1800.  Asa  Hall  made  the  first  clearing  in  Atwater  Township  early  in 
1800,  and  put  in  some  corn,  which  was  succeeded  the  next  fall  by  wheat.  In 
1801  or  1802  David  Baldwin  raised  a  corn  and  wheat  crop  in  Atwater  Town- 

The  first  corn  in  Rootstown  Township  was  planted  in  the  spring  of  1801, 
near  its  northeast  corner,  by  Ephraira  and  David  Root,  In  Nelson  Township 
a  crop  was  put  in  the  same  year  by  Delaun  and  Asahel  Mills.  In  1802  Royal 
Pease  sowed  a  few  acres  of  wheat  in  Suffield  Township.  In  April,  1803,  Ben- 
jamin Baldwin  settled  in  the  latter  township.  He  brought  from  Connecticut  a 
small  bag  of  apple  seeds,  which  he  planted  upon  his  arrival,  and  from  the  seed- 


lings  thus  obtained  has  come  the  much-prized  "  Baldwin  Apple."  The  first 
crop  of  wheat  planted  in  Randolph  Township  was  in  the  fall  of  1802,  by  Bela 
Hubbard,  on  the  northwest  corner  of  Lot  57,  the  first  land  cleared  in  the 
township.  He  had  to  go  to  David  Baldwin's  in  Atwater  Township  eight  miles 
away  to  borrow  a  plow,  which  he  carried  on  his  shoulders  to  his  little  clear- 
ing, and  returned  it  in  the  same  manner.  He  went  to  Christman's  Mill,  on 
Little  Beaver  Creek,  in  Pennsylvania,  for  seed,  the  round  trip  taking  about  a 
week,  but  so  rich  was  the  soil  that  he  raised  100  bushels  of  clean  wheat  from 
four  acres  of  ground.  He  and  Joseph  Harris  raised  in  partnership,  in  1805, 
1,500  bushels  of  corn.  In  1803  Elijah  Mason  cleared  twenty-two  acres  of  land 
on  Lot  23,  Hiram  Township,  which  he  planted  in  wheat  the  same  year.  John 
Campbell  raised  the  first  corn  in  Charlestown  Township  in  1805,  having 
removed  there  from  Deerfield,  where  he  first  settled.  In  1806  John  and 
George  Haymaker  sowed  a  small  patch  of  corn  on  the  bank  of  the  Cuyahoga, 
in  Franklin  Township,  and  the  next  year  built  a  grist-mill  on  that  stream. 
Joel  Baker  put  in  a  crop  of  corn  and  wheat  on  Lot  46,  Shalersville  Township, 
in  1806.  Eber  Abbott  planted  the  first  corn  and  wheat  in  Edinburg  Town- 
ship in  1811.  In  the  spring  of  that  year  Elijah  and  Oliver  Alford  aud  Eben- 
ezer  O.  and  Nathan  Messenger  cleared  small  pieces  of  ground  in  Windham 
Township,  which  they  planted  in  corn.  Wareham  Loomis  also  put  in  a  small 
patch,  and  the  same  fall  several  acres  of  wheat  were  sown  by  the  same  parties 
and  other  settlers  who  arrived  during  the  summer.  Benjamin  Higley,  one  of 
those  who  came  to  Windham  that  year,  planted  four  acres  of  wheat  on  Lot  36, 
and  from  three  bushels  sown  he  threshed  out  the  following  summer  about  100 
bushels,  which  fully  demonstrates  the  original  fertility  of  the  soil  of  this 

The  agricultural  implements  in  use  by  the  early  settlers  were  very  simple 
and  rude.  The  plow  was  made  entirely  of  wood,  except  the  share,  clevis  and 
draft-rods,  which  were  of  iron,  and  had  to  be  for  a  number  of  years  transported 
from  Pittsburgh,  as  there  were  no  iron  works  in  the  county  where  the  plow- 
shares could  be  foi'ged.  The  wooden  plow  was  a  very  awkward  implement, 
very  difficult  to  hold  and  h'ard  for  the  team  to  draw.  It  was,  however,  very 
generally  used  until  the  fall  of  1824,  when  the  cast-iron  plow,  patented  by 
Jethro  Wood,  was  first  brought  into  the  county,  though  it  did  not  gain  popular 
favor  very  rapidly.  The  farmer  looked  at  it  and  was  sure  it  would  break  the 
first  time  it  struck  a  stone  or  a  root,  and  then  how  should  he  replace  it?  The 
wooden  mould-board  would  not  break,  and  when  it  wore  out  he  could  take  his 
ax  and  hew  another  out  of  a  piece  of  a  tree.  In  no  one  agricultural  implement 
has  there  been  more  marked  improvement  than  in  the  plow — now  made  of  beau- 
tifully polished  cast-steel  except  the  beam  and  handles,  while  in  Canada  and 
some  portions  of  the  United  States  these,  too,  are  manufactured  of  iron.  The 
cast-steel  plow  of  the  present  manufacture,  in  its  several  sizes,  styles  and 
adaptations  to  the  various  soils  and  forms  of  land,  including  the  sulky  or  rid- 
ing plow  of  the  Western  prairies,  is  among  agricultural  implements  the  most 
perfect  m  use. 

The  pioneer  harrow  was  simply  the  fork  of  a  tree,  with  the  branches  on  one 
side  cut  close  and  on  the  other  left  about  a  foot  long  to  serve  the  purpose  of 
teeth.  In  some  instances  a  number  of  holes  were  bored  through  the  beams 
and  dry  wooden  pins  driven  into  them.  It  was  not  until  about  1825  that  iron 
or  steel  harrow  teeth  were  introduced  into  Portage  County. 

The  axes,  hoes,  shovels  and  picks  were  rude  and  clumsy,  and  of  inferior 
utility.  The  sickle  and  scythe  were  at  first  used  to  harvest  the  grain  and  hay, 
but  the  former  gave  way  early  to  the  cradle,  with  which  better  results  could  be 

-f^---^  •■  SoBii 



attained  with  less  labor.  The  scythe  and  cradle  have  been  replaced  by  the 
mower  and  reaper  to  a  great  extent,  though  both  are  still  used  considerably  in 
this  county. 

The  ordinary  wooden  flail  was  used  to  thresh  grain  until  about  1830,  when 
the  horse-power  thresher  was  largely  substituted.  The  method  of  cleaning 
the  chaflf  from  the  grain  by  the  early  settlers,  was  by  a  blanket  handled  by  two 
persons.  The  grain  and  the  chaff  were  placed  on  the  blanket,  which  was  then 
tossed  up  and  down,  the  wind  separating  a  certain  amount  of  the  chaff  from 
the  grain  during  the  operation.  Fanning-mills  were  introduced  about  1820, 
but  the  first  of  these  were  very  rude  and  little  better  than  the  primitive 
blanket.  Improvements  have  been  made  from  time  to  time  until  an  almost 
perfect  separator  is  now  connected  with  every  threshing  machine,  and  the  work 
of  ten  men  for  a  whole  season  is  done  more  completely  by  two  or  three  men, 
as  many  horses,  and  a  patent  separator,  in  one  day.  In  fact,  it  is  diflScult  to 
fix  limitations  upon  improvements  in  agricultural  machinery  within  the  last 
fifty  years.  It  is,  however,  safe  to  say  that  they  have  enabled  the  farmer  to 
accomplish  more  than  triple  the  amount  of  work  with  the  same  force  in  the 
same  time,  and  do  his  work  better  than  before.  It  has  been  stated  on  compe- 
tent aiithority  that  the  saving  effected  by  new  and  improved  implements  within 
the  last  twenty  years  has  been  not  less  than  one-half  on  all  kinds  of  farm  labor. 

The  greatest  triumphs  of  mechanical  skill  in  its  application  to  agriculture 
are  witnessed  in  the  plow,  planter,  reaper  and  separator,  as  well  as  in  many 
other  implements  adapted  to  the  tillage,  harvesting  and  subsequent  handling 
of  the  immense  crops  of  the  country.  The  rude  and  cumbrous  implements  of 
the  pioneers  have  been  superseded  by  improved  and  apparently  perfect  machin- 
ery of  all  classes,  so  that  the  calling  of  the  farmer  is  no  longer  synonymous 
with  laborious  toil,  but  is  in  many  ways  pleasant  recreation. 

The  farmers  of  Portage  County  are  not  behind  their  neighbors  in  the 
employment  of  improved  methods  and  in  the  use  of  the  best  machinery.  It  is 
true  that  in  many  cases  they  were  slow  to  change,  but  much  allowance  should 
be  made  for  surrounding  circumstances.  The  pioneers  had  to  contend  against 
innumerable  obstacles — with  the  wildness  of  nature,  the  jealous  hostility  of 
the  Indians,  the  immense  growth  of  timber,  the  depredations  of  wild  beasts 
and  the  annoyance  of  the  swarming  insect  life,  and  the  great  difficulty  and 
expense  of  procuring  seeds  and  farming  implements.  These  various  difficul- 
ties were  quite  sufficient  to  explain  the  slow  progress  made  in  the  first  years 
of  settlement.  Improvements  were  not  encouraged,  while  the  pioneers  gener- 
ally rejected  "book- farming"  as  unimportant  and  useless,  and  knew  little  of  the 
chemistry  of  agriculture.  The  farmer  who  ventured  to  make  experiments,  to 
stake  out  new  paths  of  practice,  or  to  adopt  new  modes  of  culture,  subjected 
himself  to  the  ridicule  of  the  whole  neighborhood.  For  many  years  the  same 
methods  of  farming  were  observed;  the  son  planted  as  many  acres  of  corn  or 
wheat  as  his  father  did,  and  in  the  same  phases  of  the  moon.  All  their  prac- 
tices were  merely  traditional;  but  within  the  last  thirty  years  most  remarkable 
changes  have  occurred  in  all  the  conditions  of  agriculture  in  this  country. 

It  is  not,  however,  in  grain-growing  that  Portage  County  has  made  its 
most  material  progress.  The  natural  adaptation  of  the  soil  to  grass,  and  the 
abundant  supply  of  pure  water,  early  attracted  the  attention  of  many  progress- 
ive farmers  to  the  raising  of  daii-y  stock,  and  the  manufacture  of  butter  and 
cheese,  which  industries  have  increased  until  they  are  among  the  leading  agri- 
cultural pursuits,  exceeding  most  other  branches  of  farming  in  their  impor- 
tance and  magnitude.  Milch  cows  were  brought  into  the  county  by  many  of 
the  very  earliest  settlers,  and  butter  and  cheese  began  to  be  manufactured  for 


market  in  a  small  way  during  the  first  quarter  of  the  present  century.  The 
business  grew  rapidly,  and  by  1850  nearly  2,000,000  pounds  of  cheese  were 
annually  produced  in  Portage  County,  and  butter  and  cheese  became  the  great 
staple  products  of  the  northern  half  of  the  county.  Their  regular  manufacture 
has  since  extended  into  several  of  ^the  southern  townships,  though  the  latter 
are  more  largely  devoted  to  grain-growing.  From  18G0  to  1864,  inclusive, 
Portage  County  ranked  among  the  counties  of  the  State  respectively  third  and 
fourth  in  its  production  of  cheese  and  butter,  annually  averaging  for  those  five 
years  2,933,471  pounds  of  cheese,  and  872,454  pounds  of  butter.  In  1866  it 
stood  second  in  both  products,  having  3,115,728  pounds  of  cheese,  and  833,988 
pounds  of  butter.  In  1870  it  was  third  and  fifth  respectively,  with  3,822,829 
pounds  of  cheese,  atid  916,376  pounds  of  butter.  In  1871  it  had  3,308,334 
pounds  of  cheese,  and  907,693  pounds  of  butter,  being  fourth  and  seventh 
respectively  in  those  products.  In  1872  it  produced  3,619,983  pounds  of 
cheese,  and  906,995  pounds  of  butter,  ranking  fifth  in  both.  In  1873  there 
were  turned  out  948,964  pounds  of  butter,  which  was  more  than  any  other 
county  in  the  State,  and  3,712,233  pounds  of  cheese,  or  the  fifth  in  that  article. 
In  1874  this  county's  butter  product  heads  the  list  with  1,062,043  pounds;  and 
it  was  the  fourth  cheese  producing  county,  with  3,483,965  pounds.  It  ranked 
respectively  third  and  sixth,  in  butter  and  cheese,  in  1875,  turning  out  955,- 
817  pounds  of  the  former,  and  3,404,286  pounds  of  the  latter  product.  In  1877 
Portage  manufactured  1,043,542  pounds  of  butter  and  3,767,783  pounds  of  cheese, 
ranking  fifth  in  each.  In  1878  its  butter  product  stood  fourth,  and  its  cheese 
product  second  in  the  list  of  counties,  reporting  981,425  pounds  of^the  former, 
and  4,170,339  pounds  of  the  latter.  Its  butter  product  dropped  in  1879  to 
the  ninth  place,  being  911,910  pounds,  while  its  cheese  production  also 
declined  to  less  than  one-half  of  the  amount  turned  out  the  previous  year,  or 
2,061,111  pounds,  making  Portage  fifth  in  the  list  of  cheese  counties  for  that 
year.  Little  change  occurred  for  the  succeeding  two  years,  the  county  stand- 
ing, in  1881,  seventh  in  its  butter  product,  with  962,970  pounds,  and  third  in 
its  cheese  product,  having  2,798,722  pounds.  In  1883  this  county  again  took 
the  first  place  in  its  butter  product,  standing  at  the  head  of  all  the  other  coun- 
ties, with  1,299,077  pounds,  while  its  2,645,115  pounds  of  cheese  gave  it  fifth 
place  in  the  list  of  cheese  producing  counties.  The  statistics  for  1884 
have  not  yet  (March  1885)  been  collected,  but  cheese  dealers  have  informed 
the  writer  that,  on  account  of  the  long  dry  season,  there  will  be  a  considerable 
falling  off  in  last  year's  product.  The  county  now  contains  about  thirty  cheese 
factories,  located  principally  in  the  three  northern  ranges  of  townships,  though 
there  are  several  in  the  southern  section  of  the  county. 

Horses,  cattle,  sheep  and  hogs  were  brought  into  the  county  by  the  first 
settlers,  though  they  were  usually  of  an  ordinary  breed,  and  very  little  was 
done  toward  the  improvement  of  farm  stock  for  fifty  years  after  the  first  set- 
tlement was  made.  Mrs.  Josiah  Ward  is  credited  with  owning  the  first  sheep 
in  Kandolph  Township,  which  were  brought  in  from  the  East  in  1805.  Her 
husband  having  no  money,  was  unable  to  purchase  them,  when  she  "took  out 
her  stocking  "  and  paid  cash  down  for  eight  or  ten  of  the  drove  standing  in 
front  of  their  little  cabin.  She  had  saved  up  this  money  ere  leaving  her  Con- 
necticut home,  to  be  used  for  that  very  purpose.  Timothy  Culver,  also  of 
Raudolph  Township,  bought  sixteen  sheep  about  the  same  time,  the  seller  to 
receive  as  many  more  at  a  certain  stated  date;  but  the  animals  were  kept  near 
the  creek,  and,  in  consequence  of  eating  a  poisonous  plant,  all  but  one  died 
the  first  winter.  In  1806  John  H.  Whittlesey  and  Jeremiah  Jones  located  in 
Atwater  Township,  and  soon  afterward  went  to  Georgetown,  Penn.,  and    pur- 


chased  twelve  sheep,  which  they  brought  to  their  homes  in  this  county.  On 
getting  the  sheep  here  they  discovered  that  they  had  no  place  to  keep  them 
safe  from  the  wolves  during  the  coming  night,  but  Mr.  Whittlesey  soon  got 
over  the  diflSculty  by  giving  the  animals  a  portion  of  his  own  kitchen.  About 
1807  John  Campbell  went  to  Pennsylvania  and  brought  in  some  stock  from 
that  State,  which  he  distributed  among  the  few  settlers  who  were  then  finan- 
cially able  to  purchase.  In  1813  Erastus  Carter  bought  six  sheep  of  John 
Campbell.  They  were  watched  through  the  daytime  by  his  son  Howard  Car- 
ter, who  is  yet  living,  and  shut  up  at  night  in  a  log-stable.  One  night  the 
sheep  were  left  out,  and  the  wolves  killed  every  one  of  them.  The  family 
picked  up  the  wool  scattered  around  the  remains,  carded  and  spun  it,  and  had 
it  woven  into  cloth,  from  which  young  Howard  was  made  his  first  pair  of  woolen 
pants  since  coming  to  Ohio  several  years  before,  buckskin  being  then  the  only 
material  generally  in  use  for  such  garments. 

The  swine  of  the  early  settlers,  compared  with  those  they  now  possess,  pre- 
sent a  very  wide  contrast,  for  whatever  the  breed  may  have  been  called,  run- 
ning wild,  as  was  customary,  the  special  breed  was  soon  lost  in  the  mixed  swine 
of  the  countiy.  They  were  long  and  slim,  long-snouted  and  long-legged,  with 
an  arched  back,  and  bristles  erect  from  the  back  of  the  head  to  the  tail,  slab- 
sided,  active  and  healthy;  the  "sapling-splitter"  or  "razor  back,"  as  he  was 
called,  was  ever  in  the  search  of  food,  and  quick  to  take  alarm.  He  was  capa 
ble  of  making  a  heavy  hog,  but  required  two  or  more  yeai's  to  mature,  and 
until  a  short  time  before  butchering  or  marketing  was  suffered  to  run  at  large, 
subsisting  mainly  as  a  forager,  and  in  the  fall  fattening  on  the  "mast"  of  the 
forest.  Yet  this  was  the  hog  for  a  new  country,  whose  nearest  and  best 
markets  were  Pittsburgh  and  Philadelphia,  to  which  points  they  were  driven 
on  foot.  Almost  every  farmer  raised  a  few  hogs  for  market,  which  were  gath- 
ered up  by  drovers  and  dealers  during  the  fall  and  winter  seasons.  In  no 
stock  of  the  farm  have  greater  changes  been  effected  than  in  the  hog.  From 
the  long-legged,  long-snouted,  slab-sided,  I'oach-backed,  tall,  long,  active, 
wild,  fierce  and  muscular,  it  has  been  bred  to  be  almost  as  square  as  a  store- 
box  and  quiet  as  a  sheep,  taking  on  250  pounds  of  flesh  in  ten  months.  They 
are  now  ranked  into  distinctive  breeds,  the  Berkshire  and  Chester  White  being 
more  extensively  bred  in  Portage  County  than  any  other  kind. 

The  following  statistics,  compiled  from  the  Secretary  of  State's  reports,  will 
furnish  a  good  idea  of  the  growth  of  the  stock  interests  in  Portage  County  for 
the  past  forty- five  years: 

In  1840  the  county  contained  4,205  horses  and  mules,  25,308  cattle,  37,240 
sheep  and  11,074  hogs.  In  1852,  4,795  horses,  27,526  cattle,  70,852  sheep, 
5,537  hogs  and  45  mules.  From  1858  to  1864  inclusive,  the  annual  average 
was  8,063  horses,  33,927  cattle,  86,692  sheep,  7,875  hogs  and  75  mules.  In 
1867  there  were  7,439  horses,  27,823  cattle,  125,545  sheep,  7,769  hogs  and  87 
mules.  In  1870,  6,373  horses,  26,696  cattle,  45,386  sheep,  6,421  hogs  and  56 
mules.  In  1873,  7,887  horses,  34,706  cattle,  44,365  sheep,  5,565  hogs  and  73 
mules.  In  1875,  8,359  horses,  26.466  cattle,  34,609  sheep,  4,648  hogs  and  75 
mules.  In  1878,  7,886  horses,  29,968  cattle,  41,394  sheep,  9,162  hogs  and  75 
mules.  In  1880,  7,557  horses,  28,702  cattle,  51,622  sheep,  6,895  hogs  and  74 
mules.  In  1884  there  were  reported  9,327  horses,  30,049  cattle,  13,746  sheep, 
29,185  hogs  and  267  mules.  The  greatest  noticeable  changes  will  be  found  in 
the  sheep  reports.  From  1840  to  1867  there  was  a  rapid  increase  of  this 
stock,  numbering  in  the  latter  year  125,545  head,  but  from  that  date  up  to 
1884  there  was  a  var34ng  decrease  in  numbers,  until  the  difi'erence  between 
1867  and  1884  was  over  100,000.     While  the  number  of   horses  and  cattle 


varied  a  few  thousand  back  and  forth,  there  were  more  than  three  times  as 
many  hogs  reported  in  1883  and  1884  as  in  any  other  year  since  1852.  This 
would  indicate  that  hogs  are  rapidly  taking  the  place  of  sheep  on  the  farms  of 
Portage  County,  the  raising  of  the  latter  having  been  almost  abandoned  because 
of  the  rapid  decline  in  the  price  of  wool,  caused  by  the  reduction  of  the  tariff 
on  that  staple. 

The  leading  staple  crops  of  Portage  County  are  wheat,  corn,  oats  and  hay. 
From  1850  to  1864  inclusive,  the  annual  average  wheat  and  corn  product  was, 
respectively,  149,084  and  358,094  Tjushels.  The  annual  average  product  of 
oats  from  1858  to  1864  inclusive,  was  240,233  bushels,  while  the  annual  hay 
product  for  the  same  period  was  44,711  tons.  In  1866  there  were  raised  in 
this  county  81,922  bushels  of  wheat,  456,667  bushels  of  corn,  309,381  bushels 
of  oats,  and  49,913  tons  of  hay  and  clover.  In  1870,  108,324  bushels  of 
wheat,  540,862  bushels  of  corn,  386,257  bushels  of  oats  and  44,612  tons  of 
hay  and  clover.  In  1875,  176,866  bushels  of  wheat,  736,112  bushels  of  corn, 
502,288  bushels  of  oats  and  33,914  tons  of  hay  and  clover.  In  1880,  460,894 
bushels  of  wheat,  450,822  bushels  of  corn,  429,735  bushels  of  oats  and  40,138 
tons  of  hay  and  clover.  In  1883  (the  last  report  published),  there  were  raised 
318,261  bushels  of  wheat,  159,751  bushels  of  corn  (shelled),  540,464  bushels  of 
oats  and  58,694  tons  of  hay  and  clover.  The  total  annual  average  wheat- pro- 
duct of  this  county  from  1878  to  1882  inclusive  was  352,251  bushels,  and  of 
corn  for  the  same  period,  568,503  bushels. 

The  official  valuation  of  property  in  Portage  County,  by  decades,  as 
returned  for  taxation,  will  illustrate  its  steady  increase  in  wealth  and  general 
prosperity.  In  1850  the  total  valuation  was  $5,926,727;  1860,  $10,854,965; 
1870,  $14,228,943;  1880,  $16,100,010. 

Portage  County  Agricultural  Societies. — There  has  been  no  agency  that 
has  accomplished  so  much  good  for  the  farming  intei'ests  of  this  county  as  the 
several  agricultural  societies  of  the  past  and  present.  Their  influence  began 
sixty  years  ago,  when,  on  the  9th  of  May,  1825,  the  "  Portage  County  Agricult- 
ural Society  "  was  organized  at  the  Court  House  in  Ravenna,  by  the  election 
of  the  following  officers:  Joshua  Woodward,  President;  Elias  Harmon,  First 
Yice-President;  Owen  Brown,  Second  Vice-President;  Frederick  Wadsworth, 
Corresponding  Secretary;  Samuel  D.  Harris,  Recording  Secretary;  William 
Coolman,  Jr.,  Treasurer;  Jonathan  Sloane,  Auditor.  The  society  held  its 
first  "  agricultural  fair  and  cattle  show "  at  Ravenna,  October  18,  1825. 
Among  the  premiums  we  find  one  of  $3,  awarded  to  Seth  Harmon  for  the  best 
crop  of  corn,  he  having  raised  one  hundred  bushels  and  one  peck  from  one 
acre  of  land.  Fairs  were  held  annually  by  the  society  at  Ravenna  until  1830, 
when,  although  officers  were  elected,  no  fair  was  held,  and  the  society  went 
out  of  existence. 

On  the  12th  of  March,  1839,  the  Ohio  Assembly  passed  "  an  act  to  author- 
ize and  encourage  the  establishment  of  agricultural  societies  in  the  several 
counties  in  this  State,  and  to  regulate  the  same;"  and  June  20,  1839,  in 
pursuance  of  notice  given  by  the  County  Auditor,  a  meeting  was  held  at  the 
Court  House  in  Ravenna,  for  the  purpose  of  organizing  an  agricultural  society 
in  Portage  County.  William  Wetmore  was  Chairman,  and  George  Y.  Wallace, 
Secretary.  It  was  resolved  by  the  meeting  to  call  the  new  institution  the 
"  Portage  County  Agricultural  Societj"-,"  and  the  following  officers  were  chosen : 
William  Wetmore,  President;  Lorin  Bigelow,  Vice-President;  George  Y. 
Wallace,  Recording  Secretary;  Joseph  Lyman,  Corresponding  Secretary;  John 
B.  Clark,  William  Milliken  and  Oliver  C.  Dickinson,  Executive  Committee. 
Their  first  fair  was  held  at  the  Court  House  October  20  and  21,  1841,  and  was 


quite  a  success.  Successful  fairs  were  also  held  at  the  same  place  in  1842, 
1843  and  1844,  but  on  account  of  a  long  drouth  and  consequent  failure  of 
crops,  none  was  held  in  1845. 

On  the  27th  of  February,  1846,  the  Legislature  passed  "  an  act  for  the 
encouragement  of  agriculture;"  and  April  1  and  2,  1846,  the  State  Board  of 
Agriculture  met  at  Columbus,  Ohio,  and  adopted  rules  and  regulations  for  the 
government  of  county  societies  legally  organized  in  harmony  with  this  law. 
A  meeting  was  held  at  the  Court  House  in  Ravenna,  for  the  purpose  of  organ- 
izing a  society  under  those  rules,  and  to  obtain  the  financial  assistance  from 
the  State,  which  the  act  promised.  Greenbury  Keen  was  called  to  the  chair, 
and  Richard  J.  Thompson  chosen  Secretary.  Enoch  Johnson,  Friend  Cook, 
Ralph  Day,  William  Stedman  and  Richard  J.  Thompson  were  appointed  a 
committee  to  prepare  a  constitution  for  the  society,  which  was  subsequently 
presented  and  adopted.  The  following  officers  were  then  elected:  Richard  J. 
Thompson,  President;  J.  G.  Foley,  Vice-President;  Archibald  Servoss,  Secre- 
tary; Enos  P.  Brainerd,  Treasurer;  William  Stedman,  Albert  Austin,  Charles 
Button,  William  Milliken  and  Daniel  W.  Jennings,  Executive  Committee. 
The  thanks  of  the  meeting  were  extended  to  Hon.  William  Wetmore,  of  the 
Senate,  and  to  Hons.  David  Mcintosh  and  Thomas  C.  Shreve,  of  the  House, 
for  their  exertions  to  procure  the  passage  of  the  law  for  the  promotion  of 
agriculture.  Gen.  Mcintosh  was  afterward  President  of  the  society  for  several 
years,  and  in  August,  1853,  he  and  wife  were  presented  by  the  society  with  a 
massive  silver  salver,  as  an  appropriate  token  of  its  appreciation  of  the  efforts 
both  had  always  put  forth  to  build  up  the  interests  of  the  institution. 

The  first  fair  of  the  new  society  was  held  at  Ravenna,  September  30  and 
October  1,  1846,  and  though  not  so  largely  attended  as  expected,  was  never- 
theless a  very  creditable  exhibition.  For  several  years  the  society  held  its 
annual  fairs  in  Ravenna,  with  no  permanent  grounds,  but  in  1859  it  rented 
about  twenty  acres  of  land  east  of  Ravenna,  and  immediately  south  of  the 
present  grounds,  which  were  fitted  up  and  used  for  twenty  years.  Prior  to 
1870  the  financial  affairs  of  the  society  had  reached  a  low  ebb,  and  the  fair  of 
1869  was  regarded  as  a  failure  in  every  sense.  Many  predicted  that  the  soci- 
ety would  go  under,  and  on  the  strength  of  this  feeling  an  agricultural  soci- 
ety was  organized  at  Garrettsville,  with  the  expectation  of  taking  its  place. 
But  in  the  meantime  Horace  Y.  Beebe,  and  a  few  other  enterprising  citizens, 
"  put  their  shoulders  to  the  wheel,"  raised  a  subscription,  paid  off  the  debts 
and  got  the  institution  once  more  "  upon  its  legs,"  where  it  has  since  remained. 
The  lease  of  the  old  grounds  expired  in  1879,  and  the  society  obtained  a 
twenty  years'  lease  of  its  present  grounds,  owned  and  previously  fitted  up  by 
the  Ravenna  Park  Association,  a  coterie  of  horsemen  who  held  annual  races 
and  thus  sought  to  encourage  the  growth  of  fine  horses.  On  these  grounds, 
which  contain  twenty-two  acres  and  a  good  half-mile  track,  the  agricultural 
society  has  erected  a  fine  exhibition  hall,  offices,  and  cattle  and  sheep  sheds, 
besides  having  the  right,  under  its  lease,  to  the  use  of  the  stables,  grand 
stand,  and  other  buildings  of  the  Park  Association,  with  exclusive  control  of 
the  grounds  during  the  fair.  It  is  generally  admitted  that  the  present  pros- 
perous condition  of  the  society  is  largely  due  to  the  efforts  of  Horace  Y. 
Beebe,  who  has  spared  neither  time  nor  labor  to  make  the  annual  fairs  a  suc- 
cess, and  whose  energy  and  business  capacity,  together  with  the  earnest  sup- 
port of  the  Board  and  friends  of  the  society,  have  enabled  him  to  accomplish 
what  few  men  would  have  cared  to  undertake.  Besides  the  annual  fair  at  Gar- 
rettsville, several  other  townships  in  the  county  hold  township  fairs,  and  while 
any  effort  in  that  direction  is  laudable,  it  is,  nevertheless,  a  positive  fact  that 


those  township  societies  detract  much  from  the  interest  and  usefulness  of  the 
county  organization,  and  had,  therefore,  better  be  abolished.  The  membership 
of  the  society  is  now  about  600,  and  its  present  officers  are  N.  S.  Olin,  Presi- 
dent; R.  S.  Elkins,  Vice-President;  E.  R.  Wait,  Treasurer;  K.  S.  Wing,  Sec- 
retary; C.  C.  Gardner,  William  Bergen,  S  N.  Andrews,  W.  W.  Stevens,  Simon 
Perkins,  A.  N.  Farr,  Franklin  Willard,  F.  R.  Coit,  H.  O.  Hine  and  Smith 
Sanford,  Directors. 

The  Portage  County  Horticultural  Society  was  organized  in  February,  1879, 
with  fourteen  charter  members,  most  of  whom  were  men  who  put  their  hands 
to  the  plow  without  any  intention  of  looking  back.  The  society  has  experi- 
enced unexpected  prosperity,  and  contains  at  this  writing  250  members,  who 
pay  an  annual  fee  of  $1.  It  has  never  failed  to  hold  its  regular  monthly 
meeting,  and  the  attendance  has  always  been  encouraging  and  generally  large. 
The  social  feature  of  the  meetings,  which  are  held  at  the  residences  of  the 
members,  is  good  remuneration  for  the  expense  and  trouble  incurred,  while  the 
interest  stimulated  in  horticulture  has  been  rapidly  increasing,  as  is  plainly 
evident  throughout  the  county  in  improved  yards,  orchards  and  gardens. 
The  present  officers  of  the  society  are  Horace  Y,  Beebe,  President;  R.  S. 
Elkins,  Vice-President;  Andrew  W^illson,  Secretary;  C.  L.  Bartlett,  Treasurer; 
C.  C.  Gardner,  A.  J.  Jennings  and  John  Meharg,  Executive  Committee.  The 
same  President  and  Seci'etary  have  held  those  positions  since  the  organization 
of  the  society.  The  officers  and  members  of  the  Agricultural  Society  recog- 
nize the  aid  of  the  Horticultural  Society  in  reviving  the  county  fairs,  and 
making  them  truly  successful.  In  many  ways  the  society  is  exerting  a  whole- 
some influence.  The  membei's  feel  that  what  has  been  done  is  but  a  prophecy 
of  what  may  be  accomplished,  and  are  generally  anxious  to  make  the  Bociety 
as  helpful  to  the  purpose  of  its  organization  as  is  possible. 


First  Military  Organization  on  the  Western  Reserve— War  of  1812  and 
First  Call  for  Volunteers— John  Harmon's  Recollections  of  the  War 
— Second  Regiment  Ohio  Militia— Capt.  John  Campbell's  Company  of 
Volunteers— Camp  on  Barrel  Run— March  to  Cleveland,  and  Embark- 
ation for  Lower  Sandusky— Description  OF  the  Trip  and  Arrival — 
Incidents  at  the  Fort,  and  Sickness  Among  the  Soldiers  —Departure 
FOR  THE  River  Raisin— Hull's  Surrender— Start  for  Malden,  and 
Arrival  at  that  Point— Paroled  Prisoners— Return  Home  of  the 
Sick  and  Paroled  Men— Deaths  in  the  Command— Alarm  Caused  by  the 
Surrender— Regimental  Record  of  the  Second  Regiment— Response  to 
A  Call  for  Troops  in  1813— Mr.  Harmon's  Concluding  Remarks— The 
Inhabitants  of  Portage  County  Fear  an  Indian  Invasion— Distressing 
Incident  of  the  War— Re-organization  of  the  Militia— Muster  Days 
AND  Sham  Fights. 

THE  first  military  organization  on  the  Western  Reserve  was  effected  under 
the  general  militia  law  of  Ohio,  passed  at  the  Legislative  session  of 
1803-04.  The  State  was  divided  into  four  divisions,  the  Fourth  Division 
embracing  the  whole  eastern  portion  thereof,  from  Lake  Erie  to  the  Ohio 
Rivei'.  Elijah  Wadsworth  was  elected  Major-General  of  that  division,  and 
issued  his  first  order  April  6,  1804.  His  division  was  divided  into  two 
brigades  and  five  regiments.     The  First  Brigade,  Ohio  militia,  comprised  the 


male  inhabitants  of  naiiitary  age  inside  the  limits  of  Trumbull  County,  which 
then  embraced  the  territory  now  in  Portage,  as  well  as  all  the  country  west  of  this 
county  to  the  western  limits  of  the  Reserve.  The  brigade  was  divided  into  the 
First  and  Second  Regiments,  the  north  line  of  Township  5  being  the  dividing  line 
between  those  forming  the  respective  commands.  The  Second  Regiment  was 
divided  into  two  battalions,  and  the  Second  Battalion  into  four  companies. 

The  First  Company  included  the  present  townships  of  Berlin  and  Milton, 
Mahoning  County,  and  Deerfield,  Palmyra,  Paris,  Charlestown,  Edinburg 
and  Atwater  Townships,  Portage  County,  and  was  called  the  "  Deerfield  Com- 
pany." The  Second  Company  included  the  present  townships  of  Randolph, 
Rootstown,  Ravenna,  Franklin,  Brimtield  and  Suffield,  and  was  called  th© 
"  Rootstown  Company. "  The  Third  Company  included  the  present  town- 
ships of  Windham,  Nelson,  Garrettsville,  Hiram,  Freedom,  Shalersville,  Man- 
tua, Aurora  and  Streetsboro,  and  the  Fourth  Company  included  all  of  the 
remaining  territory  of  the  Reserve  west  of  the  present  western  boundary  of 
Portage  County.  On  the  7th  of  May,  1804,  elections  for  ofi&cers  were  held  in 
the  four  companies,  resulting  as  follows:  First  Company — Henry  Rogers, 
Captain;  John  Diver,  Lieutenant;  John  Campbell,  Ensign.  Second  Company 
— Thomas  Wright,  Captain;  William  Chard,  Lieutenant;  David  Morse, 
Ensign.  Third  Company — Ezra  Wyatt,  Captain;  Gersham  Judson,  Lieuten- 
ant; Thomas  Kennedy,  Ensign.  Fourth  Company — John  Oviatt,  Captain;. 
Aaron  Norton,  Lieutenant;  James  Walker,  Ensign.  On  the  24th  of  Septem- 
ber following,  Henry  Rogers,  Captain  of  the  First  Company,  was  elected 
Major  of  the  battalion.  The  names  of  most  of  the  officers  of  those  four  com- 
panies will  be  recognized  as  those  of  leading  pioneers  of  Portage  County,  but 
as  elections  were  held  annually  their  places  were  subsequently  tilled  by  others 
who  are  equally  well  remembered  as  prominent  early  settlers  of  this  section  of 
the  State. 

With  the  rapid  growth  of  population  and  the  organization  of  new  counties, 
among  which  was  Portage,  in  1808,  some  changes  occurred  in  the  boundaries 
of  the  territory  from  which  the  Second  Regiment  was  originally  raised,  while 
the  number  of  brigades  in  the  Fourth  Division  was  increased  to  four,  and 
other  regiments  formed  from  the  additional  brigades.  A  few  years  passed  by 
and  the  sound  wisdom  of  these  militia  organizations  became  very  apparent. 
The  war  of  1812  was  brought  on  by  the  arrogant  claims  of  the  English  Gov- 
ernment, and  the  citizen  soldiers  of  Portage  County  were  among  the  first  to 
respond  to  their  country's  call.  In  response  to  a  call  from  Gov.  Meigs  for  sol- 
diers to  defend  the  frontier,  Capt.  John  Campbell's  company  of  riflemen  was 
organized  May  23,  1812,  of  volunteers  from  the  Second  Regiment,  Ohio  Mili- 
tia. Soon  after  the  declaration  of  war,  June  18,  1812,  this  company  received 
orders  to  meet  at  the  house  of  Capt.  Campbell,  July  1,  and  on  that  day 
pitched  their  tents  of  homespun  linen  sheets  on  the  bank  of  Barrel  Run,  near 
the  home  of  Capt.  Campbell.  The  command  had  no  uniforms,  but  each  man 
was  "armed  to  the  teeth"  with  a  rifle,  a  tomahawk,  and  a  large  knife.  It  soon 
afterward  started  for  the  frontier,  and  was  encamped  on  the  River  Raisin  at 
the  time  of  Hull's  surrender,  and  therefore  included  in  that  disgraceful  and 
cowardly  capitulation. 

Fifteen  years  ago  the  late  John  Harmon,  Esq.,  of  Ravenna,  who  was  a 
member  of  this  company,  compiled  an  article  entitled  "Recollections  of  the 
War  of  1812,  "  which  was  published  in  the  Portage  County  Democrat,  March 
2,  3870.  The  writer  deems  this  historic  sketch  of  sufficient  importance  to  be 
worthy  of  preservation  in  the  pages  of  this  work.  Mr.  Harmon  rendered 
the  present  and  future  generations  a  great  service  by  rescuing  from  obliviou 


and  placing  on  record  important  events  connected  with  a  very  interesting 
period  of  our  national  history;  but  more  especially  are  these  reminiscences 
invaluable  to  the  people  of  Portage  County.  None  of  the  pioneers  of  this 
county  who  participated  in  the  war  of  1812  are  left  to  tell  the  story  of  their 
trials  and  hardships,  and  without  these  reminiscences,  so  fortunately  prepared 
by  Mr.  Harmon,  it  would  be  utterly  impossible  at  this  late  day  to  obtain  any 
reliable  data  treating  of  military  events  in  this  portion  of  Ohio  during  that 
momentous  period. 

Recollections  of  the  War  of  1812.  * — In  compliance  with  the  expressed  wishes 
of  some  valued  friends,  and  more  particularly  at  the  recent  solicitation  of  the 
officers  of  the  Western  Reserve  Historical  Society,  I  will  endeavor  to  write  for 
publication  some  account  of  the  campaign  of  Capt.  Campbell's  Volunteer 
Company  of  1812,  of  which  I  was  an  humble  member.  To  aid  me  in  this  task, 
I  have  a  brief  diary  journal,  kept  at  that  time,  and  a  brief  record  of  our 
organization  in  the  book  of  Regimental  Records  of  the  regiment  from  which 
our  company  was  raised.  But  for  much  that  I  have  to  record,  I  have  to  rely 
on  memory,  and  I  fear  my  task,  performed  at  my  time  of  life,  and  after  a  lapse 
of  more  than  iifty-seven  years  from  the  time  the  events  occurred  of  which  I 
write,  will  not  be  acceptably  recorded.  But,  as  few  of  the  actors  of  those  days 
now  remain  to  tell  their  tales,  and  fewer  still  are  disposed  to  transmit  our  his- 
tory to  the  present  young,  and  the  coming  generations,  I  have  been  induced  to 
commence  the  task,  and  present  the  record  first  to  the  people  of  the  locality 
where  our  company  was  best  known,  and  through  the  medium  of  the  local  press 
of  Portage  County. 

In  1812  the  able  bodied  white  male  inhabitants  between  the  ages  of  eight- 
een and  forty-five,  residing  on  the  three  eastern  tiers  of  townships  of  the 
present  county  of  Portage,  and  subject  to  military  duty,  constituted  the  Sec- 
ond Regiment,  Fourth  Brigade,  Fourth  Division,  Ohio  Militia,  and  were  com- 
manded by  Col.  John  Campbell,  then  residing  on  the  corners  of  the  four  town- 
ships of  Ravenna,  Rootstown,  Charlestown  and  Edinburg,  a  place  since  called 
Campbellsport.  This  regiment  consisted  of  two  battalions,  of  four  militia 
companies  each.  Those  residing  in  Mantua  constituted  the  First  Company, 
First  Battalion.  Nelson,  Hiram  and  Windham  constituted  the  Second  Com- 
pany, First  Battalion.  Ravenna  and  Charlestown  constituted  the  Third  Com- 
pany, First  Battalion.  Shalersville  constituted  the  Fourth  Company,  First 
Battalion.  Deerfield  and  Atwater  constituted  the  First  Company,  Second 
Battalion.  Rootstown  constituted  the  Second  Company,  Second  Battalion. 
Palmyra  and  Paris  constituted  the  Third  Company,  Second  Battalion.  Ran- 
dolph constituted  the  Fourth  Company,  Second  Battalion. 

It  appears  that  about  the  middle  of  May,  1812,  Col.  Campbell  received 
orders  from  Got.  Meigs  to  raise  soldiers  from  his  regiment  for  the  defense  of 
the  frontiers;  but  the  number  to  be  raised  does  not  appear  on  record,  but,  on 
the  Military  Record  Book,  page  26,  we  find  the  following: 

"  At  a  special  meeting  of  the  officers  of  the  Second  Regiment,  Fourth  Bri- 
gade, Fourth  Division,  of  Ohio  Militia,  holden  at  Ravenna,  the  19th  day  of 
May,  1812,  for  raising  soldiers. 

"Officers  present. — Col.  John  Campbell,  Maj.  Stephen  Mason,  Maj.  Thad- 
deus  Andrews. 

"  Captains. — Alva  Day,  Joshua  Woodward,  Asa  K.  Burroughs. 

"Lieut.  Isaac  Merriman,  for  Capt.  Timothy  Culver's  Company. 

"Lieut.  John  Redden,  for  Capt,  Delaun  Mills'  Company. 

*  By  the  late' John  Harmon,  Esq. 


"Commandants  of  Companies. — Lieut,  Oliver  Snow,  Lieut.  John  Caris, 
Lieut.  Charles  Gilbert. 

"Ordered — That  the  regiment  meet  at  Ravenna  on  the  23d  inst.,  at  10 
o'clock  A.  M. 

"Orders  given  to  Majors  Mason  and  Andrews." 

Then  follow  on  the  record  several  pages  of  "class  rolls"  of  the  regi- 
ment, with  the  name  and  class,  as  it  purports,  of  every  man  of  the  regiment 
subject  to  military  duty,  comprising  all  able-bodied  white  males  between  the 
ages  of  eighteen  and  forty-five,  residing  in  the  bounds  of  the  regiment,  which 
we  omit  at  present.  At  this  time,  and  previous,  Robert  Campbell  was  Clerk 
of  the  regiment,  but  much  of  the  records  appear  to  be  in  the  hand- writing  of 
the  late  Col.  Stephen  Mason.  On  page  30  is  recorded  the  appointment  of 
Charles  Curtis,  of  Charlestown,  as  Quartermaster  of  the  regiment,  and  Fred- 
erick Wadsworth,  Clerk  of  the  regiment,  dated  26th  of  May,  1812.  I  find  no 
record  of  the  mustering  of  the  regiment  "to  raise  soldiers,"  and  here  have  to 
tax  my  memory. 

According  to  orders  the  regiment  met  at  Ravenna,  May  23,  and  on  being 
paraded  in  line,  the  Colonel  informed  us  that  he  had  orders  from  the  Governor 
to  raise  soldiers  from  this  regiment  for  the  defense  of  the  frontiers,  and  that 
unless  a  company  of  fifty  would  volunteer,  a  draft  must  be  made;  that  if 
fifty  men  would  volunteer,  they  could  by  law  elect  their  own  officers;  but 
if  a  draft  had  to  be  made,  they  would  be  commanded  probably  by  strangers. 
He  advised  us  to  volunteer,  and  urged  in  a  short  speech,  and  Charles  Shaler, 
then  a  young  lawyer,  since  Judge  Shaler,  of  Pittsburgh,  a  son  of  Nathaniel 
Shaler,  of  Middletown,  Conn.,  the  proprietor  of  Shalersville,  being  present, 
entertained  us  with  a  patriotic  speech. 

It  was  then  announced,  as  the  musicians  stepped  out  before  the  regiment, 
that  all  who  would  volunteer  should  step  forward  and  follow  the  music. 
Immediately  volunteers  began  to  show  themselves,  stepping  to  the  front,  to 
the  music  of  the  drum  and  fife.  Among  the  first  were  Col  Campbell,  Capt. 
Alva  Day,  Lieut.  John  Caris  and  Samuel  Redfield.  The  last-mentioned  was,  I 
believe,  the  first  to  follow  the  music.  The  little  squad  thus  formed  continued 
passing  to  and  fro  before  the  regiment,  its  members  constantly  accumulating, 
until  it  was  announced  that  the  fifty  were  on  hand,  and  one  more.  During 
the  suspense  before  the  required  number  were  on  hand,  some  one  announced 
that  he  saw  a  star  in  our  horizon,  a  star  of  promise,  may  be,  on  which  George 
Grant  Redden,  of  Hiram,  declared  if  he  could  see  the  star,  he  too 
would  volunteer,  and  on  it  being  shown  him  he  immediately  volunteered. 
As  it  was  a  clear  day,  numbers  of  us  saw  the  bright  star.  We  were 
then  marched  to  the  south  side  of  the  Court  House,  and  our  names  were  taken 
by  one  of  our  number,  Ralph  Buckland — father  of  Hon.  Ralph  P.  Buckland, 
late  a  member  of  Congress  from  the  Ninth  (Fremont)  District,  Ohio.  This 
done,  we  were  fully  engaged,  and  it  was  debated  when  and  where  we  would 
elect  our  company  officers,  and  determined  to  proceed  immediately,  same 
evening,  at  the  house  of  William  Tappan,  which  we  accordingly  did.  That 
house,  one  of  the  first  frame  structures  built  in  Ravenna,  was  burned  a  few 
years  ago.  It  stood  on  the  ground  now  occupied  by  the  Phoenix  Block,  north- 
east of  the  Court  House  square.  The  same  room  where  the  votes  were  taken 
was  afterward  used  as  a  printing  office,  from  which,  in  1834-35,  The  Western 
Courier  was  issued. 

The  following  "roll  of  volunteers"  and  list-  of  officers  elected  is  copied 
from  Regimental  Records,  page  30,  the  record  found  in  the  hand-writing  of 
the  late  Frederick  Wadsworth,  Esq.     I  add  only  their  respective  residences: 



John  Campbell,  Captain,  Campbellsport. 

Alva  Day,  Lieutenant,  Deerfield. 

John  Caris,  Second  Lieutenant,  Rootstown. 

Aaron  Weston,  Ensign,  Kavenna. 

Lewis  Day,  Jr.,  First  Sergeant,  Deertield. 

John  Wright,  Second  Sergeant,  Rootstown. 

Ralph  Buckland,  Third  Sergeant,  Ravenna. 

Lewis  Ely,  Jr.,  Fourth  Sergeant,  Deeriield. 

Charles  (Jhittenden,  First  Corporal,  Atwater. 

John  Harmon,  Second  Corporal,  Mantua. 

Daniel  Burroughs,  Jr.,  Third  Corporal,  Shalersville. 

John  Turner,  Fourth  Corporal,  Rootstown. 

David  Jones,  Drummer,  Randolph. 

James  Magill,  Fifer,  Palmyra. 


William  Tappan,  Ravenna;  Samuel  Redfield,  Randolph;  David  Moore, 
Ravenna;  Samuel  C.  Thompson,  Ravenna;  Benjamin  Bradley,  Shalersville; 
William  Thornton,  Randolph;  John  McManus,  Ravenna;  William  Ward, 
Ravenna;  Harry  O.  Pettibone,  Mantua;  Enos  Harmon,  Mantua;  Chauncey 
Newberry,  Rootstown;  Robert  Campbell,  Ravenna;  John  Sabin,  Randolph; 
Samuel  Bartlett,  Rootstown;  Samuel  Tuthill,  Rootstown;  John  Shaler,  Charles- 
town;  Ebenezer  Tibballs,  Deerfield;  John  Smith,  Mantua;  Peter  Tyrrel, 
Ravenna;  Philip  AVillyard,  Rootstown;  Zacheas  Harmon,  Mantua;  Ebenezer 
Buckley,  Palmyra;  Abiram  Amidon,  Rootstown;  James  Ray,  Jr.,  Mantua; 
Mark  Moore,  Mantua;  George  G.  Redden,  Hiram;  Job  Thompson,  Jr.,  Shalers- 
ville; William  Coolman,  Jr.,  Shalersville;  Henry  Root,  Rootstown;  Samuel 
Hartle,  Rootstown;  Oliver  Newberry,  Rootstown;  Joseph  Fisher,  Palmyra; 
Charles  Carter,  Ravenna;  Enoch  Judson,  Mantua;  Nathan  Chapman,  Roots- 
town;  Joel  Underwood,  Palmyra;  Charles  Reed,  Deerfield;  Seth  Day,  Deer- 

Seth  Day  did  not  at  first  volunteer,  but  joined  us  at  the  rendezvous,  and 
acted  as  Clerk  for  the  oflScers  until  taken  sick. 

Of  the  foregoing  roll,  Charles  Reed,  William  Tappan,  John  Sabin,  John 
Shaler,  Nathan  Chapman,  Enoch  Judson,  Joseph  Fisher,  Oliver  Newberry, 
Benjamin  Bradley  and  Samuel  Bartlett,  and  I  think  also  Ebenezer  Tibballs, 
failed  to  march  to  the  frontier,  but  several  furnished  substitutes,  to- wit:  Miles 
Allen  took  the  place  of  John  Sabin;  William  Maxfield  took  the  place  of  Nathan 
Chapman;  Nathan  Cross  that  of  Joseph  Fisher;  John  Jacobs  that  of  Enoch 
Judson;  John  Williams  that  of  Charles  Reed;  Richard  Redden  that  of  Ben- 
jamin Bradley.  Thomas  Rowley  substituted  for  some  one,  and  several  shirked 
the  service.  Joseph  DeW^olf  and  David  Thompson,  of  Ravenna,  I  believe, 
both  volunteered,  but  their  names  do  not  appear  on  the  record.  It  was  said 
that  DeWolf,  being  the  only  physician  in  Ravenna,  could  not  be  spared  from 
the  place,  and  Thompson  was  detained  by  the  condition  of  his  family.  Our 
company  being  thus  organized,  we  were  permitted  to  return  to  our  homes,  with 
the  injunction  oto  meet  again  on  short  notice  and  to  bring  with  us  arms  and 
equipments  for  a  war  campaign;  and  we  were  urged  to  provide  ourselves  with 
rifles  if  possible. 

On  the  18th  of  June  following.  Congress  passed  a  formal  declaration  of 
war  against  Great  Britain,  and  soon  thereafter  we  were  severally  summoned  to 
meet  on  the  1st  day  of  July,  at  the  residence  of  Capt.  Campbell.     The  com- 


pany  accordingly  met  at  the  time  and  place  appointed,  established  some  tem- 
porary camps  on  the  bottom  lands  of  the  Mahoning  (west  branch)  and  Barrel 
Run,  near  to  Capt.  Campbell's  residence,  in  a  pleasant  natural  bower.  All,  I 
believe,  came  provided  with  arms  and  equipments,  and  most  of  us  brought 
rifles.  We  there  found,  besides  our  officers,  a  committee  appointed  to  appraise 
our  equipments,  as  by  law  provided,  that  if  lost  we  could  claim  and  obtain 
their  value  from  the  Government.  On  July  2  our  arms  were  appraised;  and 
I  find  on  record  a  detailed  statement  of  each  article  furnished  by  each  person, 
set  to  their  respective  names,  and  signed  by  the  appraisers,  Charles  Curtis, 
Erastus  Carter  and  Stephen  Mason.  The  details  I  omit — the  whole  amount 
of  the  appraisement  as  stated  is  $912.66.  We  had  to  wait  some  days  for 
supplies  to  be  collected  by  our  Captain,  who  had  been  authorized,  as  he  said, 
by  the  Governor  for  that  purpose.  On  July  4  our  Captain  gave  the  company 
an  Independence  dinner,  which  was  well  relished  and  appreciated;  and  in  the 
evening   we  enjoyed  ourselves  at  our  camps,  and  some  patriotic  soncrs  were 

On  July  5,  which  was  Sunday,  there  was  something  of  an  assemblage  of 
people,  from  the  neighboring  townships,  at  our  rendezvous  in  the  bower,  and 
the  two  old  Congregational  pioneer  preachers.  Rev.  John  Seward  (then  of 
Aurora,  now  a  venerable  resident  of  Tallmadge),  and  Rev.  Harvey  Coe,  of 
Trumbull  County — I  believe  Hartford — and  I  believe  since  deceased,  addi'essed 
us  and  the  people  in  the  grove  very  appropriately,  and  prayed  with  us.  On 
the  next  day,  July  6,  in  the  afternoon,  the  company  commenced  their  march 
for  the  frontier;  camped  the  first  night  at  Roundy's  Inn,  near  the  southwest 
corner  of  Ravenna,  on  the  old  State  Road  from  Youngstown  to  the  Portage- 
That  road  is  said  to  be  the  first  road  laid  out  on  the  Western  Reserve.  The 
second  day's  march  was  only  to  Hudson,  and  camped  near  the  residence  of 
David  Hudson,  Esq.  At  the  end  of  the  third  day's  march  they  encamped  at 
the  crossing  of  Tinker's  Creek  near  the  west  line  of  Bedford.  The  tavern 
there  was,  I  believe,  kept  by  Noble.  On  the  fourth  day  from  our  rendez- 
vous, July  9,  the  company  arrived  at  "  the  City,"  as  the  site  of  the  present 
city  of  Cleveland  was  then  called  to  distinguish  it  from  "the  settlement** 
part  of  Cleveland  township,  which  then  included  what  is  now  Newburg. 
Those  of  us  whose  homes  were  in  Mantua  had  by  permission  passed  that  way 
to  Cleveland,  and  were  there  in  waiting  when  the  company  arrived,  having 
made  quicker  time,  not  being  impeded  by  the  slow  pi'ogress  of  the  baggage 
wagons.  Cleveland  was  then  but  a  small  place.  I  had  been  somewhat  famil- 
iar there  and  can  recollect  of  scarce  a  dozen  families  resident  there  at  that 
time.  There  were  two  taverns,  Carter's  and  Wallace's,  and  I  believe  three 
stores.  Perry's,  Murray's,  and  Hanchett's,  which  last  mentioned,  Hanchett's, 
was  nearly  sold  out.  The  company  encamped  on  the  north  side  of  Superior 
Street,  among  the  bushes,  east  of  Perry's  store. 

The  next  day,  July  10,  afternoon,  we  embarked  on  board  of  two  boats  for 
Lower  Sandusky,  as  the  stockade  was  then  called,  where  is  now  the  flourish- 
ing little  city  of  Fremont.  One  of  our  boats  was  known  as  Babcock's,  the 
other  as  Smith's.  The  first  day  we  made  only  seven  miles,  to  the  mouth  of 
Rocky  River.  From  our  encampment  on  the  beach,  east  side  of  the  mouth  of 
Rocky  River,  we  embarked  early  the  following  morning  and  arrived  at  the 
mouth  of  Black  River  about  noon,  and  the  lake  being  rough,  we  encamped 
with  our  boats  in  a  safe  harbor  on  the  west  side,  in  the  mouth  of  Black  River, 
near  the  residence  of  John  S.  Reid,  whom  I  had  known,  when  a  few  years  pre- 
vious he  had  resided  some  three  or  four  miles  from  Cleveland  on  the  Newburg 
road.     Embarked  early,  July  12,  and  arrived  about  the  middle  of  the  day  at 


Sandusky  Bay,  and  stopped  at  a  blockhouse  on  the  north  side  of  the  bay,  on 
the  Peninsula  of  Danbury.  I  understood  it  was  called  Maj.  Parson's  block- 
house, and  I  think  it  was  nearly  opposite  to  where  I  have  since  found  San- 
dusk}^  City.  We  saw  no  settlement  here,  and  saw  no  settler  that  I  remember 
but  one,  Capt.  Charles  Parker,  who  came  from  the  south  side  of  the  bay, 
where  I  understood  he  resided.  He  was  the  same  who  was  a  pioneer  in 
Geauga  (now  Lake  County),  at  Mentor.  I  had  known  him  there  when  he  was 
acting  Sheriff  of  Geauga  County  in  1806  and  after.  We  had  met  and  passed 
a  sail  boat  at  a  distance,  just  before  entering  the  bay,  which  was  I  think  the 
only  craft  we  had  seen  on  our  way.  Those  of  us  on  Babcock's  boat  spent  the 
night  in  the  block-house;  Smith's  boat  anchored  out  in  the  bay. 

On  the  13th  of  July  both  boats  proceeded  up  the  bay,  and  up  the  Sandusky 
River,  slowly,  passing  some  prairies  but  no  white  settlement,  and  moving  so 
slowly  that  some  of  us  walked  along  shore  part  of  the  way.  While  walking 
we  passed  over  the  stubble  of  Indian  corn  patches  of  the  previous  years,  and 
on  the  way  fell  in  with  a  venerable  and  good-looking  old  Indian,  known 
to  some  of  our  comrades  as  Sagaman,  an  old  chief  who  had  in  previous  years 
had  his  camps  in  Portage  County,  and  had  been  a  good  kind  neighbor  to  the 
first  settlers  of  Mantua,  in  the  winter  of  1799-1800,  and  helped  them  to  meat, 
at  fair  rates  of  exchange,  for  pumpkins  and  other  small  articles.  He  was  still 
friendly,  while  Wilson  and  other  Indians  had  left  us  and  gone  to  the  British. 
We  arrived  at  Widow  Whittaker's,  on  the  west  side,  where  we  found  an 
improved  farm,  surrounded  by  timber  land.  This  was  said  to  be  three  miles 
by  water  from  our  destination,  the  fort  or  stockade  of  Lower  Sandusky,  as  it 
was  called. 

On  July  14  we  proceeded  up  the  river,  and  landed  on  the  west  side  below 
the  rapids,  about  half  a  mile  from  the  fort,  marched  up,  and  were  admitted 
into  the  garrison,  where  we  found  Capt.  Norton,  with  his  company  of  about 
fifty  volunteer  riflemen  from  Delaware  County,  Ohio.  The  fort  was  a  stockade 
of  log  pickets,  cut  about  twelve  feet,  and  set  upright,  with  a  shallow  ditch 
enclosing  about  an  acre.  Within  were  one  or  two  small  houses,  in  one  of  which 
was  kept  the  United  States  store  and  Indian  agency.  The  Indian  Agent,  Mr. 
Varnum,  was  said  to  be  a  son  of  Hon.  Joseph  B.  Varnum,  of  Massachusetts, 
Speaker  of  the  United  States  House  of  Representatives  from  1807  to  1811. 
We  found  him  a  very  pleasant,  gentlemanly  young  man.  The  fort  was  some 
thirty  rods  west  of  the  river,  at  the  rapids,  and  on  the  nearest  high  land  was 
an  open  country  with  a  few  scattering  oak  trees  about  it  on  the  north,  and  oak 
woods  at  the  west,  a  large  cornfield  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  on  the  bottom 
land,  and  a  log-house  on  the  first  rise  of  land  east  of  the  cornfield.  That  was 
all  the  farming  or  farm  houses  I  saw  in  that  region. 

The  barracks  or  soldiers'  quarters,  we  found  not  very  commodious,  but 
sufficient  for  summer  quarters.  They  consisted  of  bark  or  puncheon,  laid  up 
with  two  sides  seven  or  eight  feet  long  and  five  or  six  feet  wide,  backed 
against  the  pickets  and  open  in  front  where  we  built  our  cooking  fires,  having 
to  go  in  the  woods  and  pack  the  little  fuel  we  used.  We  had  only  the  ground 
to  lie  on  till  we  peeled  some  oak  bark  for  a  floor,  and  for  our Jjeds  we  stripped 
foliage  from  the  hazel  bushes,  as  straw  was  not  to  be  had. 

We  saw  very  few  persons  here,  whites  or  Indians,  except  soldiers.  Our 
business  was,  besides  our  daily  parade,  to  dig  a  well  and  build  block-houses. 
We  had  got  a  well  dug  about  twenty  feet  deep,  when  an  Indian  was  brought 
there  charged  with  horse  stealing,  I  believe,  from  Mrs.  Whittaker.  He  was 
confined  some  days  in  our  dry  well,  until  a  council  was  held  with  the  Indians 
of  Seneca  Town,  an  Indian   village  several  miles  up  the  river,  at  which  they 


agreed  to  furnish  a  good  dressed  beef  for  the  garrison,  and  our  prisoner  was 
released,  and  a  fine,  fat,  well-dressed  heifer  was  furnished  for  the  gari'ison, 
and  the  horse  was  restored.  The  fresh  beef  was  well  relished  indeed,  after  we 
had  been  kept  on  salt  pork  and  bread  so  long,  but  so  many  of  the  garrison 
were  soon  taken  sick,  that  we  suspected  the  Indians  of  poisoning  the  beef. 

We  had  not  yet  finished  our  well  or  our  block-house,  when  on  July  21,  orders 
were  received  from  Gen.  Hull,  at  Detroit,  by  our  Captain,  to  march  there  with 
his  and  Rowland's  companies  to  join  the  main  army.  With  these  orders, 
sent  by  a  Capt.  Curtis,  came  also  some  money  to  our  Captain  to  pay  for  the 
supplies  he  had  obtained  for  us;  but  no  money  came  to  pay  soldiers.  On  July 
22  Capt.  Campbell  started  for  Portage  County,  to  pay  those  from  whom 
he  had  obtained  our  supplies,  leaving  orders  to  make  all  ready  while  he  should 
be  absent.  On  July  29  Capt.  Campbell  returned,  accompanied  by  Capt. 
Rowland,  of  the  Columbiana  County  Volunteers,  who  came  in  advance  of  his 
company.  About  the  same  time  nearly  all  the  garrison  were  taken  sick  with' 
diarrhoea  and  fever.  Some  were  entirely  disabled,  others  were  just  able  to 
walk  about.  Capt,  Rowland's  company  arrived  at  the  fort  by  water, 
August  2,  and  on  the  4th  both  companies  started  by  water  down  the  river, 
halted  at  Mrs.  Whittaker's,  stayed  over  night,  and  remained  next  day  to  attend 
to  the  sick,  of  whom  Capt.  Campbell  and  Seth  Day  were  very  low. 

On  the  6th  Rowland's  company  started  by  land  up  the  lake  toward 
Detroit,  and  with  them  Lieut.  Caris,  who  was  detailed  with  a  squad  of  eleven 
men  to  guard  the  post  and  stores  at  Maumee.  Of  that  squad  I  only  remem- 
ber the  names  of  Sergt.  Ely,  Samuel  Hartle,  Henry  Root  and  John  Jacobs. 
The  last  mentioned  died  there  some  time  after.  The  same  day  Capt.  Camp- 
bell, with  the  remainder  of  our  company,  went  by  boat  down  the  river  and  bay 
from  Mrs.  Whittaker's  to  the  Parson's  Block-house,  on  Danbury  Peninsula. 
Next  day,  August  7,  Capt.  Campbell  and  Seth  Day,  being  much  worse  than 
others  of  the  company,  were  aided  on  board  John  Wallace's  boat,  and  started 
down  the  lake  for  Cleveland,  with  one  attendant,  Philip  Willyard;  and  Lieut. 
Day  and  the  balance  of  the  company  started  west  for  the  River  Raisin, 
on  Babcock's  boat,  the  same  boat  we  came  up  the  lake  on  near  a  month  before. 

From  Sandusky  Bay  we  sailed  day  and  night  till  we  arrived  near  the  mouth 
of  the  River  Raisin  on  the  forenoon  of  August  7,  where  we  were  hindered 
some  hours  among  the  bulrushes  and  flags,  hunting  the  channel,  which  we 
finally  found,  and  proceeded  up  the  river  a  mile  or  two,  and  arrived  at  the 
settlement  of  Frenchtown  about  noon,  stopping  at  Godfrey's  unfinished  frame 
house  on  our  right  bank,  about  noon.  There  we  stayed  over  night,  and  next 
day  on  an  alarm  of  "Indians  coming"  we  moved  on  to  the  garrison,  about  a 
half  mile  up  the  river,  on  same  side.  Next  day,  August  10,  we  moved  to  other 
quarters,  some  of  the  sick  to  a  vacant  log-house  on  the  south  side  of  the  river, 
others  to  Capt.  Downing's,  a  kind,  good  family,  nearly  a  mile  above  the  gar- 
rison. There  Lieut.  Day.  Sergt.  Day,  Sergt.  Wright  and  John  McManus, 
who  were  our  sickest,  with  Ensign  Weston  and  John  Smith  to  attend 
them,  were  located  with  that  kind  family.  The  log- house  Avhere  the 
most  of  us  were  located  stood  alone,  had  a  good  spring  and  timber  near,  and 
not  far  from  the  river,  and  I  think  it  was  there,  some  forty  years  after,  I  found 
the  flourishing  city  of  Monroe,  Mich.  We  remained  at  those  places  nearly 
all  sick,  but  most  of  us  able  to  walk  about,  until  an  alarm  of  Indians  coming 
to  attack  us,  on  August  14,  when,  though  the  alarm  proved  a  false  one, 
all  who  occupied  the  log- house  went  to  the  garrison,  where  we  stayed  till 
Monday,  the  17th,  when  Capt.  Elliott,  a  British  officer,  and  a  few  attend- 
ants, white  and  red,  with  a  flag  of  truce,  came  to  the  garrison,  demanding  its 


surrender,  hrin':^ing  also  the  articles  of  capitulation  of  Detroit  and  the  army 
under  Geu  Hull,  including  also  all  who  were  on  the  way  to  join  his  army, 
which  included  our  garrison.  This,  so  unexpected,  was  indeed  a  damper  on 
ns  all,  as  the  last  we  had  heard  of  Hull's  army  was  by  a  hand-bill  announcing 
his  successful  invasion  of  Canada.  The  flag  party  was  placed  under  guard, 
and  a  council  of  officers  met  in  a  marquee  of  the  Chillicothe  Cavalry  Company, 
a  company  just  arrived,  escorting  a  drove  of  beef  cattle  for  Detroit,  said  to  be 
about  one  hundred  head,  for  the  army.  The  marquee  was  outside  the  front 
gate  of  the  garrison,  and  I  was  enabled  to  observe  the  discussions  of  the 
officers,  of  whom  Capt.  Brush,  of  the  Chillicothe  Cavalry,  was  or  assumed 
to  be  the  senior  officer,  and  of  the  others  I  only  knew  Lieut.  Creighton, 
of  the  same  company.  Maj.  Anderson,  of  the  local  militia  of  the  Territory, 
was  near  by  on  horseback,  a  good-looking  officer,  but  I  understood  was  not 
admitted  in  council  because  of  suspicions  that  the  local  militia  were  not  loyal 
to  our  side. 

The  genuineness  of  the  articles  of  capitulation  brought  by  Elliott  were 
questioned,  and,  as  I  understood,  declared  to  be  a  forgery  and  a  trick  to  trap 
us.  Finally  Elliott  and  attendants  were  imprisoned  in  the  block- house, 
near  the  front  gate  of  the  garrison,  where  we  left  them  when  we  retired  for 
the  night.  That  night  we  slept  at  Lacelle's  Mill,  just  above  the  garrison, 
and  the  next  morning  we  found  that  the  Chillicothe  Cavalry  and  their  drove 
of  beeves  were  gone,  and  a  number  of  our  company  also  had  gone  homeward. 
I  had  left  my  rifle  standing  in  the  corner  of  the  mill  that  night,  but  in  the 
morning  it  was  gone  also,  and  some  of  my  comrades  suggested  that  it  was 
taken  by  one  who  would  carry  it  back  to  Portage  County  and  keep  it  from  the 
British.  The  same  night  Sergt.  John  Wright  died  at  Captain  Downing's, 
and  was  buried  by  his  friends  before  morning.  Our  company  was  thus  reduced 
to  twenty-six  men.  The  policy  of  leaving  for  home  that  night  had  been  dis- 
cussed, and  those  who  felt  able  and  were  so  disposed,  had  gone;  but  some 
were  not  able  to  go,  and  some  who  went  were  scarcely  able  to  endure  such  a 
journey.  For  my  part,  I  thought  there  was  more  danger  in  running  away 
than  in  quietly  submitting  to  be  prisoners  of  war.  Besides  I  was  feeble,  and 
liad  two  older  brothers  along  not  as  able  as  myself — one  of  them  very  feeble. 
We  therefore  submitted  to  the  yoke,  and  stayed  where  we  were,  till  August 
25.  Meantime  the  Indians  circulated  freely  among  us,  but  olfered  no  violence 
to  any  that  I  heard  of.  One,  however,  meeting  our  comrade,  John  Smith,  on 
the  road,  demanded  his  watch,  which  he  was  obliged  to  give  up.  The  watch 
belonged  to  Lieut.  Day,  whom  Smith  was  attending  in  his  sickness,  at 
Capt.  Downing's.  One  Indian  also  stopped  at  Downing's,  where  our  sickest 
friends  were,  and  demanded  of  Lieut.  Day  his  nice  castor  hat,  and  took 
it,  leaving  one  that  had  been  a  poorer  fur  hat,  but  now,  being  wet  with  rain, 
was  slouched  down  like  a  rag. 

August  25  a  British  officer,  whom  we  understood  to  be  Capt.  Elliott, 
and  a  squad  of  soldiers,  came  and  took  twenty  one  of  us  in  a  small  open  row 
boat  to  Maiden,  and,  at  the  same  time,  gave  permission  and  a  pass  to  live 
others,  who  had  made  arrangements  to  go  by  boat  to  Cleveland.  Those  five 
were  Job  Thompson,  Jr.,  Daniel  Burroughs,  Jr.,  William  Coolman,  Jr.,  William 
Maxfield  and  Ebenezer  Buckley,  who,  with  a  Mr.  Lewis,  and  another  man  and 
their  families,  had  prepared  a  boat,  and  all  started  down  the  river  and  lake 
the  same  day  we  went  to  Fort  Maiden.  Of  their  journey  down  the  lake  to 
Cleveland,  friend  William  Coolman,  not  long  before  his  death,  gave  me  a 
brief  narrative,  which  will  be  referred  to  hereafter.  Since  his  death,  which 
occurred  December  15,  18C9,  there  are,  as  I  believe,  but  two  of  our  company 
left — Samuel  liedtield  and  the  writer  of  this  article. 


Our  small  company  of  twenty-one,  under  our  British  conductors,  arrived 
at  Maiden,  from  Raisin,  the  same  day,  August  25,  and  were  quartered  at  a 
large  and  long  building,  on  a  beautiful  open  plain  and  lawn,  just  above  and 
near  the  fort  and  town.  This  was  the  Indian  Council  House,  and  there 
appeared  to  be  thousands  of  Indians  swarming  in  the  open  plain  back  of  the 
town  and  fort,  and  in  plain  sight  of  the  Council  House;  and  with  us  were  quar- 
tered fifty-one  other  prisoners,  mostly  sick  and  wounded  of  Hull's  army.  There 
our  beloved  Orderly  Sergeant,  Lewis  Day,  Jr.,  breathed  his  last,  on  the  morn- 
ing after  our  arrival,  August  26.  August  27  our  little  company,  now  reduced 
to  twenty,  were  permitted  to  remove  from  the  crowded  Council  House  and 
occupy  a  small  house  in  town,  back  of  the  fort,  where  we  spent  the  few 
remaining  days  of  our  captivity  in  Canada.  While  there  we  were  guarded  by 
a  British  sentinel  at  the  door,  as  we  had  been  also  at  the  Council  House,  but 
one  day  the  sentinel  permitted  an  Indian  to  enter  among  us,  who  drew  his 
knife  and  dashed  about,  apparently  to  frighten  us,  jabbering  his  Indian  in  a 
threatening  tone,  striking  some,  but  not  extremely  hard.  Zacheas  Harmon, 
who  was  so  feeble  as  to  be  hardly  able  to  walk,  Mr.  Indian  struck  in  the  breast, 
and  knocked  down  with  his  right  hand,  in  which  he  held  his  knife,  but  with 
the  hilt  of  the  knife.  He  was  soon  induced  by  the  sentinel  to  leave.  We  saw 
there  several  Indians  well  known  in  Portage  County.  I  saw  two  in  town  I 
had  known  in  Mantua.  One  of  them  was  well  known  throughout  that  country 
— George  Vincent,  alias  Wilson. 

August  29,  about  sunset,  we  were  embarked  on  board  a  small  vessel,  to  be 
paroled  and  sent  home,  in  company  with  about  thirty  other  prisoners,  the 
most  of  whom  were  sick.  On  the  dock,  as  we  were  going  on  board,  were 
some  officers,  apparently  superintending  our  departure,  among  whom  was  one 
large  and  noble  looking  man,  apparently  fifty  years  old,  whom  we  were  told 
was  Gen.  Brock.  Another,  a  short,  thick- set  fellow,  of  not  a  very  pre- 
possessing appearance,  and  apparently  past  sixty,  was  said  to  be  Simon  Girty, 
noted  in  Indian  war  annals.  We  were  rejoiced  to  be  thus  starting  for  home, 
and  dropped  down  to  the  mouth  of  Detroit  River  the  same  night,  about  two  and 
a  half  miles  distant.  The  next  day  we  sailed  slowly  with  light  wind,  and  after 
midnight,  anchored  just  west  of  Put-in-Bay  Islands.  Next  day,  August 
31,  a  light  wind  wafted  us  on  to  near  the  mouth  of  Black  River  before  day  on 
the  1st  of  September,  and  we  landed  in  Cleveland  about  sunset  of  the  same  day. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  those  twenty  paroled  prisoners  of  our 
company,  according  to  my  recollection,  who  landed  at  Cleveland  September  1, 
from  the  cartel  sloop:  » 

Lieut.  Alva  Day.  Harry  O.  Pettibone. 

Ensign  Aaron  Weston.  Zacheas  Harmon. 

Sergt.  Ralph  Buckland.  Enos  Harmon. 

Corporal  Charles  Chittenden.  John  Harmon. 

Corporal  John  Turner.  Mark  Moore. 

John  Smith.  Samuel  C.  Thompson. 

Samuel  Redfield.  Samuel  Tuthill. 

George  G.  Redden.  James  Magi  11. 

Richard  Redden.  David  Jones. 

James  Ray,  Jr.  John  McManus. 

Of  the  five  comrades  we  parted  with  August  25,  at  Frenchtown,  on  River 
Raisin,  as  we  started  for  Maiden,  friend  Coolman  informed  me,  the  last  con- 
versation I  had  with  him,  which  was  December  4,  1869,  that  they  started  the 
same  day,  in  a  boat  provided  by  a  Mr.  Lewis  and  another  man,  whose  name 
I  forget,  who  were  going  down  with  their  families  to  escape  from  the  British 


and  Indians;  that  Job  Thompson,  Jr.,  the  only  well  one  of  the  Shalers- 
ville  boys,  engaged  a  passage  with  them  for  himself  and  comrades,  and 
helped  to  get  the  boat  out  of  the  mud,  where  it  had  been  left  abandoned, 
assisted  to  caulk  and  otherwise  repair  it;  that  as  they  were  about  to  start,  Eben- 
ezer  Buckley  and  William  Maxfield  joined  them;  that  they  were  much  hindered 
by  adverse  winds  on  their  passage  down  the  lake;  and  finally,  at  some  place 
near  Black  River,  out  of  patience  with  waiting  for  weather,  they  left  the  boat 
and  endeavored  to  walk,  but  made  poor  headway,  when  Mr.  Mygatt,  of  Can- 
field,  on  horseback,  overtook  them,  and  carried  a  message  to  friends  at  Cleve 
land,  who,  with  wagons,  met  and  helped  them  into  Cleveland,  where  they  ar- 
rived, he  believed,  September  2.  Of  the  journey  home  of  Lieut.  Caris  and  his 
squad  from  Maumee,  where  they  were  stationed,  and  of  those  who  left  French- 
town  on  foot,  I  have  but  little  information,  except  that  in  going  through  the 
Maumee  Swamp,  as  that  part  of  Wood  and  Sandusky  Counties  between  Fort 
Meigs  and  Sandusky  River  was  then  called,  they,  at  times,  nearly  gave  out, 
and  one,  I  think  it  was  William  Ward,  sat  down  at  one  time  and  gave  up,  till 
a  comrade  came  along  and  cheered  him  up  and  helped  him  along.  Many  of 
us  then  had  chills  or  ague.  We  were  from  thirty  to  fifty-five  miles  from  oar 
homes,  but  on  arriving  in  Cleveland  we  found  friends,  a  very  convenient  circum- 
stance, as  we  discovered  for  those  who  had  no  money,  as  was  the  case  with  all  or 
nearly  all  of  us,  except  Lieut.  Day,  and  I  think  he  had  not  much.  Landlord 
Carter  entertained  all  free  who  called  there.  Cousin  Hiram  Hanchett  and  his 
kind  wife— since  Mrs.  Andrew  Johnson,  of  Boston — entertained  the  Harmons, 
W.  W.  Williams  entertained  the  Reddens,  and  Samuel  S.  Baldwin  fed  some 
of  us;  but  all  got  started  home  soon  except  Lieut.  Alva  Day,  Seth  Day  and 
John  McManus,  who  were  very  dangerously  sick,  and,  I  have  understood,  were 
kindly  nursed  and  cared  for  at  Judge  Kingsbury's,  till  they  were  able  to  be 
conveyed  home.  John  Turner,  too,  was  very  sick,  and  died  on  the  way,  per- 
haps at  Judge  Kingsbury's,  but  I  believe  I  heard  it  said  he  died  at  Noble's, 
at  the  crossing  of  Tinker's  Creek.  Of  the  fifty  or  fifty- one  who  went  out  so 
cheerily  together,  eleven  or  twelve  died  within  the  year,  among  whom,  besides 
those  before  mentioned,  were,  I  believe.  Ensign  Weston,  Sergt.  Buckiand,  Cor- 
poral Chittenden,  Mark  Mooi-e,  Robert  Campbell,  David  Jones,  and  Samuel 

Of  the  rest,  as  far  as  I  know,  but  one  is  left  now,  besides  the  writer  of 
this.  That  one,  Mr.  Redfield,  aids  me  with  some  information  for  this  com- 
munication, and  though  about  seventy- six  years  of  age,  appears  likely  to 
endure  yet  many  years,  though  he  has  lately  lost  the  partner  of  his  youth, 
and  of  more  than  half  a  century.  Although  we  were  so  unfortunate  as  to  con- 
tract sickness,  and  did  little  toward  the  defense  of  the  frontier,  it  was  because 
we  had  no  opportunity,  having  been  captured  before  we  saw  the  enemy.  We 
at  least  showed  a  willingness  to  do  our  duty  in  defense  of  our  homes.  We 
had  a  very  good  and  pleasant  set  of  officers,  and  there  formed  friendships  for 
each  other  which  have  been  pleasant  and  enduring.  For  our  services  and  our 
arms  we  were  paid  after  years  of  waiting. 

Having  brought  to  a  close  my  narrative  of  the  volunteering,  organizing, 
adventures,  inglorious  capture,  parole  and  return  home  of  our  company — the 
first  military  company  ever  raised  in  this  part  of  Ohio — I  propose  now  to 
refer  to  subsequent  events,  in  which  the  people  of  Portage  and  adjoining 
counties  were  concerned.  The  capture  of  the  army  under  Gen.  Hull  caused  much 
alarm,  as  might  be  expected,  in  all  this  region,  as  our  population  was  then  very 
sparse,  and  all  the  region  west  of  the  Cuyahoga  River  and  the  Portage  Path  was 
then  very  sparsely  settled.      Not  an  organized  township  or  military  company 






existed  in  Medina  County,  which  then  extended  west  to  Huron  Count j,  and 
was  attached  to  Portage  for  civil  purposes,  the  whole  region  sixty-eight  and  a 
half  miles  in  length  from  east  to  west,  and  twenty  to  twenty-five  in  breadth, 
contained  in  1810  less  than  3,000  people,  and  had  not  increased  very 
much  in  two  short  years.  All  that  region  west  of  the  eighth  range  included 
then  a  single  battalion,  commanded  by  Major,  afterward  Col.  George  Darrow. 
The  townships  of  Streetsboro,  Brimfield,  Freedom  and  Edinburg  were  then 
unsettled.  Franklin  and  Suffield  had  but  very  few  settlers.  So  that  the 
thinly  settled  counties  of  Portage  and  Cuyahoga  were  then  the  frontier,  and  it 
is  not  strange  that  the  people  of  this  region  were  much  alarmed  on  learning 
the  news  of  the  capture  of  all  the  army  raised  for  our  defense,  all  between  ue 
and  the  victorious  British  and  their  savage  allies.  The  record  I  copy  from 
our  Regimental  Record  book  will  show  something  of  the  alarm  felt  by  our 
home  friends  on  the  first  news  of  the  disastrous  capture  of  our  army. 

Copy  of  records  of  the  Second  Regiment,  Fourth  Brigade,  Fourth  Division, 
Ohio  Militia.     [Begun  on  page  33.] 

Orders  were  received  from  Brig. -Gen.  Paine,  dated  July  6,  1812,  requiring 
thirty  men  to  be  drafted,  including  one  Lieutenant,  one  Sergeant,  one  Corporal  and  one 
Fifer,  to  hold  themselves  in  readiness  to  march  at  a  moment's  warning,  and  orders  were 
issued  by  the  Major, commanding,  to  the  commissioned  officers,  to  meet  at  Ravenna,  the 
14th  of  July,  1812,  and  on  said  14th  day  of  July  the  following  officers  met  at  the  Court 
House  in  Ravenna:  Stephen  Mason,  Major-Commandant;  Major,  Thaddeus  Andrews; 
Captains,  Delaun  Mills,  Joshua  Woodward,  Asa  K.  Burroughs  and  Timothy  Culver; 
Lieutenants,  Oliver  Snow,  John  Redding,  Linus  Carter,  Hezekiah  Hine,  Charles  Gilbert, 
Ira  Morse  and  Isaac  Merriman;  Ensigns,  Asa  Truesdale,  Hezekiah  Kooney,  Anson  Bee- 
man,  Frederick  Caris,  Jr.;  and  agreeable  to  said  officers'  request,  the  Major  commanding 
ordered  that  there  be  drafted  from  the  First  Company,  First  Battalion,  three  men;  from 
the  Second  Company,  First  Battalion,  one  Lieutenant  and  three  men;  from  the  Third 
Company,  First  Battalion,  four  men;  from  the  Fourth  Company,  First  Battalion,  one  man; 
from  the  First  Company, Second  Battalion,  one  Fifer  and  six  men;  from  the  Second  Com- 
pany, Second  Battalion,  one  Sergeant  and  three  men;  from  the  Third  Company,  Second 
Battalion,  one  Corporal  and  four  men;  from  the  Fourth  Company,  Second  Battalion,  two 
men,  with  orders  to  hold  themselves  in  readiness  to  march  at  a  moment's  warning,  armed 
and  equipped  as  the  law  directs. 

Then  follows  the  dates  of  several  commissions,  to- wit:  Hezekiah  Nooney's 
commission  as  Captain;  and  Ella  Willmot's  commission  as  Ensign  of  First  Com- 
pany, First  Battalion,  both  dated  June  18,  1812.  Also  Linus  Curtis'  com- 
mission of  Second  Company,  First  Battalion, dated  August  28,  1812. 

An  express  from  Gen.  Paine,  dated  Painesville,  August  22,  1812,  was 
received  the  same  day,  and  orders  were  immediately  issued  by  Thaddeus  An- 
drews, as  Major  commanding,  to  have  the  regiment  meet  at  Ravenna  forth- 
with. An  express  from  Maj.-Gen.  Wadeworth,  dated  August  23,  was 
received  by  Maj.  Andrews,  to  have  the  regiment  under  his  command  meet  at 
Ravenna  immediately  and  await  there  until  further  orders  were  received  from 
him.  At  9  o'clock  P.  M.,  the  23d,  Maj.-Gen.  Wadsworth  delivered  rerbal 
orders  to  Maj.  Andrews,  to  have  the  regiment,  as  soon  as  embodied  at  Ravenna, 
march  for  Cleveland.  The  regiment  was  embodied  at  11  o'clock  A.  M.,  the 
24th,  and  marched  at  3  P.  M.  the  same  day,  and  encamped  at  Mr.  Roundy's. 
The  next  day,  the  25th,  marched  from  Mr.  Roundy's  and  encamped  et  the 
center  of  Hudson.  The  next  day,  marched  from  Hudson,  and  arrived  and 
encamped  at  Tinker's  Creek,  and  the  next  day,  the  27th,  marched  from  Tink- 
er's Creek,  arrived  at  Cleveland,  and  reported  the  regiment  to  Maj.-Gen. 
Wadsworth,  who  ordered  the  regiment  to  encamp  in  Cleveland,  and  await  fur- 
ther orders.  The  30th,  the  following  order  was  received,  which  was  read  to 
the  regiment  on  the  3l8t- 


Cleteland,  Headquarters,  August  30,  1812. 
Maj.  Stephen  Mason. — You  will  dismiss  the  regiment  under  your    command  for 
the  present,  but  under  the  express  conditions  that  they  hold  themselves  in  readiness  to 
inarch  at  a  moment's  warning.  Joel  Paine,  Oeneral- Brigade. 

After  the  foregoing,  copied  from  page  33  of  the  Record,  follow  several 
pages  of  names  of  those  who  thus  marched  to  Cleveland,  with  their  several 
charges  for  services  thus  performed.  The  charges  were  mostly  for  nine  days' 
services  for  each  private,  except  Capt.  T.  Culver's  company  from  Randolph, 
and  Lieut.  Morse's  company  from  Deerfield  and  Atwatei',  both  of  which  com- 
panies had  charged  ten  days'  service  for  each  private,  all  at  the  rate  of  $5  per 
month,  carried  out,  the  one  at  $1.50  and  the  other  at  $1.60.  I  know  not 
whether  the  men  were  ever  paid,  but  I  know  that  many  of  them  got  their  land 
warrants,  for  I  helped  obtain  them,  and  those  men  who  did  not  obtain  war- 
rants, or  their  widows,  can  have  them.      I  would  like  to  help  them  to  warrants. 

That  it  maybe  known  who  were  the  pioneer  men  of  those  days — but  few  of 
whom  now  remain — I  will  here  insert  the  names  of  those  who  thus  responded 
to  the  call  of  their  country,  to  defend  it  against  the  British  and  their  sav- 
age allies,  who  were  then  daily  expected  on  our  frontier,  after  the  news 
arrived  of  Hull's  surrender,  when  many  were  so  alarmed  as  to  prepare  to  flee 
the  country,  and  some,  I  believe,  did  leave.  I  copy  the  companies,  in  the 
order  as  I  find  them  on  the  record,  each  company  record  separate,  and  all 
charged  as  in  actual  service  from  the  24th  of  August  to  September  1,  1812, 
inclusive,  and  each  signed  by  its  Captain  or  Lieutenant  commanding. 


First  Battalion,  Second  Regiment,  Fourth  Brigade,  Fourth  Division, 
Ohio  Militia. 

Captain — Hezekiah  Nooney. 

Lieutenant — Oliver  Snow. 

Ensign— Ella  Wilmot. 

Sergeants — -Seth  Harmon,   Gersham  Judson,  Horace  Ladd,  Ariel  Walden. 

Corporals — Henry  Blair,  Phineas  Pond,  Moses  Mcintosh,  Bazel  Windsor,  Jr. 

Fifer — Joseph  Skinner. 

Drummer — Virgil  Moore. 

Privates— Jotham  Atwater,  Thomas  Bright,  Peter  Carlton,  Henry  R.  Fer- 
ris, Samuel  Judson,  Eleazer  Ladd,  Ezekiel  Ladd,  Lyman  Leland,  Samuel 
Moore,  Jr.,  Moses  Pond,  David  Pond,  Franklin  Snow,  John  Gardner,  Elisha 
J.  Wilmot,  Patrick  Ray,  William  Russell. 


First  Battalion,  Second  Regiment,  Fourth  Brigade,  etc. 

Lieutenant — John  Redding. 

Ensign — Asa  Truesdale. 

Sergeants— Chester  Adams,  Oliver  Mills,  George  Young,  Benjamin  Higley. 

Corporals — David  Bancroft,  Elisha  Hutchinson,  Caleb  Stow,  Hiram  Mes- 

Fifer — Freeman  Conant. 

Privates — Oliver  Alford,  Levi  Alford,  Artemus  Baker,  Rodolphus  Ban- 
croft, Asahel  Blair,  Simon  Babcock,  Abraham  Dyson,  Hezekiah  Higley, 
Ephraim  Hacket,  Thomas  Johnston,  Orrin  Pitkin,  Joseph  Southard,  Ephraim 
H.  Seeley,  John  Streator. 



First  Battalion,  Second  Regiment,  Fourth  Brigade,  etc. 

Captain — Joshua  Woodward. 

Lieutenant— Linus  Curtis. 

Ensign— x\.nson  Beeman. 

Sergeants — Almon  Babcock,  Elijah  Smith. 

Privates — Alanson  Baldwin,  Ralzaraan  Loomis,  John  King,  John  Smith, 
Peter  Wolford,  Abel  Forsha,  Abel  Thompson,  James  Knowlton,  George 
Barnes,  Quartua  Noble,  Ebenezer  Broadway,  David  Ci-osby,  Jesse  Miller, 
James  Cook,  Silas  Owen. 


First  Battalion,  Second  Regiment,  Fourth  Brigade,  etc. 

Captain — Asa  K.  Burroughs. 

Lieutenant — Hezekiah  Hine. 

Ensign — Richard  E.  Gay. 

Sergeant — Samuel  Munson. 

Privates — Joel  Baker,  Abel  Hine,  Lyman  Hine,  Ephraim  Brown. 


Second  Battalion,  Second  Regiment,  Fourth  Brigade,  etc. 

Lieutenant — Ira  Morse. 

Sergeants — Hamlet  Coe,  Jeremiah  Jones,  Alexander  K.  Hubbard. 

Corporal — Caleb  Mattoon. 

Privates — William  Hartzel,  Robert  Taylor,  Jr.,  Moses  Baldwin,  Allen  C. 
Baldwin,  Elijah  Mott,  John  H.  \Yhittlesey,  Asahel  Blakesley,  Jesse  SutliflF, 
James  Laughlin,  Almon  Chittenden,  Abraham  Hartzell,  Ami  Baldwin,  Ralph 
Granger,  William  A.  Strong,  Joseph  Carter,  John  Quier,  Horatio  Day,  Ezekiel 
Mott,  Ira  Mansfield,  Peter  Hartzell,  Peter  Mason,  John  Hartzell,  Jr. ,  Ephraim 
B.  Hubbard,  Amos  Morse,  Garrett  Packard. 


Second  Battalion,  Second  Regiment,  Fourth  Brigade,  etc. 

Captain — Frederick  Caris,  Jr. 

Sergeants — David  Collins,  Titus  Belding,  Samuel  Coe,  Gersham  Norris. 

Corporals — Samuel  B.  Spellman,  Ariel  Case,  Lemuel  Chapman. 

Fifer — Asahel  Gurley. 

Drummer — Alpheus  Andrews. 

Privates — Abraham  Reed,  Timothy  Reed,  Robert  McKnight,  Jr.,  John  Will- 
yard,  Mason  Richardson,  Ephraim  Chapman,  Chester  Chapman,  Beman 
Chapman,  Daniel  Collins,  Joseph  R.  Bostwick,  Calvin  Ellsworth,  Charles  H. 


Second  Battalion,  Second  Regiment,  Fourth  Brigade,  etc. 

Lieutenant — Charles  Gilbert. 

Sergeants— Hugh  McDaniel,  Lyman  P.  Gilbert,  Truman  Gilbert. 

Corporals — Gaius  Smith,  Zebulon  Walker. 

Privates — Amasa  Preston,  Chauncey  Lowry,  Adna  H.  Bostwick,  John  Shaw, 
John  Fisher,  James  Tuttle,  James  Hazzard,  Gabriel  Cane,  William  Jewel, 
Marvin  Gilbert,  Dalton  Trowbridge,  John  McKelvy,  Roswell  Smith,  David 
Gano,  Nicholas  Shank,  Joseph  Lewis. 



Second  Battalion,  Second  Regiment,  Fourth  Brigade,  etc. 

Captain — Timothy  Culver. 

Lieutenant — Isaac  Merriman. 

Sergeants — Walter  Dickinson,  William  Rogers. 

Corporals — Oliver  C.  Dickinson,  Ephraim  Sabin. 

Privates — Arad  Upson,  Freeman  Upson,  -  Elisha  Sears,  John  Goss,  The- 
ophilus  Cross,  Josiah  Ward,  Henry  P.  Hosier,  Jehiel  Savage,  Joseph  Harris. 

After  the  eight  companies  I  find  a  list  of  regimental  officers,  including 
regimental  stafif,  as  follows: 

Major  Commandant — Stephen  Mason. 

Major — Thaddeus  Andrews. 

Adjutant — Erastus  Skinner, 

Quartermaster— Charles  Curtis. 

Paymaster — Hiram  Roundy. 

Clerk — Frederick  Wadsworth. 

Assistant  Quartermaster — Arthur  Anderson. 

Quartermaster  Sergeant — William  Kennedy. 

Surgeon — Joseph  DeW'olf. 

Fife  Major— Philo  Hall. 

Privates — Horace  Burroughs,  Greenwood  Burroughs,  Daniel  Ward,  Ashur 

With  the  wagon  transportation,  Robert  Eaton  and  John  Sabin  are  named, 
and  the  United  States  is  charged  with  their  services  with  teams;  Sabin's  $13.- 
75,  and  Eaton's  $16.33.     Total  charged  for  the  regiment,  $546.60. 

These  muster  or  pay  rolls  are  probably  copies  of  those  sent  to  the  War 
Department,  on  which  the  money  was  expected  to  be  drawn.  In  copying,  I 
have  abbreviated  and  omitted  some  formalities  of  the  pay  roll.  As  far  as  I 
know,  nearly  all  the  adult  male  population  were  included  in  the  rolls,  as  not 
more  than  one  man  in  ten  was  past  forty-live. 

On  page  39  is  the  record  of  the  draft  made,  agreeable  to  orders  of  July 
34,  1812,  to-wit:  First  Company,  First  Battalion,  David  Pond,  Ezra  Chaffee 
and  Eleazer  Ladd.  Second  Company,  First  Battalion,  Lieut.  John  Red- 
ding, Hezekiah  Higley  as  a  substitute  for  Seth  Cole,  George  Young  and 
David  Wood.  Third  Company,  First  Battalion,  David  Thompson,  David 
Grier,  William  Jones,  John  Baldwin.  Fourth  Company,  First  Battalion, 
Abel  Hine. 

For  the  First  Company,  Second  Battalion,  David  Abbott,  David  Baldwin, 
Lelon  Landon,  Merrick  Ely,  Robert  Taylor,  Jr.,  William  Hartzell,  Joseph 
Hartzell  (Fifer).  For  Second  Company,  Second  Battalion,  Sergt.  Gersham 
Norris,  Ariel  Case,  Robert  McKnight,  Jr.,  Timothy  Reed.  For  Third  Com- 
pany, Second  Battalion,  Corporal  Zebulon  Walker,  Adna  H.  Bostwick,  John 
Shaw,  Gabriel  Cane,  John  Fisher.  For  Fourth  Company,  Second  Battalion, 
Levi  Seeley,  Jr.,  George  Burr. 

The  following  order  was  received  from  General  Paine: 

Painesville,  September  18,  1813. 
Col.  John  Campbell — Sir:  You  are  hereby  ordered  to  draft  out  of  the  regiment 
under  your  command,  thirty  men,  including  one  Lieutenant,  two  Sergeants,  two  Cor- 
porals, and  one  Fifer,  to  be  in  readiness  to  march  at  a  moment's  warning;  and  you  are  to 
march  twenty-two  men  to  join  Capt.  Lusk  at  the  Portage,  of  the  former  draft.  They 
are  to  furnish  themselves  with  knapsacks  and  blankets,  and  they  are  to  be  furnished  with 
arms  and  equipments  by  the  public.  Joel  Paine,  General- Brigade. 

In  compliance  with  the  above  order,  orders  were  issued  to  the  commandants 
of  companies,  to   furnish  their  respective  quotas;  and  the  following  persons 


were  returned  by  the  commandants  of  companies,  as  persons  legally  notified 
to  march  on  said  tour  of  duty,  viz. :  David  Pond,  Eleazer  Ladd,  Seth  Cole, 
Ebenezer  O.  IMessenger,  Harvey  Messenger,  David  Thompson,  Zenas  Carter, 
Norval  Carter,  Abel  Hine,  David  Abbott,  William  Hartzell,  David  Baldwin, 
Robert  Taylor,  Jr.,  Benjamin  Marshall. Eobert  McKnight,  Jr.,  Timothy  Reed, 
Gabriel  Cane,  John  Fisher,  Adna  H.  Bostwick,  John  Shaw,  Levi  Seeley,  Jr., 
and  George  Burr. 

And  also  to  comply  with  the  said  order  of  the  18th  of  September,  the  fol- 
lowing persons  were  notified  to  hold  themselves  in  readiness  to  march  at  a 
moment's  warning,  viz. :  From  the  First  Company,  First  Battalion,  Jotham 
Atwater,  Jacob  W.  Pettibone,  William  Russell,  Sergt.  Gersham  Judson, 
Corporals  Moses,  Mcintosh,  Bazel  Windsor,  Jr.  From  Second  Company,  First 
Battalion,  Asahel  Blair,  Joseph  Southard,  Thomas  Johnston.  From  the 
Third  Company,  First  Battalion,  John  Baldwin,  John  Shaler,  Alanson  Bald- 
win, Isaac  P.  Skinner. 

From  the  First  Company,  Second  Battalion,  Moses  Baldwin,  Allen  C. 
Baldwin,  Elijah  Mott,  John  H  Whittlesey,  Asahel  Whittlesey.  From  the 
Second  Company,  Second  Battalion,  Robert  Collins,  Jr.,  Abram  Reed,  Mason 
Richardson.  From  the  Third  Company,  Second  Battalion,  Jabez  Gilbert, 
William  Jewel,  David  Gano,  David  Calvin.  From  the  Fourth  Company,  Sec- 
ond Battalion,  Alpheus  Dickinson,   Arad  Upson. 

Verbal  orders  were  given  by  Maj.-Gen.  Wadsworth  at  the  Portage,  to 
Stephen  Mason,  Major  Commandant  of  the  Second  Regiment,  Fourth  Brigade, 
Fourth  Division,  on  the  28th  of  September,  1812,  to  march  all  the  mounted 
men,  who  could  be  immediately  raised  in  said  regiment,  to  Gen.  Wadsworth's 
headquarters  at  the  Portage.  And  agreeably  to  said  orders  the  following  per- 
sons mustered  at  Ravenna,  Ist  of  October,  marched  to  Portage,  and  reported 
to  Maj.-Gen.  Wadsworth,  viz.:  Stephen  Mason,  Major  Commandant;  Joseph 
DeWolf,  Surgeon;  Rufus  Edwards,  Quartermaster;  Delaun  Mills,  Captain; 
John  Caris,  Lieutenant;  Asa  Truesdale,  Ensign;  Titus  Belding,  Gersham  Nor- 
ris,  Samuel  Coe  and  Chester  Adams,  Sergeants;  David  A.  Rumsay,  Henry 
Blair,  Caleb  Stow  and  Moses  Mcintosh,  Corporals;  Daniel  Ward,  Drummer; 
Joseph  Skinner,  Abraham  Dyson,  Bazel  Windsor,  Jr.,  Gersham  Judson,  Henry 
R.  Ferris,  Horatio  Taylor,  John  Willyard,  John  Redding,  John  Gardner,  John 
Shaler,  Joseph  R.  Bostwick,  Orrin  Pitkin, Quartus  Noble,  Rodolphus  Bancroft, 
Simon  Babcock,  Samuel  Judson,  Samuel  Moore,  Jr.,  Titon  Rudolph,  William 
Kennedy,  Jr.,  W^areham  Loomis,  Ezekiel  Ladd,  Charles  Bostwick,  John 
Smith  and  Ephraim  Hacket,  Privates. 

The  following  order  was  issued: 

Headquarters,  Portage,  October  2,  1813. 
Maj.  Mason — Sir:  You  will  march  all  the  mounted  men  of  Col.  Campbell's  regi- 
ment   to  Huron,  with  all    possible  dispatch.     Furnish  them  with    three  days' provisions. 
Keport  yourself  to  Gen.  Perkins.  Elijah  Wadsworth  ,Major- General. 

And  in  compliance  with  said  orders,  they  marched  to  Huron  and  reported 
to  Brig.-Gen.  Simon  Perkins,  who  on  the  J 0th  of  October  issued  the  follow- 
ing order: 

Maj.  Stephen  Mason — Sir:  You  will  march  the  officers  and  privates  named  in  the 
annexed  list  to  Headquarters  at  Portage,  and  report  yourself  to  the  commanding  oflficer. 

Simon  Perkins,  Brigadier-  General. 
Camp  Avery,  October  10,  1812. 

It  further  appears  by  the  record,  that  on  the  arrival  of  Maj.  Mason,  Capt. 
Mills  and  their  mounted  men  at  Portage, "that  Gen.  Wadsworth  gave  orders 
for  their  discharge,  but  it  does  not  appear  how  many  or  who  were  discharged. 


as  the  ^Hist  annexecf^  mentioned  in  the  order  of    Geo.  Perkins' is  not  recorded. 

It  further  appears,  that  Gen.  Paine,  on  February  2,  1813,  by  an  order 
dated  at  Painesville,  called  for  one  Lieutenant,  one  Second  Sergeant,  one 
Third  Sergeant,  one  Second  Corporal,  and  eighteen  privates  from  the  Second 
Regiment,  "to  march  to  Lower  Sandusky  as  soon  as  possible,  to  relieve  the 
men  now  in  service,"  to  comply  with  which  order  the  following  persons  were 
returned  by  commandants  of  companies  on  February  16,  1813,  as  legally 
notified  to  perform  said  tour  of  duty,  viz. :  Virgil  Moore,  as  a  substitute 
for  Jotham  Atwater,  John  Gardner  as  a  substitute  for  Jacob  W.  Pettibone, 
Asahel  Blair,  Joseph  Southard,  both  of  whom  absconded,  Thomas  John- 
ston, Phineas  Pond  as  a  substitute  for  Orrin  Pitkin,  Charles  Carter  as  a 
substitute  for  David  Grier,  William  Jones,  John  Shaler,  George  Wilber, 
Merrick  Ely.  Moses  Baldwin,  Allen  C.  Baldwin,  Robert  McKnight,  Jr.,  Sergt. 
Lyman  P.  Gilbert,  John  Fisher,  Austin  Purdy,  Sergt.  Waller  Dickinson, 
Corporal  Oliver  C.  Dickinson,  William  Jewel,  Richard  Rogers,  Jr.,  Alpheus 
Dickinson  and  Arad  Upson;  and  on  February  15  Lieut.  John  Redding,  Cor- 
poral Oliver  C.  Dickinson,  Richard  Rogers,  Jr,  Robert  McKnight,  Jr.,  Alpheus 
Dickinson,  Virgil  Moore,  John  Gardner,  John  Shaler,  William  Jones,  and 
Moses  Baldwin  appeared  according  to  orders  at  Ravenna,  had  their  equip- 
ments appraised  by  Charles  Curtis,  Linus  Curtis,  and  John  Campbell, 
appraisers,  which  is  the  last  the  record  says  of  the  services  of  those  so  drafted. 

On  page  42  is  the  following  record:  "The  Major  Commandant  issued 
orders  to  the  Major  of  the  Second  Battalion,  and  to  the  commandants  of  each 
company  in  the  I'egiment,  to  meet  at  the  Court  House,  in  Ravenna,  on  the  29th 
of  March,  1813,  for  the  purpose  of  assessing  fines  upon  persons  who  refused 
to  perform  tours  of  duty,  when  legally  called  on,  and  the  commandants  of 
companies  ordered  to  notify  the  delinquents  in  their  respective  companies." 
And  this  is  the  last  of  our  war  record,  as  then  follows  some  thirteen  large 
blank  pages,  left  apparently  to  record  the  assessment  of  tines  for  non- perform- 
ance of  "tours  of  duty."'  After  the"se  blank  leaves  follows  the  regular  record 
of  ordinary  regimental  boards  for  ordinary  business,  but  no  more  drafting 
orders.  I  think,  however,  but  few  of  our  drafted  men  evaded  the  draft.  I 
knew  of  the  services  of  many  of  them.  Several  I  knew  to  be  posted  at  Camp 
Avery,  which  was  near  the  present  village  of  Milan,  Erie  County. 

After  our  return  from  the  service,  September,  1812,  I  knew  little  of  the 
war  movements,  except  what  was  found  in  the  papers,  and  papers  were  then 
scarce.  I  can  give  little  information  of  the  times  subsequent  to  those  records, 
than  what  I  have  given  in  this  communication,  that  would  be  valuable  to  the 
Historical  Society.  I  spent  some  time  in  Cleveland  in  December,  1812,  and 
there  became  acquainted  with  Maj.  Jessup,  Quartermaster  Biddle,  and  his 
assistant,  Mr.  Downing,  son  of  Capt.  Downing,  of  Frenchtown,  River  Raisin, 
and  was  informed  of  the  then  recent  raising  and  organization  of  a  volunteer 
company  in  Cuyahoga  and  Geauga  Counties,  with  Clark  Parker,  Captain,  and 
Harvey  Murray,  Lieutenant.  I  think  it  was  then  out  at  one  of  the  posts  of 
the  West. 

I  was  in  Harpersfield  in  the  summer  of  1813,  when  Capt.  James  Harper 
was  recruiting,  and  was  offered  a  position  by  him,  but  being  still  a  prisoner 
on  parole,  would  not  forfeit  my  parole.  We  were  not  informed  of  our 
exchange  for  about  two  years  after  our  return.  But  several  of  our  company 
did  again  enter  the  service,  before  we  were  informed  of  our  exchange.  I 
believe  Samuel  C.  Thompson,  Charles  Carter  and  John  Smith,  and  perhaps 
some  others,  were  out  in  the  service  some  time  in  1813  and  1814.  Though  we 
were  not  specially  successful,  we  had   much  cause  to  rejoice,  and  be  proud  at 


the  prowess  and  progress  of  our  armies  thereafter,  and  of  the  final  success  of 
our  arms;  and  especially  that  the  war  finally  broke  up  the  baneful  influence 
of  the  British  over  the  Western  Indians,  on  our  territory. 

With  this  I  close    my  communication  on  the  subject  of  the  war  of  1812. 

John  Harmon,  Ravenna,  February,  1870. 

In  the  summer  of  1813  every  able-bodied  man  in  Portage  County  not  then 
in  active  service  or  on  parole  was  ordered  to  Cleveland,  and  the  scattered 
settlements  were  left  defenseless.  It  is  a  part  of  the  tradition  of  that  time 
that  the  sound  of  the  cannonading  in  the  battle  of  Lake  Erie,  fought  Septem- 
ber 10,  1813,  was  plainly  heard  in  this  county.  A  messenger  arrived  at  Raven- 
na from  Cleveland  the  same  night,  warning  the  women  and  children,  in  case 
of  Perry's  defeat,  to  be  ready  to  fly  to  Pittsburgh.  All  next  day  the  families 
residing  in  this  section  anxiously  waited  for  definite  information  as  to  the 
result  of  the  battle,  but  as  night  came  on  the  sound  of  a  horn  was  heard  in  the 
direction  of  Shalersville,  then  a  voice  was  distinguished,  and  soon  an  excited 
horseman  dashed  into  the  village  with  the  joyful  tidings  of  Perry's  great  vic- 
tory. The  terrible  suspense  and  dread  of  Indians  were  past,  and  soon  gave 
way  to  thanksgiving  and  rejoicing  over  the  brilliant  success  of  the  American 
naval  forces  on  Lake  Erie. 

The  following  distressing  incident  of  this  period  may  appropriately  be 
given  in  connection  with  the  history  of  Portage  County  in  the  war  of  1812. 
Daniel  Cross,  an  early  settler  of  Randolph  Township,  hearing  that  produce 
and  provisions  of  every  sort  were  very  scarce  and  commanded  high  prices  at  the 
military  camp  near  Wooster,  Ohio,  set  out  from  his  home  in  December,  1812, 
with  a  load  of  oats  for  that  point.  He  was  accompanied  by  his  son,  a  young 
man  about  eighteen  years  old.  On  arriving  at  Wooster  and  selling  his  oats, 
he  found  teams  so  scarce  that  the  army  had  no  means  of  transportation,  and, 
by  the  offer  of  high  wages,  Cross  was  induced  to  go  with  the  army  as  far  as 
Mansfield,  and  assist  in  transporting  the  forage  and  baggage  of  the  camp. 
Here  he  was  paid  off,  and  started  for  home.  On  the  road  between  Mansfield 
and  Wooster  he  purchased  seventeen  head  of  oxen  and  steers,  with  which  he 
arrived  at  the  latter  town  on  the  last  day  of  December,  1812.  The  following 
morning.  New  Year's,  he  and  son  started  with  their  stock  up  the  valley  of  the 
Killbuck,  intending  to  reach  the  house  of  Joseph  Harris,  who  had  removed 
from  Randolph  Township  to  the  site  of  Lodi,  Medina  County,  in  1811.  Soon 
after  they  left  Wooster,  there  came  on  a  terrible  snowstorm,  which  lasted  three 
days.  Nothing  further  was  seen  or  heard  of  Cross  and  his  son,  and  the  fol- 
lowing March,  his  family  in  Randolph  Township  becoming  alarmed  at  their 
lengthened  absence,  sent  another  son  in  pursuit  of  them.  Finding  they  had 
left  Wooster  on  the  1st  of  January  for  the  Harris  settlement,  the  son  followed 
their  trail,  and  on  reaching  the  settlement  was  informed  that  they  had  not 
been  there,  but  that  several  stray  cattle  had  been  "  taken  up  "  during  the  win- 
ter for  which  no  owner  could  be  found.  It  was  now  evident  that  Cross  and 
his  son  had  perished  in  the  storm  which  came  on  soon  after  they  left  Wooster, 
and  the  settlers  of  that  section  turned  out  en  masse  to  try  and  find  their  remains. 
Nearly  three  miles  southeast  of  the  settlement  they  found  the  skull  of  Cross 
and  some  of  his  bones  picked  clean  by  the  wolves,  also  his  jack-knife  and  rem- 
nants of  his  clothing,  but  no  trace  of  the  son  was  ever  discovered.  The 
remains  of  two  yokes  of  oxen,  still  in  yoke,  were  also  found  near  by.  They 
had  been  chained  to  trees,  and  therefore  could  not  get  away  with  the  balance 
of  the  cattle,  but  starved  to  death  in  their  yokes.  The  bones  of  the  unfortu- 
nate Cross  were  gathered  up  and  buried  in  a  field  just  south  of  the  present 
town  of  Lodi,  and  his  name  was  carved  upon  a  beech  tree  which  stood  close 
to  where  he  met  his  death. 


Soon  after  the  return  of  peace,  in  1815,  Congress  passed  a  law  re-organiz- 
ing the  militia,  and  making  it  obligatory  for  all  males  between  the  ages  of 
eighteen  and  forty-five  to  perform  military  duty.  The  State  was  divided  into 
military  divisions,  and  certain  points  designated  in  each  county  where  the  dif- 
ferent militia  companies  should  meet  and  receive  instructions  in  the  science  of 
war.  This  was  called  "  company  muster,"  but  once  a  year  all  of  the  compa- 
nies were  required  to  meet,  usually  at  the  county  seat,  to  attend  the  "general 
muster."  The  militia  could  not  draw  military  equipments  from  the  Govern- 
ment, but  at  those  musters  armed  themselves  with  rifles,  shotguns,  broom-han- 
dles, sticks,  or  any  other  implement  with  which  they  could  be  put  through  the 
manual  exercises.  The  law  also  provided  that  if  any  company  would  furnish 
their  own  uniforms,  and  otherwise  comply  with  its  provisions,  the  State  would 
supply  them  with  arms  and  munitions.  Several  companies  of  this  class  were 
organized  from  time  to  time  in  Portage  County.  On  performing  military  duty 
for  seven  years  in  time  of  peace,  the  members  of  those  independent  companies 
were  exempted  from  poll  tax.  Sham  fights  would  sometimes  be  gotten  up  for 
the  purpose  of  indulging  the  popular  taste  for  excitement.  About  1833  a  cel- 
ebrated sham  fight,  with  real  Indians  as  opponents,  took  place  in  the  southern 
part  of  the  county,  which  is  yet  well  remembered  by  many  of  the  older  inhab- 
itants. Those  sham  fights  and  training  days  were  looked  upon  with  much 
favor  by  all  classes,  as  they  were  days  of  recreation,  social  joys  and  friendly 


Internal  Improvements— The  Great  Indian  Trail— Pioneer  Eoads  of  Por- 
tage County— Mail  Facilities  and  i^etter  Postage— Stage  Routes  and 
Drivers— Canals— Early  Canal  Legislation— The  Ohio  Canal  Com- 
menced and  Completed— Pennsylvania  &  Ohio  Canal — The  Efforts 
Made  to  Have  it  Built— Its  Construction  and  Co3ipletion— First 
Boats  Arrive  at  Ravenna— Subsequent  Success  of  the  Enterprise- 
Causes  Which  Led  to  its  Abandonment— Railroads— Cleveland  & 
Pittsburgh  —  Cleveland  &  Mahoning  Yalley— Atlantic  &  Great 
Western— Cleveland,  Youngstown  &  Pittsburgh— Connotton  Valley — 
Pittsburgh,  Cleveland  &  Toledo— The  Proposed  Clinton  Air  Line,  and 
THE  General  Railroad  Facilities  of  the  County. 

AS  a  matter  of  necessity,  almost  the  first  thing  to  be  done  after  the  settler 
arrived  was  to  cut  out  a  road;  in  fact,  it  had  often  to  be  done  before  he 
reached  his  land,  and  in  many  instances  days  of  weary  work  in  underbrushing 
a  path  through  the  primitive  forest  intervened  before  he  could  move  forward 
with  his  ox  teams  and  rude  wagon.  This  latter  necessity  was  the  origin  of 
the  first  road  in  the  county  constructed  by  white  men.  When  Benjamin  Tap- 
pan,  Jr.,  in  the  spring  of  1799,  as  detailed  in  Chapter  IV.  of  the  county  his- 
tory, arrived  at  a  point  on  the  Cuyahoga  where  now  is  the  town  of  Boston, 
Summit  County,  he  unloaded  his  goods,  and  placing  them  in  charge  of  one  of 
his  hired  men,  proceeded,  with  the  assistance  of  Benjamin  Bigsby,  to  cut  out 
a  road  to  his  father's  land,  now  known  as  Ravenna.  After  working  two  or 
three  days,  Tappan  struck  the  great  Indian  trail  which  crossed  the  Cuyahoga 
at  Standing  Rock,  a  short  distance  east  of  the  present  site  of  Kent.  Follow- 
ing this  trail,  he  soon  reached  the  spot  where  he  erected  his  first  cabin,  in  the 



southeast  corner  of  the  township,  the  Indian  trail  passing  out  of  Ravenna 
exactly  at  the  southeast  corner.  This  great  trail  had  been  used  from  time 
immemorial  by  the  aborigines,  and  was  their  main  thoroughfare  in  the  upper 
portion  of  Ohio.  It  extended  from  Fort  Mcintosh,  where  Beaver,  Penn. ,  now 
is,  to  Palmyra  Township;  thence  passing  through  Edinburg,  Ravenna  and 
Franklin  Townships,  left  Portage  County,  going  northwestwardly  to  Sandusky. 
As  early  as  1786  Col.  James  Hillman,  one  of  the  pioneers  of  the  West,  who 
afterward  lived  to  an  advanced  age  in  Youngstown,  made  six  trips  over  this 
route,  he  being  engaged  in  forwarding  goods  and  provisions  for  a  firm  in  Pitts- 
burgh.    The  road  is  said  by  old  settlers  to  have  been  very  compact  and  firm. 

About  the  same  time  that  Benjamin  Tappan  cut  his  road,  one  was  under- 
brushed  from  Atwater  to  Georgetown,  Penn.,  for  the  purpose  of  obtainingpro- 
visions.  Capt.  Caleb  Atwater,  Jonathan  Merrick,  Peter  Bunnell  and  Asa 
Hall  did  the  work.  The  road  was  about  forty  miles  long,  and  ran  through 
Atwater  and  Deerfield  Townships,  it  being  the  present  east  and  west  center 
road  of  those  subdivisions.  Ebenezer  Sheldon  also  had  cut  a  road  from. the 
center  of  Aurora  Township  in  1799,  that  ran  northwestwardly  until  it  inter- 
sected a  bridle  path  to  Cleveland.  In  Nelson  Township  an  east  and  west  cen- 
ter road  was  cut  out  shortly  after  the  Mills  brothers  settled  in  that  section.  'In 
1802  the  road  running  north  from  Ravenna  through  Shalersville  and  Mantua 
Townships,  to  Burton,  Summit  County,  was  laid  out,  but  it  was  several  years 
until  it  was  completed.  Also,  in  1802  a  road  from  Warren  to  Cleveland,  which 
ran  through  the  center  of  Hiram  and  Mantua  Townships,  was  begun.  In  1804- 
05  a  road  was  cut  from  the  center  of  Rootstown  Township  eastward  to  intersect 
the  great  road  from  Pittsburgh  to  Cleveland,  which  passed  through  the  center 
of  Edinburg  Township.  Not  far  from  this  time  a  road  from  Randolph  Cen- 
ter, standing  at  the  creek  just  west  of  the  Center,  was  cut  to  a  point  on  the 
line  between  Rootstown  and  Edinburg  Townships,  and  from  thence  running 
northwardly.  There  was  also  a  horse  path  to  Canton,  and  a  trail  to  Atwater. 
In  1805  Amzi  Atwater  siirveyed  a  road  from  his  place  in  Mantua  Township, 
along  the  south  line  of  Hiram  Township  to  Garrett's  Mills  in  Nelson,  and  in 
1806  another  was  cut  out  running  westward  to  Aurora.  About  the  same  time 
a  road  was  cut  through  Windham  Township  to  Braceville,  running  thence  to 
Warren,  and  is  now  known  as  the  State  Road.  In  1808  Alva  Day,  of  Deerfield 
Township,  and  Charles  Chittenden,  and  Cromwell  and  Walter  Dickinson,  of 
Randolph  Township,  cut  out  and  bridged  the  road  from  old  Portage  to  the 
Seventeenth  Range,  west  of  Medina.  In  1809  Erastus  Carter,  of  Ravenna, 
and  Lemuel  Punderson,  of  Newburg,  laid  out  a  road  from  Ravenna  through 
Rootstown  and  Randolph  Townships  toward  Canton,  as  far  as  the  south  line 
of  the  county,  but  it  was  not  completed  in  Stark  County  till  1812.  This  road 
afterward  became  the  great  north  and  south  route  over  which  J.  O.  Granger 
ran  his  four-horse  stage  line.  In  1817  David  Mcintosh  cut  the  center  road 
through  from  Shalersville  Township  to  Freedom,  at  which  time  the  latter 
township  was  an  unbroken  wilderness,  the  first  settler  not  arriving  till  the  fol- 
lowing year. 

Mail  facilities  were  extremely  meager  in  the  early  days,  and  months  would 
elapse  before  news  could  reach  the  settlers  in  their  new  homes.  As  late  as  the 
spring  of  1801  Pittsburgh  and  Meadville,  Penn.,  were  the  nearest  postoffices  to 
the  Western  Reserve,  and  in  October  of  that  year  the  first  mail  arrived  at  Warren, 
Ohio.  Postage,  even  to  a  much  later  date,  was  high,  and  frequently  a  bushel  of 
wheat  was  refused  as  payment  on  a  single  letter.  A  considerable  number  of  let- 
ters were  permitted  to  pass  to  the  dead  letter  office,  and  in  the  advertised  lists  of 
letters  at  the  Ravenna  postoffice,  published  in  the  Cornier  of  1825-26,  can  be 



seen  the  names  of  many  prominent  citizens  who  at  the  time  lived  within  a 
stone's  throw  of  the  office.  John  Diver,  of  Deerfield,  was  one  of  the  earliest 
mail  contractors  and  carriers  on  the  Reserve.  He  had  the  contract  for  carry- 
ing the  mail  from  New  Lisbon  to  Mausfield,  via  Canton  and  Wooster,  and  was 
in  the  business  over  forty  years.  The  Cleveland  &  Wellsville  Turnpike  was 
finished  in  1827  and  became  a  great  thoroughfare.  It  entered  the  county  in 
Streetsboro  Township,  passed  diagonally  across  Ravenna,  Edinburg  and 
Deerfield  and  left  the  county  in  the  southeast  corner  of  the  last  named  town- 
ship. Lines  of  stage  routes  were  also  opened  east  and  west  and  north  and 
south  about  the  same  time  as  the  Cleveland  &  Wellsville  Turnpike. 

The  old  stage  coach  was  an  institution  of  those  early  days,  and  was,  of 
course,  the  only  means  of  traveling  long  distances.  Several  lines  of  them 
passed  through  this  county,  and  Jabez  Gilbert,  of  Palmyra  Township,  was  the 
most  noted  driver  and  mail  contractor  in  all  this  region.  In  the  Western  Cour- 
ier of  April  1,  1826,  the  editor  says:  "  The  line  of  stages  between  Pittsburgh 
and  Cleveland  have  always  been  more  or  less  irregular,  but  arrangements  now 
are  made  by  Mr.  Gilbert,  the  enterprising  proprietor  of  this  end  of  the  line,  to 
prevent  these  irregularities.  *  *  *  jje  jj^a  been  at  the  expense  of  a  new 
stage,  which,  instead  of  two,  is  to  be  drawn  by  four  horses.  *  *  *  ^he 
line  is  now  completely  established  from  Pittsburgh  to  Cleveland,  and  will 
run  regularly  twice  a  week."  In  the  same  month  a  line  of  stages  is  announced 
to  run  from  Beaver  to  Cleveland  twice  a  week.  The  route  was  through  a  por- 
tion of  this  county,  and  was  much  traveled,  as  it  intersected  at  Stow,  now  in 
Summit  County,  a  line  that  ran  due  south  to  the  interior  of  the  State.  Aug- 
ust 5,  3  826,  J.  O.  Granger  advertises  in  the  Courier  that  he  will  run  regularly 
twice  a  week  a  line  of  stages  from  Fairport,  at  the  mouth  of  Grand  River,  to 
Canton,  through  Painesville,  Chardon  and  Ravenna,  and  the  editor,  speaking 
of  this  new  evidence  of  improvement,  says:  "Few  country  towns  possess  equal 
facilities  for  the  receipt  and  transmission  of  private  and  public  documents; 
there  being  728  arrivals  and  departures  of  mails  within  the  year  at  and  from 
Ravenna.''  In  November  the  Pittsburgh  and  Cleveland  line,  run  by  Jabez 
Gilbert,  John  Stokes  and  Horace  Daniels,  was  increased  to  three  trips  per 
week.  In  August  of  this  year  (1826)  the  new  bridge  across  the  Cuyahoga  at 
Carthage  (Kent)  was  completed;  and  early  in  the  following  year  a  line  of 
stages  was  put  on  the  road  that  passed  over  it,  running  from  Ravenna  to  Mid- 
dleburg  (now  Akron).  By  this  date  roads  had  been  opened  in  every  part  of 
the  county,  which  through  the  passing  years  have  been  greatly  improved,  while 
many  others  were  built  from  time  to  time  as  the  wants  of  the  country  demanded. 

Canals. — The  subject  of  canal  building  began  to  be  eagerly  discussed  in 
this  portion  of  the  Union  during  the  first  quarter  of  the  present  century;  but 
this  system  of  navigation  met  with  considerable  opposition  from  sections  of 
the  State  off  the  lines  of  the  proposed  routes.  Canal  construction  was  one  of 
the  first  great  measures  to  which  Ohio  gave  attention,  and  as  early  as  January, 
1817,  a  resolution  on  the  subject  of  canal  navigation  between  Lake  Erie  and 
the  Ohio  River  was  introduced  into  the  Legislatiire.  In  1822  a  bill  was  passed 
authorizing  a  survey  of  four  several  routes,  viz. :  From  Sandusky  Bay;  from 
the  Maumee  River;  from  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga  River,  or  the  Black  River, 
by  the  Muskingum;  and  from  the  mouth  of  the  Grand  River,  via  the  Mahoning, 
to  the  Ohio.'  At  the  next  session  of  the  Legislature  the  Canal  Commissioners 
reported  all  of  the  routes  practicable,  but  requested  further  time  to  ascertain 
the  comparative  advantages  of  each.  At  the  session  of  1823-24  the  route 
through  the  upper  part  of  the  Muskingum,  the  Licking,  and  the  lower  part  of 
the  Scioto  Valleys  was  recommended;  but  they  also  called  attention  to  the 
advantages  of  the  route  by  way  of  the  Miami  Valley. 


In  the  summer  of  1824  two  lines  of  canal  were  located,  one  from  Cincin- 
nati to  the  Maumee  River,  and  one  from  the  mouth  of  the  Scioto  to  Coshocton, 
and  thence  by  one  of  three  different  routes  tq  Lake  Erie.  By  an  act  passed 
February  4,  1825,  the  Canal  Commissioners  were  authorized  to  begin  work  on 
these  two  canal  routes.  The  western  route  received  the  name  of  the  Miami 
Canal,  while  the  eastern  was  called  the  Ohio  Canal,  and  the  line  of  the  latter, 
from  Coshocton  northward,  was  established  by  way  of  the  Tuscarawas  River, 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Cuyahoga,  passing  from  south  to  north  through  what  was 
then  the  western  range  of  townships  of  Portage  County.  Bids  for  the  several 
sections  of  the  Ohio  Canal  were  advertised  for  in  May,  1825,  ancj  by  the  mid- 
dle of  June  several  miles  were  under  contract.  It  was  thought  that  the  break- 
ing of  the  first  ground  would  take  place  at  Portage  Summit,  then  in  Portage 
County,  and  that  Gen.  LaFayette,  who  at  that  time  was  on  a  visit  to  America, 
would  attend,  but  the  ceremony  occurred  July  4,  1825,  at  Licking  Summit, 
on  which  date  that  celebrated  Frenchman  had  promised  to  be  in  Boston.  The 
invited  guests,  however,  included  many  notables  of  the  State  and  Nation.  Gov. 
DeWitt  Clinton,  of  New  York,  raised  the  first  spadeful  of  earth,  and  ex-Gov. 
Jeremiah  Morrow,  of  Ohio,  the  second.  Hon.  Thomas  Ewing,  of  Lancaster, 
Ohio,  was  the  orator  on  the  occasion.  An  immense  crowd  had  gathered  and 
the  scene  was  one  of  great  excitement.  The  canal  was  completed  from  Cleve- 
land to  Akron  in  1827,  and  three  years  afterward  navigation  was  opened  via 
the  Ohio  Canal  from  Lake  Erie  to  the  Ohio  River. 

The  construction  of  the  Pennsylvania  &  Ohio  Canal  from  the  Portage 
Summit  to  Pittsburgh,  began  to  be  mooted  early  in  1825,  and  during  the  sum- 
mer of  that  year  a  number  of  gentlemen  along  the  line  of  the  proposed  route 
made  explorations.  On  the  6th  of  September,  1825,  a  meeting  of  citizens  of 
Trumbull  and  Portage  Counties  was  held  at  the  Court  House  in  Ravenna  to  take 
into  consideration  the  practicability  and  policy  of  constructing  a  canal  from 
the  movith  of  Beaver  River,  via  the  Mahoning  through  the  two  counties  to  the 
Portage  Summit.  Alva  Day  was  Chairman,  and  Darius  Lyman  Secretary  of 
the  meeting,  which  appointed  Frederick  Wadsworth,  Dillingham  Clark,  Joshua 
Woodward,  Eliakim  Crosby,  William  Wetmore,  Jonathan  Sloane,  Simon 
Perkins,  Elias  Harmon,  Amzi  Atwater,  and  Calvin  Pease  a  committee  to  col- 
lect information  as  to  the  most  favorable  route  for  the  canal.  The  meeting 
then  adjourned  to  September  14,  when  another  was  held  and  arrangements 
made  for  a  survey  of  the  proposed  route.  At  the  following  session  of  the  Ohio 
Legislature  a  bill  was  introduced  to  incorporate  the  Pennsylvania  &  Ohio 
Canal  Company  "for  the  sole  purpose  of  making  a  navigable  canal  between 
some  suitable  point  on  the  Ohio  River,  through  the  valley  of  the  Mahoning 
River,  to  some  suitable  point  on  Lake  Erie,  or  to  some  such  point  on  the  Ohio 
Canal."  Under  the  articles  of  incorporation,  this  act,  if  passed,  was  not  to 
become  a  law  until  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature  would  grant  similiar  rights 
and  privileges  to  said  company.  The  bill  was  read  the  third  time  in  Febru- 
ary, 1826,  but  further  action  was  postponed  until  the  next  session. 

The  people  along  the  line  were  now  thoroughly  aroused,  and  in  February, 
1826,  a  canal  meeting  was  held  at  Ravenna,  of  which  William  Stoddard  was 
Chairman  and  Cyrus  Prentiss  Secretary.  The  meeting  appointed  Seth  Day, 
Jonathan  Sloane  and  William  Coolman,  Jr.,  a  committee  to  obtain  and  com- 
municate information  on  the  advisibility  and  practicability  of  building  a  canal 
from  Portage  Summit  via  the  Mahoning  and  Big  Beaver  Valleys  to  Pittsburgh. 
A  similar  meeting  was  held  at  Pittsburgh,  March  4,  with  the  same  object  in 
view.  On  the  7th  of  March  another  meeting  was  convened  at  Ravenna,  with 
Jonathan  Sloane  Chairman  and  Seth  Day  Secretary.       Jonathan  Sloane,  Seth 


Day  aod  Frederick  Wadsworth  were  appointed  to  represent  Portage  County 
in  a  canal  convention  of  Ohio  and  Pennsylvania  citizens  at  Beaver,  Penn., 
which  was  held  March  10.  A  canal  meeting  was  also  held  at  Warren,  Ohio, 
on  the  2lBt  of  March,  1826;  and  on  the  3d  and  4th  of  May  following  a  very 
large  convention  assembled  at  Newcastle,  Penn. ,  in  which  twenty  delegates 
from  Allegheny,  Mercer,  Butler  and  Beaver  Counties,  Penn.,  and  Trumbull 
and  Portage  Counties,  Ohio,  were  in  attendance.  Those  from  Portage  were 
Seth  Day,  Frederick  Wadsworth  and  Jonathan  Sloane.  This  convention 
adjourned  to  meet  at  Warren,  Ohio,  October  25,  1826,  on  which  date  a  bill 
for  the  incorporation  of  the  Pennsylvania  &  Ohio  Canal  was  prepared.  The 
next  day  the  bill  was  approved  and  adopted,  Jonathan  Sloane  and  Frederick 
Wadsworth,  of  Portage  County,  being  two  of  the  incorporators  named  in  the 
instrument.  This  bill  was  passed  by  the  Legislature  January  10,  1827,  to 
take  effect  whenever  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania  granted  a  similar 
charter.  The  latter  State  passed  an  act  of  incorporation  in  April,  1827,  and 
the  legal  power  for  the  construction  of  this  much  cherished  project  was  at 
last  obtained.  Jonathan  Sloane,  then  representing  the  Portage  district  in  the 
Ohio  Senate,  was  the  author  of  the  bill,  and  also  of  a  resolution  passed  during 
the  same  session  authorizing  the  State  Board  of  Canal  Commissioners  to  have 
the  proposed  route  surveyed  and  estimates  made  by  a  competent  engineer  the 
same  season,  and  report  to  the  next  session  of  the  General  Assembly.  Several 
surveys  of  the  route  were  made  but  nothing  positively  decided  at  that  time. 
The  Courier  in  its  issue  of  July  3,  1829,  announces  the  location  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania &  Ohio  Canal  through  llavenna,  and  says  "  the  information  was 
greeted  by  the  inhabitants  of  this  village  by  the  discharge  of  a  national  salute, 
fired  near  the  located  route  south  of  the  village,  accompanied  by  hearty  cheers." 
The  survey  was  under  the  charge  of  Capt.  Dumest,  an  accomplished  engineer 
of  the  United  States  Army. 

Owinw  to  the  uncertainty  as  to  the  point  of  intersection  with  the  Penn- 
sylvania Canal,  and  witnessing  the  steady  progress  that  Pennsylvania  was 
making  in  extending  her  improvements  towards  the  Ohio  boundary,  the  Penn- 
sylvania &  Ohio  Canal  Company  deemed  it  advisable  to  postpone  the  opening 
of  books  for  the  subscription  of  stock.  The  enterjDrise,  therefore,  lay  dor- 
mant for  several  years,  but  in  1833  meetings  began  to  be  held  along  the  sur- 
veyed route,  with  the  object  of  reviving  the  scheme.  The  friends  of  the 
project  went  vigorously  to  work,  and  February  20,  1835,  the  charter,  passed 
in  1827,  was  renewed  and  amended,  and  ten  years,  from  December  31,  1835, 
given  the  company  to  complete  the  canal.  On  the  13th  of  April,  1835,  the 
Pennsylvania  Legislature  also  passed  a  bill  renewing  the  old  charter.  Sub- 
scription books  for  stock  were  opened  at  Philadelphia,  April  27,  1835,  and  in 
less  than  one  hour  $780,000,  the  amount  of  stock  to  which  that  city  was  limited, 
was  all  taken.  The  whole  amount  was  placed  at  11,000,000,  and  the  remain- 
ing $220,000,  allotted  to  Portage  and  Trumbull  Counties,  Ohio,  and  western 
Pennsylvania,  was  all  taken  before  the  close  of  May.  The  stock-holders  met 
at  Newcastle,  Penn.,  May  21,  1835,  and  elected  the  following  Board  of  Direct- 
ors: Abner  Laycock,  William  Boyd,  William  Robinson,  Joseph  T.  Boyd, 
William  Ray  en,  Leicester  King  and  Jonathan  Sloane;  Abner  Laycock, 
President;  Zalmon  Fitch,  Treasurer;  Leicester  King,  Secretary.  Messrs. 
Sloane,  Lacock  and  Rayen  were  appointed  an  Executive  Committee  to  let 
contracts  and  transact  and  superintend  any  other  business  connected  with 
the  construction  of  the  canal. 

Col.  Sebried  Dodge  and  James  D.  Harris  were  appointed  Chief  Engineers 
of  Construction,  and  with  their  corps  began  surveying  on  the  Ravenna  Sum- 


mit,  east  of  the  village  of  Ravenna,  June  8,  1835.  By  the  middle  of  August 
the  survey  was  completed,  and  on  the  17th  and  18th  of  that  month  contracts 
were  let  for  the  portion  of  the  canal  west  of  Ravenna,  but  the  western  ter- 
minus being  afterward  changed  to  run  by  Cuyahoga  Falls,  the  contracts  for 
the  whole  western  division,  extending  from  the  east  line  of  Portage  (bounty 
to  Akron,  were  re-let  November  16,  1835.  The  several  secfiious  of  the  eastern 
division  of  the  canal,  extending  fi-om  the  east  line  of  Portage  County  to  near 
Newcastle,  Penn. ,  were  put  under  contract  August  10,  September  21,  and 
November  11,  1835.  The  whole  length  of  the  canal  from  its  intersection  with 
the  Pennsylvania  Canal,  about  two  miles  below  Newcastle,  Penn.,  to  its  inter- 
section with  the  Ohio  Canal,  at  Akron,  Ohio,  was  eighty- two  miles.  "  Feeders  " 
from  the  small  lakes  in  the  western  section  of  Portage  County  were  also  built 
at  the  same  time.  The  total  estimated  cost  of  the  canal  at  that  time  was 
about  $913,000.  The  section  east  of  Warren,  accoi'ding  to  the  terms  of  the 
contracts,  was  to  be  completed  on  or  before  September  1,  1836,  and  that 
between  Warren  and  Akron  via  Ravenna  and  Franklin  Mills  (Kent),  one  year 

The  work  of  construction  was  begun  at  once  and  pushed  forward  vigor- 
ously. Hundreds  of  laborers  found  employment  at  good  wages,  but  finally 
on  account  of  the  stock- holders  neglecting  to  pay  their  subscriptions  according 
to  contract,  the  work  was  greatly  retarded,  and  the  canal  was  not  finished  at 
the  dates  specified.  Though  the  finances  were  very  low,  work  was  however 
continued  through  the  winter  of  1836-37.  In  May,  1837,  Gov.  Vance, 
in  the  name  and  on  behalf  of  the  State  of  Ohio,  subscribed  $450,000  to  the 
stock  of  the  canal,  and  as  soon  as  the  money  could  be  raised,  paid  the  first 
installment  of  $145,000  to  the  Treasurer  of  the  company.  For  a  time,  in 
the  winter  of  1837-38,  the  work  lagged,  but  throughout  the  balance  of  the 
latter  year  the  canal  bed  was  rapidly  opened  through  this  county.  In  June, 
1839,  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature  subscribed  and  paid  $50,000  to  the  capital 
stock,  which  it  was  thought  would  complete  the  canal;  and  by  April  1,  1840, 
it  was  expected  to  be  finished  and  opened  for  business.  These  expectations 
were  realized,  for  the  writer  found  in  a  report  of  the  Harrison  Convention, 
held  at  Ravenna,  April  3,  1840,  the  proceedings  of  which  were  published  in 
the  next  issue  of  the  Ohio  Stai\  the  following  item  relative  to  the  canal: 

From  Trumbull  County  came  first  two  crowded  canal  boats,  with  each  a  band  of 
music — the  "Mohawk,"  of  Beaver,  and  the  "Tippecanoe,"  of  Warren — the  first  that  ever 
passed  through  the  Pennsylvania  &  Ohio  Canal  now  just  completed. 

On  the  19th  of  April,  1840,  the  "Ohio  City"  arrived  at  Ravenna,  on  her 
way  to  Pittsburgh,  freighted  with  ashes,  fish,  etc. ;  and  on  the  following  day  the 
"Huron*'  arrived  from  Pittsburgh  with  merchandise,  the  first  brought  to 
Ravenna  by  canal.  Boats  were  now  passing  Ravenna  daily,  to  and  fro,  along 
the  canal,  and  on  the  4th  of  August,  1840,  a  celebration  was  held  all  along 
the  line.  Gov.  David  R.  Porter,  of  Pennsylvania,  and  other  distinguished  citi- 
zens being  passengers  on  one  of  the  excursion  packets  which  made  the  trip. 
Meetings  were  held  at  nearly  every  town  on  the  route  of  the  canal,  all  expres- 
sive of  a  deep  satisfaction  over  the  successful  completion  and  operation  of  the 
great  enterprise. 

For  twelve  years  nothing  occurred  to  mar  the  success  of  the  canal,  and 
throughout  the  summer  of  1851  a  line  of  packets  connected  at  Ravenna  with 
the  Cleveland  &  Pittsburgh  Railroad,  which  was  completed  to  Ravenna  early 
in  that  year.  But  in  March,  1852,  the  railroad  was  finished  to  Wellsville,  on 
the  Ohio  River,  and  therefore  a  superior  mode  of  travel  and  shipment  insti- 
tuted between   northern  and   southei-n  Ohio   and  Pennsylvania.     It,  however, 


did  a  coinpnratively  good  business  for  three  or  four  years  longer,  or  until  the 
completion  of  the  Cleveland  &  Mahoning  Valley  Railroad,  when  its  trafiSc 
gradually  dwindled  away,  and  it  became  an  unprofitable  institution.  In  Jan- 
uary, 1863,  the  State  Board  of  Public  Works  sold  the  stock  owned  by  the  State 
in  the  canal,  being  the  one-third  of  the  whole  amount,  to  the  Cleveland  & 
Mahoning  Valley  Railroad  Company,  for  the  sum  of  $30,000,  by  which  pur- 
chase this  road  obtained  a  controlling  interest  in  the  canal,  and  thus  sounded 
its  death  knell.  In  December,  1863,  the  warehouse  at  Ravenna  was  sold,  and 
though  an  occasional  boat  floated  lazily  along  its  sluggish  waters,  its  day  of 
usefulness  and  prosperity  had  passed  away,  and  it  was  gradually  abandoned. 
Its  bed,  which  runs  through  Paris,  Charlestown,  Ravenna  and  Franklin  Town- 
ships, Portage  County,  is  now  occupied  by  the  Pittsburgh,  Cleveland  &  Toledo 
Railroad,  but  nothing  remains  to  be  seen  by  the  casual  observer,  save  here  and 
there  portions  of  its  old  channel. 

Railroads. — Up  to  the  close  of  1850,  150  charters  for  the  construction  of 
railroads  had  been  gi-anted  by  the  General  Assembly  of  Ohio,  and  the  work 
was  fairly  under  way  for  the  net-work  of  roads  now  covering  the  State.  The 
year  1851  introduced  a  new  era  and  an  entire  revolution  on  the  subject  of  rail- 
road legislation.  During  the  session  of  the  General  Assembly  this  year, 
twenty-one  railroad  charters  were  granted,  and  over  forty  amendments  were 
made  to  those  already  in  existence.  The  charters  and  amendments  all  con- 
tained power  and  authority  to  borrow  money,  and  thirty-six  of  the  amendments 
authorized  counties,  cities,  towns  or  townships  to  subscribe  stock.  The  door 
was  thrown  as  wide  open  as  legislation  could  go  to  enable  railroad  companies 
to  borrow  money  and  procure  stock  subscription. 

The  Cleveland  &  Pittsburgh  Railroad  Company  was  the  first  corporation  to 
obtain  a  charter  from  which  Portage  County  subsequently  reaped  a  benefit.  It 
was  granted  under  a  special  act  passed  March  14,  1836,  vesting  that  company 
with  the  right  to  construct  a  railroad  from  Cleveland  to  some  point  on  the 
State  line  between  Ohio  and  Pennsylvania,  or  on  the  Ohio  River,  in  the  direc- 
tion of  Pittsburgh.  But  little  or  nothing  was  done  under  the  rights  thus 
granted,  and  an  act  of  revival  and  amendment  was  passed  March  11,  1845. 
By  the  acts  of  February  16,  1849,  March  9,  1850,  and  February  19,  1851,  cer- 
tain branching  privileges  were  granted,  under  which  the  roads  from  Bayard  to 
New  Philadelphia,  and  from  Hudson  southwest  into  Wayne  County  were  sub- 
sequently built.  On  the  8th  of  April,  1850,  an  act  was  passed  by  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Legislature  authorizing  the  company  to  extend  its  railroad  from  the 
eastern  line  of  Ohio  up  the  valley  of  the  Ohio  River  to  a  point  at  or  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Big  Beaver.  The  same  Commonwealth  also  passed  an  act  April 
18,  1853,  adopting  the  two  first  named  acts  of  this  State,  and  making  the  com- 
pany a  corporation  of  Pennsylvania  with  all  the  rights  and  powers  granted  by 
the  Ohio  acts.  Under  those  various  acts  the  Cleveland  &  Pittsburgh  Railroad 
Company  constructed  199f  miles  of  railroad  (not  including  the  branch  from 
Hudson,  which  was  built  by  a  separate  company),  extending  from  Cleveland  to 
Wellsville,  and  thence  down  the  Ohio  River  to  Bellair,  and  from  Wellsville  up 
the  Ohio  to  Rochester,  and  the  Tuscarawas  Branch  from  Bayard  to  New  Phil- 

By  the  fall  of  1850  much  grading  had  been  done  on  the  main  line,  and  the 
company  began  laying  the  track  between  Cleveland  and  Ravenna.  On  the 
evening  of  March  6,  1851,  the  last  rail  connecting  these  points  was  laid  and 
the  last  spike  driven  about  one  mile  southeast  of  Hudson,  and  Monday  morn- 
ing, March  10,  the  first  passenger  train  left  Ravenna  for  Cleveland,  return- 
ing the  same  evening.      The  first  round  trip  from  Cleveland  was  made  on  the 


following  Thursday,  March  13,  1851,  when  the  locomotive  "Ravenna,"  draw- 
ing one  car  filled  with  Directors  of  the  road,  came  down  from  the  city  to  exam- 
ine the  progress  of  the  work.  On  the  18th  of  March  regular  daily  trains  began 
running,  connecting  at  Ravenna  with  a  packet  on  the  Ohio  &  Pennsylvania 
Canal,  which  ran  to  Beaver,  Penn.,  where  the  traveler  took  the  steamer  for 
Pittsburgh.  The  trip  was  made  in  twenty-six  hours,  and  the  fare  from  Cleve- 
land to  Pittsburgh  was  $3.50  including  meals  and  bed  on  the  boat.  At  that 
time  a  daily  train  (except  Sundays)  left  Cleveland  at  8:30  A.  M. ,  arrived  at 
Ravenna  at  10:30  A.  M.,  and  left  the  latter  po